Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 11/2020
Contents of Issue 11/2020
Literary criticism
Chuvanova O.I. - Kashmir as the center of conflict in the novel Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34154

Abstract: The subject of this research is the conflicts generated by mythological and historical space in Kashmir Valley, which is one of the central artistic images in the novel “Midnight's Children” by the British writer of Indo-Pakistani descent Salman Rushdie. Conflict situation within the framework of Kashmir’s topos is sense-making, as it is associated with the problem of choice and acquisition of cultural wholeness by the character of the novel. The historically substantiated propensity towards conflict of the actual geographical region, which became the cause for interethnic hostility between Pakistan and India, is complicated by the conflict of Western and Eastern cultures. The "East – West" opposition implies the conflict between the conservatory intentions of the Eastern autochthonous culture and the attempts of it suppression by pro-Western migrants. The author applies historical and literary, hermeneutical and mythopoetic methods. It is determined that involvement of Kashmir’s topos in the artistic world of the novel is substantiated by the historical and interethnic conflicts in the region related to acquisition of independence by India. On the mythological level, Kashmir manifests as a space that synthesizes the ambivalent forces of destruction and creation, which reveals the latent propensity towards conflict that underlies the world. The clash of cultures and worldviews is described in the novel through the symbolic pair of characters – Indian Westerner Adam Aziz and the local boatman Tai. Relations between the characters actualize the stratified systemic conflict (interpersonal, internal, religious-mythological, problem of choice). Subsequently, this conflict propels to the ontological level, reflecting the problem of heroes of finding their place in postcolonial world
Linguistics
Afonina M.M. - Lexical peculiarities of French language of Switzerland in the context of linguistic worldview (based on the materials of the thematic group Horticulture) pp. 12-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34338

Abstract: The goal of this research is the analysis of linguistic aspect of the fragment of linguistic worldview of the francophone part of Switzerland. Due to the fact that linguistic worldview is a mental-lingual formation, it incorporates linguistic and extralinguistic side of reality, as well as reflects correlation between them. Analysis is conducted on the specific lexical units of the Swiss French language; they are compared to analogues in the language of metropolitan country for the purpose of revealing the features that convey extralinguistic information. The subject of this research is the ethnolinguistic characteristics of helvetisms – linguistic peculiarities that reflect national-cultural specificity of Swiss ethnic group and are absent in the French language of France. The scientific novelty consists in consideration of the fragment of linguistic worldview of French-speaking Switzerland related to horticulture, using a set of methods for the analysis of various characteristics of the word or phrase as an independent linguistic unit. In the course of study, the author applies semantic analysis of the word, analysis of etymology of the word, analysis of inner form of the word. The acquired results contain information on ethnocultural content of such characteristics helvetisms, as external form of the word, inner form of the word, origin and meaning of the word. It was established in majority of cases, ethnocultural information is usually conveyed by such characteristics of lexical unit as external form of the word or phrase, or separate components of the structure of word meaning. The presented results can find practical implementation in cross-cultural communication, lexicographic, and cognitive linguistics.
Literary criticism
Denisova E.A. - Biographical and artistic in M. Y. Lermontovs novel Princess Ligovskaya and the drama Two Brothers pp. 27-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34198

Abstract: This article is dedicated to a comparative analysis of two works by M. Y. Lermontov, which represent the interpretation of the common biographical context. The subject of this research is the specificity of transformation of the biographical fact into the artistic generalization in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. The object of this research is the drama "Two Brothers" and the novel Princess Ligovskaya” viewed within the paradigm of artistic comprehension of the scenario of unfaithfulness, or destruction of love as conceptually important in the conflict present in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. Such approach, based on interrelation between the creative and biographical, allows making important remarks on specificity of the phenomenon of autobiographism in the works of M. Y. Lermontov. The author analyzes the initial biographical situation (relationship between Lermontov and V. A. Lopukhina), and concludes that two literary texts – drama and novel – represent a distinct system of creative reflection of the biographical fact. It is established that in the process of creating the drama, and the novel later on, Lermontov ensues the need for artistic interpretation and resolution of the situation of unfaithfulness as an instance, and in a broader sense – as an ontological pattern; however, the conflict cannot be settled within the framework of this storyline. Since 1837, autobiographism in Lermontov's works ceases to play the crucial role; in other words, personal situation and its artistic interpretation no longer coincide, which renders impossible to continue the novel. Such circumstance allows realizing the reasons of incomplete works of Lermontov’s early period, which lie in inability to resolve love conflicts with a positive finale.
Korshunova E.A. - The book by S. N. Durylin In Your Corner: reciting and interpretation experience pp. 36-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.33377

