Theoretical and Applied Economics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Theoretical and Applied Economics" > Contents of Issue 04/2020
Contents of Issue 04/2020
Regional economy
D'yachkov A.G., Surnina N.M., Shishkina E.A. - Formation of electric power infrastructure system of a region as a priority task of strategic planning of socioeconomic development of the territories pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.33944

Abstract: This article examines the organization of strategic planning of infrastructure systems within economic space of a region. The subject of this research is the processes of strategic planning of regional infrastructure systems. The goal consists in determination of peculiarities of strategic planning of the development of electric power infrastructure systems within economic space of a region. The theoretical-methodological framework contains the theories of spatial development, strategic planning, infrastructure systems and method of assessment of their impact upon socioeconomic development of the territories. The characteristic of infrastructure systems as the object of strategic planning are described. From the perspective of institutional approach, the author reveals the peculiarities of formation of the development strategy of regional infrastructure systems, and multilevel nature of the subjects of planning. Analysis is conducted on organization of strategic planning pf spatial infrastructure systems in regional development management on the example of electric power industry. The article explores the institutional environment for the development of the electric power infrastructure in the Russian Federation based on the analysis of terms and periodicity of preparing strategic documents and agreeing to the development goals. The strategic risks caused by failure of implementation of strategic planning documents are identified. Analysis of the balance between strategic investment and socioeconomic planning of territorial development and electric power infrastructure is carries out on the example of Sverdlovsk Oblast. The author outlines the relevant objectives of strategic planning for the development of infrastructure systems, which consist in ensuring connectedness, synchronicity of development plans of territorial development with the development of infrastructure, coherence of planning processes, implementation of development strategies of the regions and corporate sector.
World economy and international economic relations
Ozarnov R. - Gravity model of international trade among EAEU, SCO and BRICS countries pp. 14-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.33954

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of factors influencing the economic and financial cooperation of countries with developing market, namely EAEU, SCO and BRICS, by means of building a gravity model of trade. Special attention is given to affiliation of the countries to former USSR. The established timeframe starts with the crisis for Russia 2014 and continuous until the present. The subject of this research is the economic and financial relations emerged in the process of cooperation of EAEU, SCO and BRICS member-states with developing market. The author examines the factors affecting economic and financial cooperation of these countries, such as the size of external trade, gross domestic product per capita, trade openness index, currency appreciation rate of importing and exporting countries, distance between the countries, affiliation of the country with developing market to EAEU, SCO and BRICS. Using econometric methods, the author determines the factors impacting the cooperation of countries with developing markets within the three blocks EAEU, SCO and BRICS based on the gravity model of international trade. This defines the scientific novelty of this work. The peculiarity of this model consists in availability of lag exchange rates. Inclusion of lag in reference to the currency rate of the exporter led to exclusion of 2014 data from sampling. The acquired results should be taken into account Russias cooperation on bilateral and multilateral basis within the framework of EAEU, SCO and BRICS.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Tsurikov V.I. - Model of bribery deterrence pp. 28-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.30307

Abstract: The subject of this research is the measures for halting the flow of bribes (product of the number of bribes by the average value). One of the key factors of corruption rampant in modern Russia consists in the weak stimuli and absence of adequate motivation among the representatives of law enforcement agencies. The research was conducted using the methods of mathematical modeling, and is based on the assumption that penal sanctions are the only punishment intended for the official caught in the act of accepting the bribe. In order for the controller who imposes penalty not to have stimulus to accept a bribe from the official in the amount lower than the amount of penalty for concealing his offence, the penalty becomes the property of the controller in full. It is assumed that each of the parties aims for maximization of their net income. Conditions are established, under which the flow of bribes a) only increases, b) along with efforts of the controller, makes periodic fluctuations in time, c) monotonously tends to zero.
Economic demography and labor economics
Tyuleneva T.I., Kurashova E.A. - Current state of labor resources of active working age in the Russian Federation pp. 39-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34013

