Электронный журнал Litera - №1 за 2014 г - Содержание, список статей. ISSN: 2409-8698 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Literary criticism
Naumenko G. - The Wanderer pp. 1-49


Abstract: The object of the research is a poem “The Wanderer” by A.S.Pushkin The subject of the research is Mickiewicz’s implication as a key to the poem’s understanding. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that the poem was written in the dialogue with the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, to find Mickiewicz’s implication and to perform the literary analysis of Pushkin’s poem by comparing it with the sixth poem “The Passage” from the poem “The Dziady” III and with an extract from “The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come” by Bunyan to which Pushkin referred to. (The poem “Oleszkiewicz” and Mickiewicz’s implication are the sources and impulses for Pushkin’s word and the first part of Bunyan’s poem is a canvas, the language of the generally accepted religious schemes). The research is based on the method of “careful reading” of “The Wanderer” in the context of Pushkin’s work in 1833-1836 as well as an intertextual analysis of the texts by Pushkin, Mickiewicz and Bunyan. The research includes references to well-known interpretations and analysis of Pushkin’s poem.  The dialogue between Pushkin and Mickiewicz, and wider – a talk to the West, resulted in the fact the the theme of Christianity in Pushkin’s work of the last years became key in the conflict between the East (Russia) and the West. That conflict was shown by Mickiewicz in his “Passage” from the Christian punitive point of view. The poem “The Wanderer” (1835) became is a poetic reply on the theme of “reading the Book” (the Holy Scripture) that we can find in Mickiewicz’s work and also the first part of Pyshkin’s “Reading the Book” about the way from slavery to the Liberty. Pushkin showed a wrong way to the Liberty which contradicts his understanding of the New Testament. It is proved by the constructive division of the poem into five parts (the Pentateuch model). He showed “the right way” in his “evangelic” Kamennoostrovskij cycle (1836) which was created in the tight connection with “The Wanderer”. In “The Wanderer” the poet was not ready for “the Court”, but in the poem number VI “From Pindemonte” he appears at the Court with his speech.
Eremina E. - Miguel de Unamuno and His Tragic Sense of Life pp. 50-67


Abstract: The present article is devoted to studying the 'agonic' philosophy of a Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. His philosophy was formed under the influence of the historical and social environment and particular facts from the writer's personal biography. All works written by Miguel de Unamuno after the crisis of the 1987th are full of thoughts about faith and lack of faith, death and immortality and a certain tragic tone. For Unamuno life is an 'agony', constant doubts and struggle against death. According to Miguel de Unamuno, feelings, reason, faith and science are struggling in human's soul and this 'agony' is the true life. Unamuno's philosophical searches go beyound the scope of an essay and take the form of narrative experiments. His philosophy evolves around the problem of individual immortality. The desire to live forever and the reason telling that this desire will never come true literally tore Unamuno apart. Trying to to understand the nature of relations between Human and his Creator, Unamuno appeals to imagination as the last method of knowledge and uses a novel as a model of reality. 
Imagination and its fruits
Polishchuk E.P. - The Homo Mysticus Phenomenon in the Modern World: Artistic Thinking, Mythopoetics and Eschatological Visions of Daniil Andreev pp. 68-124


Abstract: The discussion about special aspects of such a phenomenon as Daniil Andreev in the culture of late 20th – early 21st centuries is just getting the form of a scientific cross-disciplinary research. This is why we believe it is necessary to view the author’s work from the position of honos habet onus in the course of analyzing his creations in the networks of cultural anthropology, literary studies, aesthetics and religion studies. We suggest the attention should be paid not only at an unusual view of life or an ingenious literary heritage, but also to special features of thinking and axiological core of D. L. Andreev’s personality, on the basis of the idea that he is a mystic person and not only a writer of fantasy or philosophical books. Moreover, it is hardly possible to take him as an original philosopher just because of his creating an unusual concept of macrocosm and human history. We suggest he is a Homo Mysticus, being an explorer of the supernatural and the forms of penetration into it. Our hypothesis is developed on the assumption of studying the author’s biography and the results of his works in several unusual aspects of which the patographic one is the foremost trying to estimate the basic reasons of D. L. Andreev’s development as one of the most interesting mystics of the 20th century, original thinker who addresses to the metahistoric aspects of the existence of the mankind and the modern civilization. The subject of the research is the style of thinking, mythopoetic works and eschatological views of the author. As a conclusion we suggest to evaluate the life views of the “messenger” and the main components – eschatological thoughts as a Homo Mysticus by taking into account his personality characteristics, the sources of the ingenuity of his art thinking and talent.
Arapov A.V. - Literary approaches in the Biblical hermeneutics pp. 125-137


