Litera - 1 2017 - , . ISSN: 2409-8698 - NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 01/2017
Contents of Issue 01/2017
Barteneva V.V. - The Kinesic Component of an Emotional Dialogue (the Case Study of William Makepeace Thackeray's Novel 'Vanity Fair') pp. 1-10


Abstract: In her article Barteneva emphasizes the role of non-verbal communication and analyzes the process of interpreting non-verbal behavior. She focuses on analyzing the interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of an emotional dialogue. The subject of the research is the language means that are used to describe different forms of emotional non-verbal behavior. The object of the research is the functioning of lexical units that reflect non-verbal communication in a literary text. Kinesics are represented as the main element of the non-verbal communication system, in particular, gestures, hand, arm or head movements and mimics are used to convey information, thoughts, intentions or feelings of heroes. The author also analyzes functions of kinesic signs in an emotional dialogue. In her research the author has used the method of continuous sampling of non-verbal communication means used in literary texts and the method of vocabulary definitions analysis. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes emotional speech of characters where each non-verbal sign is closely related to a psychological portrait of a character and his or her emotional state at that very moment. The author also defines peculiarities of the language expression of composition components that convey a non-verbal emotional communication in fiction dialogues. The author also describes the functions of gestures in a literary writing and provides specific examples for each function.  
Vorontsova M., Zhuravleva A. - Using Films in Foreign Language Teaching: Cognitive Arguments pp. 11-17


Abstract: The article focuses on the theoretical bases of using films in foreign language teaching. The authors describe an experience of testing a dynamic usage-based approach of teaching foreign languages, based on usage-based theory of language acquisition, the emergentism theory of language development and the dynamic approach to second language acquisition. In this teaching approach the students are shown a film in fragments, each fragment is shown several times and is accompanied by a specific assignment. The lesson structure is given in the article. The present approach was used in a general course of English at the Institute of Asian and African Studies, a faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. After the course the students completed a questionnaire. The research showed that students react positively to the approach; as a result of it, they are more interested in learning, motivated, their vocabulary develops. The theoretical background has shown that the approach could also be viewed through the prism of psychological studies on attention and memory. The authors conclude that the approach is worthy of attention and further empirical studies should be conducted.
Literary criticism
Anisimova O.V. - Allusions in the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny (Corwin Cycle) pp. 18-30


Abstract: The object of the study is the intertextuality of Corwin cycle. The subject of the research is made up by allusions of first five parts of the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny. In particular, the article touches upon numerous allusions to different fiction texts and myths, among which are the works by English classics as well as Celtic and Bible legends. The study material is constituted by such parts of the cycle as Nine Princes in Amber, The Guns of Avalon, Sign of the Unicorn, The Hand of Oberon, and The Courts of Chaos. The methods used in the study are: the method of intertextual analysis, textual method, and the method of comparative analysis. Scientific novelty of the given research is in the first ever attepmt to track the regularities of Zelazny's use of allusions and reminiscences in his works, and in his most famous novel the Chronicles of Amber in particular; to understand the way the intertext functions in the text corpus by the American fantasy writer. The main findings of the research undertaken are as follows: each part of Corwin cycle can be referred to a particular piece of world literature, or regarded in the context of this or that mythology system; allusions to mythology used by Zelazny play the plotforming function thus helping the writer to create the fantasy basis of the cycle's secondary world; distinctive literature allusions aim at revealing the main character's inner world, showing his psychological evolution, and also at making fictional characters comprehensible to modern readers; allusions to the Book of Revelation, in their turn, are used by the writer to create the key image of the whole cycle - the image of Apocalypse.
Kolobova K.S. - Literary Text as an Interdiscourse (the Case Study of Günter Grass' Novel 'My Century') pp. 31-38


Abstract: The subject of the present research is the analysis of one of the aspects of a structural and figurative organisation of a literary text, in particular, integration of literary text elements of different functional styles. In the given figurative literary text inclusion of functional academic prose and business communication performs certain functions as a part of the writer's narrative strategy. These functions are performed in the aforesaid literary text in different volumes and through different means. In terms of the interdiscourse theory, analysis and description of the structure of compositional and language forms of intertextual interaction in a literary text correspond to modern views on the nature and essense of the artistic communication process that implies intergration of different functional styles as the factor of developing traditional genres and appearance of new narrative genres in general and new literary genres in particular. The linguistic research is performed on the basis of the method of contextual interpretative analysis as well as the descriptive method that combines observation, comparison and theoretical generalization of the results of analyzing the language material. The results of the research demonstrate that the interdiscourse strategy is used in Gunter Grass' novel as a result of his using elements of different discourse in a literary text, in particular, the writer used elements of historical, military, political and scientific discourses. Combination of these different elements creates an illusion of factual narration. 
Shelomentsev M.A. - Dynamics of the Reality Presentation in the Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia pp. 39-49