Abstract: The subject of this research is the labor resources (employed, unemployed, and persons not in the labor force). The object of this research is the Russian Federation. The article reviews various opinions of the scholars on the concept of “labor resources”. As a result, the authors proposed the original perspective on the concept of labor resources. The article examines the essence of labor resources from the standpoint of national economy, as well as the structure of labor resources. The research materials on the dynamics of labor resources (labor force and persons who in the labor force) for the period from January 2019 to June 2020 are provided. The conclusion is made that the overall dynamics of labor resources of active working age is consistent, despite negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic upon the economy and seasonal (spring-autumn period) fluctuations related to the influx of workers involved in such seasonal activities as agriculture, fishing, mining industry, water and river transport, etc. The acquired data indicate on the possibility of insignificant reduction of labor resources of active working age in July, August and September 2020. The authors forecast the number of labor resources of the active working age for that period.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Samoilova L.K. - General-purpose geographically oriented economy as a preferred model of safe economic development of the Russian Federation pp. 50-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34278

Abstract: This article, based on the analysis of the provisions of economic science, characterizes the peculiarities of different economic models – socially oriented, “green”, innovation, and digital, which allowed formulating the advantages and disadvantages for economic agents in the context of transition to each model. Emphasis is usually placed on the positive aspects of replacement of general vector of economic development; however, reluctance of an individual, society, state, and its structural units to reforms can become a threat to the economic security of the territory, instigating the emergence of borderline states – conditionally safe, pseudo-safe, and those evolving into dangerous if neglected. Therefore, the goal of this article lies in clarification of the attributes of the aforementioned schemes that substantiates the need for transition of the Russian Federation towards the model of general-purpose geographically oriented economy. The author argues the opinion according to which shift of the vector of economic development in public legal entities of different level should be implemented with consideration of their internal capacity, and neglect of its state can lead to the emergence of borderline states of economy of the territory on the grounds of protection from negative activities – conditionally safe, pseudo-safe. Due to high degree of differentiation of the Russian regions, the model of general-purpose geographically oriented economy that focuses on the local specificities is proposed for avoiding the growing imbalances. The obtained results are aimed at broadening of the provisions of economic science. The authorial approach towards restructuring of the economic model applicable to the constituent entities of the Russian Federation would allow minimizing the unsuccessful attempts of changing the socioeconomic vector of their development.
Bekulova S.R. - Formation of institutional environment that contributes to the development of renewable energy in Russia pp. 66-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34431

Abstract: Renewable energy can advance only with sufficient state support. In the conditions of increasing environmental conscientiousness, the need for reduction of carbonaceous load on the environment, as well as lowering prices for renewable energy technologies, lag in using renewable energy sources poses a threat to the development of countries within the framework of global trends. Renewable energy has received state support in Russia, despite its high traditional energy resource endowment; there are different mechanisms of state support in the retail and wholesale electricity and capacity markets. The article studies the process of formation of the current mechanism of state support in wholesale electricity and capacity market. The author determines the key stages and factors with regards to formation of support system for the renewable energy sources in Russia. Analysis is conducted on the effectiveness of Capacity Supply Agreement (CSA) as a mechanism for state support of the renewable energy sources in Russia. The article demonstrates interrelation between functionality of the renewable energy CSA mechanism and the increased level of competition in the renewable energy. The author illustrates in what way the development of renewable energy in Russia may contribute to advancement of the adjacent economic sectors. Comprehensive approach towards development of the industry within the framework of technological cluster of renewable energy in Russia is presented. The author defines the territories to which the development of renewable energy is especially relevant.
Regional economy
Egorova T., Delakhova A.M. - Elaboration of toolset for assessing differentiation of the level of transport accessibility of northern region pp. 81-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34637