Abstract: This article is first to examine the poetics of the book by S. N. Durylin “In Your Corner” (1924-1942) – the pinnacle of his writing. Comprehensive analysis of poetics of the book genre is conducted. In this context, the book as a genre ensures unity and wholeness of the form and content in dialogical connection of different genre inclusions, sequencing the vibrant cacophony and “polyvocality” of the author's personal projections. Therefore, in namely examination of the genre opens up to the researcher the range of adequate reciting of the book “In Your Corner”, which can be focused not only on the micro-level of an expression (aphorism), but also on the macro-level of the narrative (system of motifs that comprise various recurring themes). The conclusion is made that the figure of the author, who writes his book “for everyone and foe no one”, unites the micro- and macro-levels of narration. This allows viewing problem of the author's “Self” and perceptive mentality in the aspects of dialogueness, substantiated by M. M. Bakhtin. Within the framework of such approach, each layer or level of reciting, is viewed as the “voice” involved in the dialogue alongside the author. Examination of these levels of reciting (philosophical text, the “domestic” text, the level of literary-critical discussion) clarifies the mechanisms of formation of the key mythologem of “your corner” as the authorial model of culture.
Folklore
Alieva F.A., Mukhamedova F.K., Bekeeva A.M. - Artistic system of the childrens poetic folklore of Dagestan pp. 42-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34158

Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic system of children's folklore of Dagestan. Based on the analysis the example of cradlesongs, play poetry, and calendar songs, the author determines their thoughtful humanistic and democratic motif, high ideological focus, and aesthetic perfection. The article covers the ideological, thematic and artistic content, and highlights the archaic elements of cradlesong poetry, which enjoys most popularity among other genres of the poetic folklore. The author’s special contribution consists in explication of specificity of artistic means and aesthetic foundations of the folk worldview and culture reflected in folk poetry; as well as in analysis of compositions of various folklore genres as the elements of single literary system, which indicates their focus on labor, strong ideals of patriotism, kindness and continuity throughout the entire social practice of the people. The oriented towards a young developing individual, children's poetic folklore reconstructs the work and life experience in a form comprehensible to a child. This is why were created the cradlesongs, nursery rhymes, games that involved poetry, and all these word-creating activities, which in their centuries-long evolution led to higher imagery, infused and gifted each upcoming generation truly humanistic values. Children's poetic folklore that reflects the questions of folk pedagogy based on life experience of the mountaineers, had a major impact upon the development Dagestan children's literature.
Alkhlavova I.K., Khidirova E.S. - Hadji Abrek by M. Y. Lermontov: to the question of genesis of the poem and authenticity of the folklore basis pp. 57-71

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34305

Abstract: The subject of this article is the origins of the poem “Hadji Abrek” by M. Y. Lermontov, question of location where the events take place, as well as the question of the possible impact of folk poetic oeuvres upon the work of Mikhail Lermontov. The article describes different opinions and interpretations (within the format of the article) on the topic, to the exclusion of “emphatic” commentaries and remarks. The object of this research is folklore and historical materials that contribute to revelation of idea of the poem, description of the protagonists, characterization of the Caucasian and Dagestan folklore, the echoes of which are traces in Lermontov’s poems.  The authors underline that geographical and ethnographic “nuances” were used by Lermontov to describe the forming picture in the mountain country. The novelty of this study consists in analysis of the material testifying that the inclusion of “installations” of another nation is substantiated in the poem, not just because it is somewhat of a tribute to romanticism, but it is also marks Lermontov’s comprehension of the folklore as an untouchable ”heart” of culture and ethnic uniqueness. The acquired results contribute to the scientific Caucasian studies and Lermontov studies. The conclusion is made of folklore in Lermontov's poem indicates a number of defining characteristics that allowed determining individual expression of poet's work. It is reflected in selection of the examples of folk poetry, peculiar regard to the sources, and their deflection in the poem.
Interpretation
Akamov A.T., Sultanmuradov A.M., Bekeeva A.M., Alkhlavova I.K. - Tales on the prophets: artistic reflection in the Kumyk literature pp. 72-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34171