Abstract: The object of our research is the metaphors that can be found in the political discourse. The subject of our research is the dynamics of the reality representation in Vladimir Putin's Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia for 2000 and 2016. The aim of the article is to define dynamics in the reality representation in the Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia. As the material to study such dynamics, the author uses the analysis of metaphors in the Presidential addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia based on the idea that metaphors perform the cognitive function and reailty categorization function. Analyzing texts of the aforesaid Addresses, the author defines the qualitative and quantitative contents of metaphors and describes changes in the contents in these reality representations. The methodological basis of this research involves George Lakoff's and Mark Johnson's idea about the conceptual metaphor based on the cognitive discourse padarigm. According to the author, the number of metaphors denotes not only what Vladimir Putin says in his Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia but also his attitude to what he says. This allows to speak of changes in his approach and thinking in terms of cognitive sciences. 
Varfolomeeva Y.N., Lenkhoboeva T.R. - Specific Features of Media Texts (on the Basis of Journalistic Texts of Online Newspaper VSGUTU-Online) pp. 50-56


Abstract: The article discusses the features of journalistic texts on the Internet. The authors have actualized the phenomenon of such a media text which includes the verbal layer close to the traditional format and non-verbal layer that consists of illustrations, infographics, and audio-video materials. In the course of their research the authors have analyzed the site of the student newspaper "VSGUTU-online», its structure, design, and media texts which have been published in the student newspaper. Based on the material represented that included more than 50 articles, the authors cover such characteristics of media texts as its compositional structure, lexical and syntactic structure, availability of multimedia, interactive and hypertextual tools. When working on the article, the authors have used the methods of linguistic observation and description as well as the method of the language analysis. On the Internet media texts acquire new features and therefore becomes a 'unique phenomenon' as some researchers call it. Firstly, mediatexts consist of interchangeable layers, verbal and non-verbal. Secondly, there is an evident change in the verbal 'traditional' layer of the text, first of all, due to transformation of the textual structure which is required to become more fractured. Thirdly, a separate role is given to multimedia, interactive and hypertextual tools. 
Iakovleva E. - Modern Views on the Interpretation Model of a Text pp. 57-66


Abstract: The research is focused on the interpretation of texts as a rather difficult process which includes numerous components such as cultural and historical environment, actual events, symbolism, polysemy of words, dependence on the meaning and context, personal qualities of the Author and Interpreter, etc.). These components are dialectically interwined and each time they create new configurations which causes a modern concept of the interpretation model as a rhizomatic network spiral. In the course of her research Yakovleva has defined that the Interpretation Bridge connecting Point A (Author, Text, or beginning of the interpretation journey) and Point B (Interpreter, Life/Situation, ending of the interpretation journey) is just an external construct. If we go deeper into the intepretation process, it will look like a spiralling and extending rhizomatic network. The aforesaid issue is viewed by the author of the article on the basis of the dialectical, phenomenological and hermeneutical methods as well as the principle of intentional analysis allowing to construct the interpretation model.  The interpretation process externally looks like the Bridge and internally like a rhizomatic network spiral. This allows the interpretation process to be flexible and variably mobile and extending in any direction. The key figure of the interpretation process is a recipient who sets the existence of the text through his or her Self-position and changes in the course of interpretation. Interpretation as a spiritual practice of Self combining the objective/subjective, conscious/unconscious, rational/sensual, fiction/reality brings us to the Other Self. This contributes to better understanding and extension of the horizon. Provisions and conclusions of this study can be used for further research of the interpretation process and reflection as part of the interpretation process as well as for analysis of all kinds of texts.  
The gathering
Bagdasaryan E.Y. - Question-Answer Series as a Type of Dialogic Text (Based on Modern English-Speaking Press Briefing) pp. 67-75