Abstract: The subject of this research is the theory and practice of assessing transport accessibility of the territories of northern regions, where the absence of all-season overland communications render impossible their comparison and analysis. The common type of communications in northern regions are winter/ice roads, which are not usually included in analysis of infrastructure and transportation accessibility of a territory. Inclusion of the variable of seasonal communications is substantiated by the absences of alternatives in northern regions. The tools for assessing transport accessibility of the territory are developed using the integral index method, which allows determining the differentiation of variables of weighted average time and monetary costs on freight transportation. Such method based on the cost and time assessment of the transportation-logistical expenses allows accounting for changes in the transport complex, related to development of transportation network in the region, reflected on all stages of the logistical process. The developed methodological toolset is based on the classic methods of assessment of regional transportation system, while at the same time presents novelty, as it includes the presence of seasonal types of transportation communications in northern regions of the country and their logistical component, allowing to fully assess the peculiarities of transportation systems in the northern regions. The conducted analysis of the variables of the territorial structure of transportation network of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) revealed heterogeneity in transport accessibility of municipal regions of the Sakha Republic. Results of the analysis of the level of differentiation of transport accessibility of municipalities through methods demonstrated a heterogenic differentiation, influenced by the vastness of the territories, low density of population, as well as sparseness of settlements of the Artic regions among number of other factors.
Innovative economy
Ledeneva M.V., Mishura N.A. - Factor analysis of innovation activity of companies in the Russian Federation pp. 95-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34785

Abstract: This research is aimed at determination and interpretation of the factors that influence the indicator values of innovation activity of enterprises in the Russian Federation. The author sets the following goals: carry out factor analysis of innovation activity of companies in the Russian Federation using the method of principal components and maximum likelihood; determine and interpret the factors; compare the acquired results; develop recommendations on improvement the composition of statistical indicators used for efficiency assessment of innovation activity of companies on meso- and macro levels. The empirical basis contains the data provided by Rosstat on 10 indicators for the period from 2009 to 2016 (657 observations). The scientific novelty consists in identification of latent generalizing characteristics and correlations between the indicators used for assessing the innovation activity of companies in the Russian Federation. Both methods, of principal components and principal factors, allowed similarly distinguishing the two factors: via the method of principal components: development of science in the region and specialization of the region in high-tech industries; via the method of principal factors: research organizations in the region, their number and indicators; specialization of the region in high-tech industries. The second factor reflects commercialization of research and development. A relatively small number of indicators is used for assessing commercialization of research and development. The author notes the lack of statistical data for assessing the efficiency of innovation activity of companies. The statistical indicators of innovation activity of enterprises should include the economic effect indicators. This would allow using the performance indicators of research and development not only on micro-, but also meso - and macro-levels in elaboration and assessment of measures stimulating innovation activity of businesses at the country level.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Leontyev A., Novikova N.V. - Regional projection of the growth pole theory: foreign and Russian experience pp. 106-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34019

Abstract: In the modern context, each country is interested in the new sources of economic growth. The authors believe that the source of economic growth can lie in the spatial factors of regional development – the so-called “growth poles”. This article discusses the Russian and foreign experience of using the growth poles to accelerate regional development. The subject of this research is the spatial-economic processes that take place in terms of implementation of the “growth pole” strategy in Russian and foreign practices. The object of this research is regions of the Russian Federation and regions of the foreign countries, in the territory of which the practice of “growth poles” development was implemented. The goal of this article is to present the regional projection of scientific foundation of growth pole theory relying on the works of leading scholars, as well as advanced national and foreign experience. The author’s special contribution consists in generalization of information pertaining to the use of the “growth pole” concept in the relevant strategic planning documents. The novelty lies in the hypothesis on classification of growth poles in Russian practice, the number of growth poles in the territory of the Russian Federation. The acquired results allow assessing the Russian and foreign experience in implementation of the growth pole theory, determining the factors and conditions for achieving the goals and objectives of the strategies of polarized regional development in the Russian Federation and foreign countries.
Zatrova I.S. - Creative agriculture-based economy in horticulture pp. 118-128

