Статья 'Conflict Prevention in the Framework of Contemporary Government Procedures and International Cooperation' - журнал 'Conflict Studies / nota bene' - NotaBene.ru
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Conflict Prevention in the Framework of Contemporary Government Procedures and International Cooperation

Brambila Martinez Francisco Javier

Postgraduate student, Institute of Civil Service and Administration, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

119571, Russia, Moscow, Prospekt Vernadskogo, 82

francisco.brambila@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0617.2023.1.39606

EDN:

KPFKCH

Received:

13-01-2023


Published:

04-04-2023


Abstract: This article reviews the basic functions and interactions of the state with diverse stakeholders on a global level to identify the sources of conflict on a contemporary setting. The subject of this research is the measurement of state capacity as an outcome of governance largely influenced by the process of globalization and its repercussions on conflict prevention. The goal consists on finding possible solutions to the contemporary capacity-sovereignty dilemma under the relationship of the state with international policy brokers to shield its functions from foreign interference and threats without undermining its international participation and growth. The core definitions and characteristics of governance are determined to reveal the peculiarities and limitations of the state in preventing conflicts. The interactions of the state with a wide array of stakeholders on a global level are analyzed to assess the nature of their outcomes in relation to governance and state capacity. The capacity and legitimacy of international policy brokers in conveying the national interests of the state in the framework of international cooperation are reviewed. In order to achieve the set research goal, the author reviews the core functions of the state when interacting with international stakeholders of different configurations. In order to create the necessary conditions for conflict prevention, this work recommends the development of flexible government procedures to shield the core functions of the state as unimpeded cooperation is carried in all areas. This article provides a theoretical framework applicable to a wide array of contemporary nations for supporting the examination and elaboration of dedicated mechanisms in the conflict prevention area by reviewing the elemental processes of the state rather than analyzing particular conflicts and their causes.


Keywords:

Conflict resolution, Governance, Globalization, International cooperation, State capacity, International development, Global actors, Regulations, Government processes, Sovereignty

Governance

To understand how and to which extent does international cooperation in the contemporary era diminishes conflicts, is necessary to review the functions of governance as well as its relationship to the context and external forces. Governance is assessed by government performance, measured according to the input and output ratio of the state (Rotberg and Boardman, 2014), state capacity is measured by the operations of the government with emphasis on bureaucratic procedures and their degree of autonomy from political forces (Fukuyama, 2013). Hold and Manning (2014) however claim that upstream bodies at the center of the government operate however differently than downstream delivery mechanisms as they may provide, administer and fund services under specific policies directions while retaining a degree of autonomy from political control while boosting the performance of the state. Notwithstanding, to assess the performance of the state comprehensively in the context of conflict prevention, is necessary to consider a set of boundaries and rules relative to role of the nation in a global order composed by multidimensional actors and processes. Coleman (2012) claims that the interdependence of states takes place in the form of economic globalization and the movement of capital across nations, thereafter for nations to protect their internal sovereignty according to their territorial foundation, states had to increase their policy-making focus to a global level. The concept of interdependence sovereignty is introduced by Stone and Ladi (2015) in the context of Global Public Policy as the willingness and capacity of governments to control the flows of goods, capital and people in and out of a determined nation as it fails the challenges and constrains of Globalization.

Globalization

According to the previous definitions, we can understand Globalization as a two-dimensional concept that encompasses cross-border trade to international regulations as well as driving force for international cooperation between one state and a number of international stakeholders by virtue of agreements and other interactions. Coleman’s (2012) globalization definition combines the processes that involve state and non-state actors in a global geographical extension that lead to a transformative growth of connections. This definition however rises a numerous questions regarding both the responsible authority as well as the content and regulating mechanisms of said interactions. Stone and Ladi (2015) propose a framework to regulate these interactions under the term transnational administration, in which the regulation, management and implementation of global policies of a public nature take place by both private and public actors operating beyond the boundaries and jurisdictions of the state, but often in areas beneath the global level. The authors propose the combination of globalization with governance in the form of public policy, in which a set of over set of overlapping but disjointed processes of public-private deliberation and cooperation among both official state-based and international organizations and non-state actors take place in a wide array of issues that range from boosting trade to resolving conflicts.