Abstract: The article explores a press briefing question-answer series as a special type of verbal interaction. In recent years research of dialogic forms of interaction has much intensified. It is one of the main research objects in communicative paradigmatic linguistics which provides a theoretical framework for the analysis in this paper. A briefing is a complex dialogue unit with its grammatical, stylistic and compositional peculiarities which are conditioned by the aims of political communication. The interactants’ speech is considered from the point of view of politeness and cooperation principles. The main differences between the dialogue in briefings and political interviews are described. Extensive language data available have been studied according to the approaches of contextual, pragmatic, structural and dicteme analyses. The research results reveal that press briefings are highly conventional with a particular allocation of communicative roles. The interactants distance themselves from each other using a range of lexical, grammatical and syntactical means in their speech. Violation of politeness and cooperation principles in press briefings results in non-cooperative communication.
Borunov A.B. - Quantitative Research of the Author English-Language Corpus by Raghu N. Mitra pp. 76-87


Abstract: The subject of this research is the frequency of the lexical unit usage in the English-Language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra that was obtained through automated processing of the corpus with the program "WordSmith Tools". The object of the research is the English-language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra consisting of 414311 words. By the means of computer processing the author made a frequency list consisting of 50 units as well as compared the frequency of the semantic field usage of "Crime" according to the corpus of contemporary American English and author corpus of R. N. Mitra. The research methods used by the author included comparative, statistical and mathematical methods. The conversion of the text into the author corpus and its further processing were carried out using computer software. As a result of the study, the author English-language corpus was converted into the frequency list to compare this one with a frequency list of the corpus of contemporary American English and to carry out a critical analysis of the data. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author attempts to conduct a quantitative analysis of the language corpus of American English of the early 21st century and comparative analysis of the results.
Kuzembayeva G.A. - Nominative Density of the Concept of NOBILITY / in the English and Russian Languages pp. 88-100


Abstract: Subject. The multi-component structure of concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages characterized by the presence of various groups of cognitive signs of the concept is the evidence of its importance in the culture of these nations. The study aims to define the nominative density of the concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages by the comparative analysis in diachrony makes it possible to determine the importance of the concept in the culture of the English and Russian ethnic groups and to identify the differences in the above mentioned linguistic cultures.Methods. The data for the study was obtained from the texts of contemporary English and Russian fiction writers with reference to the etymological and explanatory English and Russian dictionaries data. Text selection was carried out by continuous sampling. A wide range of methods and techniques for studying and modeling the concept was used: the method of etymological analysis, the method of analysis of dictionary definitions, method of semantic-component analysis, technique of continuous sampling, technique of contextual analysis method of linguistic description and observation method diachronic studies, comparative method, the method of statistical calculations. Topicality. Comparative analysis of the concept NOBILITY / in diachrony revealed differences in its nominative density, which gives us the opportunity to talk about the specifics of the English and Russian national picture of the world and priority of certain concepts for the native speakers of these languages.Conclusions. The highest nominative density in the English linguistic culture has a cognitive feature of the concept that expresses high origin, belonging to a upper social class which is present in all synchronous periods of texts, whereas, in all investigated periods of Russian linguistic culture high frequency has a cognitive sign of the concept that expresses the high moral qualities and this indicates cultural differences in data of ethnic groups. The cognitive feature of the concept "high origin, class" in the Russian sphere of concept was erased with time, losing its cultural significance for the Russian language consciousness. In both nominative spheres of the concept the lowest density characterizes the cognitive features of external manifestations of nobility.
Varfolomeeva Y.N., Kharanutova E.I. - Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Media Texts (on the Basis of PR-Texts) pp. 101-107


Abstract: The article deals with the concept of PR-text and genre varieties of PR-texts. At present, the theory and practice of public relations do not fully cover the genre system of PR-texts and genre characteristics and genres groups are not defined. In addition, in linguistics there is no uniform classification of properties for assessing the quality of PR-texts. Based on the analysis of different assessment criteria, the authors have defined 21 information-structural, 8 communicative and 6 aesthetics characteristics of PR-texts which can be used to assess the effectiveness of the quality of PR-texts. The authors have used the method of language analysis to study the quality of PR-texts. In addition, they have also used the methods of linguistic observation and description of linguistic facts as well as the comparative method. Information-structuarl assessment criteria include information capacity, response efficiency, presence of a topic, specificity, coherence and integrity, depth of contents, logical structure, readibility and understandability, importance of information, credibility and accuracy of information (presence of concrete facts), dividedness, openness/closedness, completeness of a text, accurate heading, correct use of quotations, textual composition, syntax parameter (sentences with an easy structure and textual rythm), lexical parameter (simple words, absence of slang words, paragraph length). Communicative features of PR-texts are realised through publicity of a text, communicative orientation, presence of a basic PR-subject, initiation from the basic PR-subject, optimal content, authorship type, references, and selectability. Aesthetics characteristics include spacial-time discreteness, references to an official site of an organisation in a PR-document, use of infographics, highliting of actual information, providing references to other resources, and giving contant information about responsible individuals. 
Selemeneva O.A. - The omplicated Simple Verbal Predicate in Ostrovsky's Plays: Formal and Substantial Levels pp. 108-119