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34118

Abstract: This article is dedicated to a new trend in agriculture, such as the creative agriculture-based economy on a worldwide scale. The author reveals the prerequisites for the emergence of such economy. The general review is conducted on the variations of creative forms and industries in horticulture. Such trends as peony growing, biofuels, volcanic agriculture, and “Arctic cultivated garden” are the examples of this type of economy. The article draws attention to various types of cooperation, which leads to a positive result. Attention is given to the problematic components of creative agriculture-based economy. The conclusions are made on the fundamentals of creativity in agriculture for achieving positive results. The author’s main contribution consists in substantiation of the concept of creative agriculture-based economy, a new perspective on the creative economy. This article is first to view creative economy in agriculture, as well as to raise the problems of the creative agriculture-based economy and the need for regulation of this process. The foundation of creative agriculture-based economy consisting of the three equivalent platforms: knowledge, morality and creativity is explored. Agriculture is closely interrelated with the environment and food products; the quality of new products and services influences the quality of life, which is relevant worldwide.
Service sector: management & economics
Voronin V.O., Grebennikova A.A., Maslyakov V.V. - Game simulation The City Started by You pp. 129-143

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34592

Abstract: This article examines the scenario of game simulation “The City Started by You”. The game represents an information platform built on the basis of online game, where the players select a city they would like live in and the services they would like to use. The players are also given the opportunity to discuss and make management decisions regarding the development of their city. The game touches upon such questions as solidarity in society, meaning of paying taxes, value of local democracy, proactive budgeting, and implementation of direct online democracy. The game is aimed at the development of the skills for classification of the topical issues and separate delegated authority, liaising between the authorities and officials of the city’s self-governance and the residents, as well as engagement of city residents in urban management. The computer game not only calculates the consequences of the made by the student management decisions, but also takes into account the factors of the internal and external environment. It is noted that this game can be used as educational in schools and universities, as well as for increasing information transparency between the executive branches and municipal officials. The latter would require conducing educational online games within the framework of group classes with the municipal officials. The use of remote technologies built on the basis of game simulation “The City Started by You” allows to consider and analyze alternate solutions of topical issues, work out spatial development strategies, and form project thinking. Game simulator Constant improvements in the area of ensuring transparency of the local self-governance is essential for increasing public confidence in the local authorities, effective solution of topical issues, and successful conduct of the reforms.
Regional economy
Napolskikh D.L. - Assessment of innovative development potential of a macroregion within the multilevel clustering model pp. 144-161

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8647.2020.4.34517

Abstract: The object of this research is the potential of innovative development of Volga Region. The subject of this research is assessment of the processes of innovative transformation of economic systems of Volga Region. Special attention is given to the analysis of peculiarities of spatial distribution of the potential for the development of innovative economy in the context of cluster policy. The author examines the dynamics of cluster formation in the Russian Federation and Volga Federal District, as well as the level of institutional development of the clusters formed in the Volga Region. Based on the previous research, the geographical zones of Volga Region are classified by the author into macroregions, districts, and interregional clusters; on each level of the proposed multilevel model can be determined the leading region and lagging regions. For assessing the innovative transformation of economic systems of Volga Region, the author developed the methodology for comprehensive analysis of innovative development potential of the regions. The outcome Index of innovative development potential of the region (IRIDP) is formed on the basis of four subindexes: index of economic potential of innovative development (IEP-1); index of human resource potential of innovative development (IHRP-2); index of financial potential of innovative development (IFP-3); index of scientific and technological potential of innovative development (ISTP-4). In the course of analysis of the processes of clusterization of the economy of Volga Region, the author determined a significant differentiation of economic space from the perspective of institutionalization of clusters. Nonuniformity of distribution of the clusters by regions, as well as differences in the level of their development, are substantiated by the objective economic-geographical prerequisites and by the performance regional authorities within the framework of federal cluster development projects. The formulated conclusions can serve as the foundation for the formation of spatial contours and vectors of a new stage of clusterization of the economy of Volga Region; its implementation of should consider the complementary nature of innovative and cluster activity of the regions.
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