International cooperation

According to these definitions, is possible to assess international cooperation under a global public policy framework as a multidimensional area in which a wide array of stakeholders interact on different levels, whose coordination would only be achieved by international policy brokers to channel and deliver policy directions (Peck, 2015). Questions arise however on the capacity and legitimacy of international policy brokers on covering international multidisciplinary paradigms specially in the context of conflict prevention, as well as to their functions aimed at substitution key actions of states and supranational organizations accordingly. This issue is exacerbated by the areas free from intergovernmental regulation in which non-state actors dominate (Bernstein and Cashore, 2007), Abbot (2014) claims states that a significant amount of international cooperation is carried through dedicated interactions in the form of decentralized entities rather than through national governments as such. The extent and influence of international policy brokers in relation to states remains however diminished under the argument that states hold the monopoly of law and force that allows them to retain the exclusive rights to carry specific policies according to varying political objectives as well as to convey their interests in the international community with particular power. Furthermore, is necessary to note the nature and goals of international policy brokers in two groups, those who belong to the category of semi-autonomous agencies as well as those of trans-governmental configuration with those that evolve from the civil society whose agendas will drastically differ according their socio-cultural setting in addition to their political and economic affiliations. Taking into account this information, special attention should be made to recommended policy directions by reviewing the criteria, information and bias of international policy brokers according to a comprehensive situational assessment in different levels.

The contemporary capacity-sovereignty dilemma

Contemporary nations face a growing dilemma; on the one hand, state capacity is increased by international collaboration mainly regulated by a wide array of international policy brokers. On the other hand, the state requires comprehensive situational assessment tools to assess a wide array of risks as to evaluate its interactions with multiple stakeholders in a global level. The closure of the government from external flows is unrealistic due to the interconnection of markets, information and governance methods while a partial closure can only be achieved to different extents thereafter defeating its purpose. The simultaneous inter-governmental collaboration in periods of conflict carries different challenges as elements within the international cooperation framework can be weaponized in a wide array of forms. These conditions are exacerbated by the common goals of international Policy Brokers, which seek to continually reform systems to attract investors based in the quality of governance as a part of risk management practices Arndt & Oman (2008). Furthermore, by the prevalence of a common ideological consensus in the aftermath of the Cold War that contributed to unregulated flows due to the absence of ideological limitations and predispositions. A pragmatic solution is the separation of ideological components form flows by limiting their content to numeric values, however the lack of a definitive governance indicator prevents their widespread use Arndt & Oman (2008), this issue is furtherly exacerbated by the lack of clear interpretation mechanisms into issues of wide complexity relative to conflict resolution and prevention.

General conclusions

As a conclusion is possible to note the role of governance and international policy brokers as the main particularity of the state in the conflict resolution sphere as key determinants of their interactions with a wide array of stakeholders in the global order along their role in contributing to state capacity. In the context of conflict prevention is however necessary to understand the interactions between governments and international policy brokers due to the absence of common rules nor mechanisms of attribution or retribution of their actions. Regarding to the governance – sovereignty dilemma for conflict resolution, this paper suggests a two-step solution. First, the unimpeded flow of capital, goods, people and information that provides the state with the necessary capacity to assess and act upon global risks and challenges. Second, a continuous effort of the state to shield its core processes from foreign interference as well as from the adverse conditions from the context. To achieve this, a comprehensive regulatory framework is required to set and manage bureaucratic procedures with emphasis on their delivery mechanisms according to geostrategic objectives.

