Электронный журнал Litera - №4 за 2014 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-8698 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 04/2014
Contents of Issue № 04/2014
Literary criticism
Simush P.I. - Geniuses and Russia: mutual cognition pp. 1-44


Abstract: The author of the article examines Gogol’s works through the prism of the phenomenon of genius. He shows that Orthodoxy had a great influence on the writer’s personality. In many respects it changed his internal world, influenced literary works. The writer believed that Orthodoxy could reform Russian reality. In particular, he was aware of an enormous resource of freedom. But Gogol realized that freedom could not only enrich an individual but also «enchant» him with a possibility of enrichment, clinging to a particular religion and loosing faith in free creativity. The author also points to the comprehensive influence of Orthodoxy on reforms in Russian life. At the same time he turns to present-day reality, showing the prophetic gift of the writer.The author employs traditional methods of literary criticism. He uses the comparativist method to show the influence of tradition on Gogol’s works. He also leans on philosophical methods of analysis of literary texts. The article presents the works of Gogol as a founder of ironic narration in Russian literature. The writer constantly employs laughter and irony as ways to uncover the absurdism of social projects. The writer views Russia as a country of unseen paradoxes. Gogol has raised a question that turns us to philosophical reflection about human nature. He tries to oppose the fascination with riches. His special attention is paid to philistinism. Later, this theme in Russian literature will be taken up by many authors. A. Herzen will give an interpretation of «philistinism»; K. Leontiev will establish a relation between «pettiness» and «philistinism»; D. Merezhkovsky will identify pettiness with ignorance, banality, mediocrity; M. Gorky will furiously attack complacent petty bourgeosie. Meaning the opposition between good and evil, between love and hatred, A.P. Chekhov, as the author shows, has chosen ethical wisdom capable of counteracting evil by force of love.
Spirova E.M. - The tragic conflict of Hamlet pp. 45-68


Abstract: The article analyzes the character of Hamlet in works of one of the founders of psychohistory, American psychologist Erik Erikson. W. Shakespeare’s tragedy «Hamlet» attracted many researchers. For several centuries, writers, literature critics turned to this play. In Russian literature, the tragedy was especially popular. Though first interpretations and analysis of «Hamlet» appeared in Germany and France, the influence of «Hamlet» found reflection in such works as «Hamlet of Shchigrovskiy uezd» and in works studied at schools - «Fathers and sons», «Rudin», «Hamlet and Don Quichotte», «Ivanov». Shakespeare is studied not as a playwright but as an artist creating persons of great scope. An interest to him as a psychologist increases, too.The article uses the methods of psychoanalytic analysis of literature works. This tradition goes back to Z. Freud who gave an original interpretation of works of art.The novelty of the article is conditioned by its interpretation of «Hamlet» within the framework of psychohistory. E. Erikson uses the character of the Dutch prince to illustrate a special stage of man’s development, the time when his fate is being determined. The American psychologist is interested in the crisis of a young man when he tries to be critical of the imperatives of the society, displaying stubbornness and will to philosophical reflection. According to Erikson, Shakespeare’s work expresses the greatness and tragedy of a young man. Hamlet, as any man, has to face such distresses of his age that are incompatible with the young mind and ardent heart.
Poetry and the poet
Nikol'skii B.V. - Afanasy Fet pp. 69-97


Abstract: The article deals with the works of a Russian poet Afanasy Fet. The author attempts at exploring the essence of his poetry, and also employs a critical approach to the poet. With special attention B.V. Nikolskiy retraces A. Fet’s philosophical themes, calling him a poet of philosophers and pointing to A.Schopenhauer’s influence on poetry. The author characterizes A. Fet as a pantheist. He notes that in present-day reality philosophy is much closer associated with science than with art, though it has probably more affinity with the latter than with the former. According to B.V. Nikolskiy, of all lyrical poets A. Fet best succeeded in acquiring a purely philosophical spirit, but at the same time he remained faithful to poetry as a special kind of art. A. Fet penetrates into the essence of things by means of artistic creativity.The author bases the article on the philosophy of life that had a tremendous effect on art. He also uses achievements of aesthetic thought, pointing to A. Fet’s contribution to the science of art. Specificities of Fet’s poetic techniques are also analyzed.The article presents a comprehensive analysis of the Russian poet’s works. The author shows that there are no actions in A. Fet’s poetry, since he exists in enthusiastic bursts of spirit, in concentrated contemplations. All delights of suddenly flaring thoughts, all joys of hints that help an intensely thinking spirit to unexpectedly open up the boundless horizons of the desired truth, all happiness of discovery, insight – this supreme happiness of a thinker – can we find embodied in Fet’s wonderful lyrical miniatures. Therefore, poetry is evaluated as an applied field of philosophy. The novelty of the article is also in showing that A. Fet’s artistic feeling is not alien to nature as the human autocratic mind is alien to it.
Flerov O.V. - Grammar material in early learning English pp. 98-118


Abstract: The object of research in the article is early learning foreign languages. The matter of research is forming children’s grammar skills. The author shows importance of the questions of early learning foreign languages and teaching grammar. The issue of teaching grammar to children seems to be twice topical due to their being unable to perceive grammar rules and phenomena in their pure form. Particular attention is paid to forming English grammar minimum of rules and their exceptions.The method of research is linguistic and pedagogical analysis as well as empiric data obtained during author’s teaching English to children.The main author’s conclusions are the following. Specificity of grammar phenomena (logic, abstractness) makes them impossible for children to understand in explicit form. Children being unable to perceive grammar in pure form doesn’t mean that it is worthwhile to give up on forming their grammar skills. These skills imply not only using words according to the rules but their exceptions as well. The latter present a difficulty as they forma considerable part of grammar minimum.The novelty of this article consists in its viewing grammar material for children in quite a broad spectrum of adjoining linguodidactic questions: necessity of early learning foreign languages in general, the place of grammar in learning them according to present day ideas, forming curricula basing on learners’ age, specificity of grammar material and difficulties of its including in curricula for children.
Aleshinskaya E. - On the question of psychological aspects of learning English pp. 119-139


Abstract: The object of research is learning and teaching English. The matter of research is psychological aspects of this process. The author analyses such factors in learning English as motivation for learning, aptitudes for studying a language, communicative barrier and ways to overcome it as well as correlation between speech and language as its means. Particular attention is paid to interrelation of didactic and psychological issues in this process. The method of research in this article is analyzing empiric data obtained during author’s own learning English and her teaching it to students. The main conclusions come down to the following. Didactic treatment of learning English is not enough. Success in this process is determined by many factors, among them psychological ones are the most important. The novelty of the article is in its viewing psychological aspects in interrelation with didactic and linguistic ones, which provides multifaceted analysis of the issue of learning English and increasing its efficiency.
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