Abstract: In this article the author analyzes the complicated form of simple verbal predicates in the plays of Alexander Ostrovsky on formal and substantial levels. The playwright actively uses the conjunctionless repetitions of lexically meaningful verbs, the combinations of verbs in the identical forms, one of them shows the purpose of action made by the subject, formations of adverbial type ending in - as means of complication of simple predicate. The numerous group was formed by simple verbal predicates complicated by different particles: , , , , , , , , , , , + + , , , , , , , , , in the plays by Alexander Ostrovsky. We also refer idioms (transformed and not modified) with the syntactic indivisibility and indivisible meaning to the means complicating the structure of simple verbal predicate. The verbal idioms in the position of predicate helps the playwright to reveal the individuality of the characters, to express the author’s modality. We consider the verbal composites (such as -, -) in combination with the particles (such as , ); the former isn’t named as complicating elements of simple verbal predicate in the linguistic literature, but always arouses interest of academics. Such complex words have common features with word, idiom and free word-combination. The complexity of the external and internal forms of the compositing formations allows us to consider them as complicated forms of simple verbal predicates. These means of complication introduce the additional shades of meaning into the simple verbal predicate. In the plays by Alexander Ostrovsky we have identified the following meanings: the meaning of the temporal extent of the action or state, the meaning of the incomplete realization of the action or state, the meaning of action that is close to realization but is not put into effect or characteristic close to the exposure, but is not revealed, the meaning of the composite action or state, the meaning of action that is revealed independently of unfavourable conditions or in spite of something, the meaning of action that the subject realize in his own interests for the sake of pleasure, the meaning of action that the subject realize with the total disregard of the external circumstances, the meaning of doubts about the truth of something or comparison with something, the meaning of assumption or possibility, probability of some events and others. Some of the meanings can be expressed by the totality of linguistic resources. On the whole the use of the complicated simple verbal predicate is a distinguishing feature of the author’s style of Alexander Ostrovsky seeking to paint the vivid domestic picture of merchant-burgher environment, create the original characters, to reveal the psychology of characters through the everyday conversational constructions.
Shteba A.A. - Linguistic Features of Provocation pp. 120-128


Abstract: In this article Shteba analyzes the causal approach to defining the presence/absence fo provation features in communications behavior of a participant in a dialogue. The author differentiates between the definition of provocation and related terms describing direct or indirect psychological effect, direct, indirect or ulterior incitation. The author also provides a number of criteria allowing to define the dependence between communication actions of participants and transference of money by one of participants. These criteria include such dual terms as initiality/reactivity, determinabiilty/non-determinability, conventionality/non-conventionality, intensity/passivity, quantity/quality, rationality/irrationality, explicite/implicite information, verbality/(para-) non-verbality. The researcher has applied the methods of definitive and contextual analysis of cases when the word 'provocation' is used based on the materials of the National Corpus of the Russian Language in order to give a definition of the term 'provocation'. Further, the authro has viewed expert practice using elements of th conversational analysis and defining trigger utterances as well as reaction utterances. The main conclusion of the research is the author's provision that constituents of causality can be viewed as psycholinguistic features when defining the presence/absence of the features of provocative communications behavior demonstrated by one of interlocutors. The author also suggests that we should view provocation as a communication event that implies manipulation and incitation. At the same time the author underlines that it is methodologically wrong to interpret provocation in terms of imperativity and psychological effect. 
Suvorova N.N. - The Phraseology of the Russian Language Throughout History and at Present pp. 129-134


Abstract: The present article devoted to the phraseology of the Russian language deals with the use of phraseology in broad and narrow terms of history and modern times. The subject of the research is the phraseological units of the Russian language. The object of the research is the idioms used in modern verbal advertising. The author of the article has carried out the analysis of the composition of the enrichingidiomatic Russian language from antiquity to modern processes taking place in the language. Particular attention is paid to the typology of phraseological units and their use in the modern Russian language, particularly in the language of advertising. When writing this article the author has used researhces on phraseology by such well-known linguists as I. Sreznevsky, F. Fortunatov, N. Shan, and V. Vinogradov. As examples, the author describes modern advertising slogans created on the basis of phraseology. The author also offers her own classification of advertising slogans on the semantic and structural features of the use of one or another part of speech and syntactic function performed by them. Suvorova also defines several groups of phraseology used as the basis of an advertising slogan and describes positive and negative cases of the use of phraseology in advertisements. The theoretical material is illustrated by vivid examples.
Izotova N.N. - The Concept of 'Money' in Japanese Paramiology pp. 135-143