References
1. Fukuyama F. Commentary: What is governance? Governance, 26(3), 2013-347-368 pp.
2. Holt J., Manning N. Fukuyama is right about measuring state quality: Now what? Governance, 27(4), 2014-717-728 pp.
3. Rotberg R. I. Good governance means performance and results. Governance, 27(3), 2014-511-518 pp.
4. Stone D., Ladi S. Global public policy and transnational administration.Public Administration, 93(4), 2015-839-855 pp.
5. Coleman W. D. Governance and global public policy, Oxford University Press, 2012 – 673-685 pp.
6. Peck J. Global policy models, globalizing poverty management: International convergence of fast-policy integration? Geography Compass, 5(4), 2011-165-181 pp.
7. Bernstein S., Cashore B. Can non-state global governance be legitimate? An analytical framework. Regulation & Governance, 1, 2007-347-371 pp.
8. Abbott K. W. International organisations and international regulatory co-operation: Exploring the links. In OECD (Ed.), International Regulatory Co-operation and International Organisations: The Cases of the OECD and the IMO, OECD, Paris, 2014-17-44 pp.
9. Arndt C., Oman C. (2008). The Politics of Governance Ratings, Maastricht: Maastricht University, 2008-17 p.

Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The modern world is characterized by increased conflict: This has been repeatedly emphasized by various analysts – sociologists, political scientists, philosophers, economists, as well as various observers. In many ways, the expansion of local conflict zones is due to the dramatic transformation of the monopolar world, led by the United States, into a multipolar world, in which, along with Washington, a number of actors, including Beijing, Moscow, New Delhi, and Tehran, will occupy leading positions. And although it is a multipolar world that is able to establish partnership and mutually beneficial relations between the countries of the world, at this stage there is a temporary complication of the international situation. These circumstances determine the relevance of the article submitted for review, the subject of which is conflict prevention within the framework of modern government procedures and international cooperation. The author sets out to analyze the activities of the state in the context of conflict prevention, as well as to consider a set of boundaries and rules concerning the role of the nation in a global order consisting of multidimensional actors and processes. The work is based on the principles of analysis and synthesis, reliability, objectivity, the methodological basis of the research is a systematic approach, which is based on the consideration of the object as an integral complex of interrelated elements. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the very formulation of the topic: the author seeks to characterize global public policy at the present stage. Considering the bibliographic list of the article as a positive point, its versatility should be noted: in total, the list of references includes up to 10 different sources and studies. The undoubted advantage of the reviewed article is the involvement of foreign English-language literature, which is determined by the very formulation of the topic. From the sources used, we note the works of F. Fukuyama, D. Stone and S. Ladi, V.D. Coleman, who focus on various aspects of global public policy. Among the studies involved, we will point to the works of R. Rothberg, J. Holt, J. Peck and other specialists who consider global public policy and transnational governance. Note that the bibliography is important both from a scientific and educational point of view: after reading the text of the article, readers can turn to other materials on its topic. In general, in our opinion, the integrated use of various sources and research contributed to the solution of the tasks facing the author. The style of writing the article can be attributed to scientific, at the same time understandable not only to specialists, but also to a wide readership, to everyone who is interested in both modern world politics in general and issues of world conflictology in particular. The appeal to the opponents is presented at the level of the collected information. received by the author in the course of working on the topic of the article. The structure of the work is characterized by a certain logic and consistency, it can be distinguished by an introduction, the main part, and conclusion. At the beginning, the author defines the relevance of the topic, shows that he understands "globalization as a two-dimensional concept that covers cross-border trade with international rules, as well as the driving force of international cooperation between one state and a number of international stakeholders by virtue of agreements and other interactions." The author notes the dilemma that is happening before our eyes: "on the one hand, the state potential is increasing due to international cooperation, mainly regulated by a wide range of international political intermediaries. On the other hand, the state needs comprehensive situational assessment tools to assess a wide range of risks, as well as to assess its interaction with a variety of stakeholders at the global level." The main conclusions of the article include the following: to resolve these contradictions, firstly, "an unhindered flow of capital, goods, people and information is necessary, which gives the state the necessary ability to assess and respond to global risks and challenges. Secondly, the constant efforts of the state to protect its core processes from foreign interference, as well as from adverse context conditions." The article presented for review is devoted to an urgent topic, written in English, will arouse a certain reader's interest, and its materials can be used both in training courses and within the framework of strategies of modern world politics. The article will also be interesting for the analysis of specialized English-language literature. In general, in our opinion, the article can be recommended for publication in the journal "Conflictology / nota bene".
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