Abstract: The subject of the research is the literary approaches in the modern Biblical hermeneutics. The literary approaches to the Biblical narratives tend to concentrate on a text as a whole, including different components that are interconnected through the whole system of cross references and examples. Adherents of these approaches tend to construe the text as a whole. It has become very common for the modern literary narrative analysis to compare the Biblical texts with contemporary literature. And this reference to the modern literature is explained as follows. First, literature of this period helps to understand the problems and concepts of the narrative theory better. The modern narrative theories have been developed on the basis of the analysis of the narrative literature (especially novels) of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. Thus, referring to the modern literature helps to understand that some aspects of the narrative theory can be fully applied only to the present-day narratives. And the attempts to apply them to the ancient narratives may sometimes lead to long and useless discussions. Second, comparison of the the modern narratives with the Biblical texts creates a wide perspective regarding the Biblical narrative analysis.  The following methods are used in the research: social and philosophical analysis, contrastive analysis, psychological analysis and general scientific methods. The social and philosophical analysis helped to find out the influence of social and political conditions on the next construal of the sacral texts. It helped to define the certain historical background of the development of the hermeneutical strategies.  There may be the following objection against the usage of the modern literary theories in the Biblical hermeneutics: the modern literary theories are not meant for the description of the ancient narratives, and so it is unnatural to apply the present-day concepts and categories to the ancient narratives. Two answers are possible to this objection. The difference rests between ancient and present-day literary theories rather than between modern and ancient narratives. The ancient and modern theories just use different ways to describe the phenomena that are common for the ancient and modern narratives. Of course, it does not mean that the hermeneutics must treat the ancient narratives as identical to the modern narratives or  ignore the literary conventions of the ancient narratives (genres and etc.) or must not view the Biblical narratives in the contest of the ancient Middle-East and Hellenistic literature. However it does not mean that the modern narrative theory should not be used to analyze a Biblical text. The approaches that focus on the text (autonomistic) treat a literary work as a closed unit the sense of which can be fully understood through viewing the relations between its parts and which is autonomous regarding such out-of-text factors as the author’s intentions or the reader’s understanding. Such tendencies were typical for the Englich-American approach and reached the peak of their development in the “New Criticism” movement. That movement analyzed literature in the terms of its own internal principles and not through viewing such external factors as the author’s biography.This is quite a serious matter, because not only the Biblical narratives have deep roots in the social and historical context of their time, but also the majority of other narratives open their true sense only in connection with historical events and real people. The answer is to let the different points of view complete each other. Concentrating our attention at the literary characteristics of a narrative does not exclude the necessity to understand of the cultural situation in which the text appeared, and the reviewing of literary forms that are contemporary to the text, and etc.
Faskhutdinova Y.F. - To the Question of Transmitting the Knowledge through Dictionaries (On the Example of The Russian-Bashkir Clinical Psychology Dictionary) pp. 138-154


Abstract: The article analyzes the problem of transmitting the scientific knowledge from one language environment into the other on the example of the translation of the clinical psychology information from Russian into Bashkir and vice versa. The multicultural character of the modern science is stated particularly in the clinical psychology created by psychologists from different countries. This makes it necessary to transmit the knowledge from one culture to the other. The article tells history of the clinical psychology development, shows the necessity of compiling dictionaries of scientific terminology on different stages of the development of this science. Methodologically the article is based on the principles of transmitting the scientific knowledge and on the concept of the connections between a word and an image. The main method used in the article is the method of a theoretical analysis of the scientific literature. The important role of dictionaries is claimed in the course of the clinical psychology development, as they are the means of transmitting the knowledge. Also the article notes the necessity to compile the Russian-Bashkir dictionaries to translate specific clinical terminology. The article analyzes the history of creating the Russian-Bashkir dictionaries and gives the description of the present-day situation of the problem. The article also shows fields of application of the Russian-Bashkir Clinical Psychology dictionary when it is worked out.
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