Abstract: The subject of the research is the representation of the concept 'money' in Japanese paramiology. The empirical basis of the research is the selection of units from lexicographical sources such as definition and etymology dictionaries, and dictionaries of collocations, proverbs, sayings and idioms of the Japanese language. The 'Money' concept does not only actualise the sphere of commodity-money relations but also the entire scope of morals and values that determine the need for existence and self-realisation. Analysis of the language material nominating different features of money in the Japanese language allows to better understand behavioral patterns and mentality of Japanese people. Using the method of cognitive and cultural background interpretation as well as the axiological approach allowing to define one's attitude to existence and surrounding world, the author of the research studies the aforesaid concept in terms of the language culture diachrony. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes the 'money' concept in terms of verbalisation in Japanese phraseology taking into account national and cultural views and attitudes as well as general and specific features thereof. As a result of the research, the author discovers the ambivalent nature of how the aforesaid concept is reflected in the linguistic consciousness where negative connotation paroemias prevail. 
Buzuk L.G. - Translation and Interpreting Studies: Methodological and Theoretical Research pp. 144-148


Abstract: In the modern world due to the global expansion of international relations any person who knows a foreign language in fact acts as a translator or an interpreter. As a result the popularity of involving non-professional translators or interpreters in the translation process reduces visibility of the work of professional translators and interpreters in the society and influences on the quality of the translation. The purpose of this article is to find answers to a number of issues the modern translation and interpreting studies faces with, for instance, language problems and different interpretations of texts, or possibility or impossibility of text translation, etc. The basis of this article lay down the work of J. Ortega y Gasset , P. Ricoeur and F. Schleiermacher. The results of this article will be of great interest to both professional and non-professional translators or interpreters because the tasks of translation and interpreting studies are specified, problems with interpretations of the translated texts are pointed out, criteria for evaluation of a translation are proposed as well as the methods of “paraphrase” and “retelling” appropriate use of which improves the skills of an interpreter or translator and avoid tricky situations.
Kudryavtseva R.A. - Periodization of Finno-Ugric Literature in Terms of Comparative Philology pp. 149-155


Abstract: The present article is devoted to the Finno-Ugric literature community as the subject for comparative analysis as well as the general periodization of Finno-Ugric nations as the problem of comparative philology. The rationale of such periodization is caused by both the artistic creative practice of Finno-Ugric writers with their real interest in national identity sources and modern status of the literature theory, especially in the Urals-Volga region that demonstrate a strong interest towards issues of comparative methodology. The author pays special attention to such typological aspect of Finno-Ugric literature research as the literature in terms of its relation to folklore. This article is of theoretical and methodological nature. Therein the author applies analytical, systems approach, comparative methods of literary studies. in her research Kudryavtseva analyzes all Russian and foreign philological approaches to the systems research of the history of Finno-Ugric literature of Russia and the other world from the point of view of their importance and application as part of the modern academic strategy of Finno-Ugric comparative literary studies.   
Comparative-historical studies of literature
Semenov V.B. - About the Latin Derivation of European Rhyming Stanzas: Pro at Contra pp. 156-164


Abstract: The object of the research is one of the hypotheses about derivation of European rhyming stanzas, in particular, the one saying that Provencal trobadouresques got that type of stanzas as a heritage from the Dark Ages and Early Medieval poetry. in his research Semenov analyzes the milestones of that hypothesis development in the history of literature as well as variants of that hypothesis in reserches by the leding experts in Western European Medieval studies of the 19th - 20th centuries. The author defines differences between different methods of proving that hypothesis, in particular, the non-literature method and literature argumentation method. As the connecting elements of the Latin poetry that existed prior to end-stanzas, the author anayzes leonine rhymes and end homaioteleuton. In his reserch Semenov has used the comparative historical approach to describing rhyming stanzas as a text phenomenon as well as has covered the most important events in that period of literary history that related to old Provencial poetry. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the history of existence of so-called 'Latin thesis' is represented as the process that had its internal development logic. The author also analyzes pros and contras of the Latin derivation of European rhyming stanzas. In conclusion, the author states that the aforesaid hypothesis never became popular because there are too few examples proving it, besides, there is a fundamental difference between Latin rhymes and  trobadouresque poetry. 
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