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Quranic narratives on the prophets in the books by A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev. In their works, tales on the prophets are interpreted and embellished with the corresponding Quranic ayats and hadiths. An attempts is made to determine cognitive function of the tales that would combine artistic virtues with folk elements, as well as frame a philosophical worldview. The worldview function of these tales is defined as humane by the spirit and logical by the method of interpretation of Islamic theosophy and ideology. It is worth noting that these tales and narratives contain the elements of folklore traditions (M. Kazanbiev “The Radiant Story”). Having analyzed the tales on the prophets described in the books by A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev, the author concludes that they represent the extensive authorial narratives based on Quranic themes. The conducted comparative analysis of the texts demonstrates that Shihammat-kadi from Erpel infuses more fiction elements, while A. Akayev places emphasis on the historical-biographical records on the prophets. Unlike the aforementioned authors, M. Kazanbiev describes and glorifies the actions and personal traits of a single prophet. Reference to the Quranic narratives on the prophets in the Kumyk religious literature allows tracing the peculiarities of their interpretation, determine the specificity of authorial narration, their style, as well as similarities and differences. The acquired results confirm that A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev embellish the Quranic texts in their works.
Eternal symbols
Liashenko T. - Lexis of the thematic group food and food consumption in the novel by Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin The Golovlyov Family pp. 84-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34150

Abstract: The subject of this research is lexemes of the thematic group “food and food consumption” in the novel by Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin “The Golovlyov Family”. The object of this research is the functional yield of these linguistic units in the text. The author of the article describes the functionality of food images in literature in form of the system of oppositions “external (existential) – internal (psychological)”, and “static-dynamic”. The four functions are differentiated: external static (food image as a detail scenery), external dynamic (food image as a theme-forming element), internal static (food image as an element of portrait of the character), internal dynamic (food image characterizes the dynamics of relations between the characters). It is noted that the thought on “low functionality” of gastronomic images in a literary text, which is expressed in some research, testifies to insufficient study of such rich material. Food as a literary image, as well as the motif of food consumption in a literary text always convey semantic meaning. In the novel “The Golovlyov Family”, the words with “food” semantics serve for the formation of external, existential aspect of narration, as well as internal, psychological aspects. Images of food alongside motifs of food consumption are characterological (describing portrait of the character) to a lesser degree, and more often used for demonstrating relationships between the characters.
Language
Kamagina I.V. - On the structure of simple elliptical sentence pp. 97-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.11.34225

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the component structure of simple elliptical sentence. The author reviews the key theoretical positions pertaining to the structure of these units. A hypothesis is advanced on revelation of the formula of simple elliptical sentence, which consists in idea of three-component nature of these structures with different literal manifestation of the constituent elements of a sentence. The concept of “three-component nature” of elliptical construct suggest the presence of three components, some of which continue to “act while absent”: subject, elliptical verb component, and distributor of verb component. Simple elliptical sentences from the novel by M. A. Sholokhov “And Quiet Flows the Don” served as the material for this research. The following conclusions were made: simple elliptical sentence is a construct with all attributes of a full sentence from the perspective of semantics, as well as structure; their peculiarity consists in elimination of the predicate, which is also one of the structural components of the syntactic under review; structural formula of any elliptical sentence consists in the presence of three components, which can be literary manifested or the other way around. This research contributes to elucidation of the phenomenon of simple elliptical sentences as sentences with more semantic saturation than the construction with verbalized predicate, as well as to more profound research on Sholokhov’s syntax.
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