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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Historical culturology and the history of culture"
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Tsareva E.S. - Cultural-educational societies in the Yeniseisk Province and their involvement in the regions musical life of the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 35-58


Abstract: The subject of this study is the cultural-educational societies of Yeniseisk Province as a local form of self-organizing social processes. The object is the musical life of the cities of Yeniseisk Province of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The goal of this article consists in analysis of the activities of a number of cultural-educational societies of Krasnoyarsk Krai (music admirers, care for elementary education, volunteer firefighters, sobriety), as well as understanding of its impact upon the establishment of the region’s musical platform. Leaning on the wide range of unpublished scientific works (archive documents, pre-revolutionary printed publication), the article gives characteristic to the cultural-educational societies are described as a phenomenon of the Russian history of pre-Soviet period, briefly reviews its genesis, notes the regional Siberian specificity, outlines the organizational structure and functions, and reveals the previously unknown aspects pf the musical artistic activity of the educational societies in Yeniseisk Province.  The scientific novelty of the study lies in the following conclusions: 1) The development of musical life in the Yeniseisk Province (alongside many other peripheral territories of the country), not being a part of direct interest of the local authorities, was extensively supported by the public initiative, thus, the cultural-educational non-state unions as the centers of social self-organization manifested as the crucial and dominant catalyst of its dynamics, while in county cities – practically singular; 2) Yeniseisk Province, unlike many neighboring Siberian territories, was not able to establish the essential conditions for sustainable and long-term functioning of the art admirers unions, which are an intrinsic part of the local musical life; the lack was partially compensated by the non-musical educational societies that conducted an extensive cultural work.
Tinyakova E.A. - The Classics, History and Modern Times in the Theatre Arts pp. 38-55


Abstract: The article is devoted to specific features of the theatre arts compared to other branches of art. Special attention is paid to modern tendencies in development of the theatre arts. Specific features of this branch of art are being viewed from the very moment of its origin. It is underlined that the classical Russian theatre is based on Konstantin Stanislavky's method. By studying the performances and history of Kursky Regional Drama Theatre N. A. Alexander Pushkin, the author of the article provides facts from the history of the Russian threatre in general. 
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry in the age of Frederick the Great: cultural conflict or a cultural dialogue? pp. 41-56


Abstract: The development of cavalry art of the XVIII century closely relates to the achievements of the Prussian military system. The subject of this research is the dynamics of development of the Russian cavalry that took place under the influence of ideology of Frederick the Great – inventor of the most powerful European cavalry of the middle and the end of the XVIII century. Russia was significantly influence by his ideas as well, but it depended on the attitude of a ruling monarch towards the Prussian militarism. The sources for this study became the military-administrative and military-charter documents of the XVIII century. Methodological foundation is the comparative-historical method. Variable comparisons allowed determining and analyzing the common and the peculiar in organization of cavalry in Prussia and Russia at different stages; its organization is attributed with the phase of eventful history. The conducted analysis demonstrates the positive and negative sides that emerged in Russian cavalry as a result of Prussian influence. Thea author concludes that it is hard to overestimate the importance acquired by the reception achievements of Frederick the Great in Russia – it determined the foundation for the development of the national cavalry art in the next half of the century.
Sineokii O.V. - Rock as a Symbolic Element of Yugonostalgia In Our Interpretation through the Prism of the Concept of Slovenian Cultural Studies Professor M. Velikonja pp. 44-106


Abstract: The article analyzes the history of rock culture in Yugoslavia with position of socio-cultural communications. At the first time the author is discussed in detail lesser known pages of the history of the Yugoslav rock music. Special attention is paid with the concept of the Slovenian professor of cultural studies Mitja Velikonja of communicative and symbolic nature of the Yugonostalgia. In this article with a position of the humanitarian knowledge Recording is investigated as a social construct in a broad multicultural mediaspace. The place of this institution is determined in the system of mass communications. The scholar gives a characteristic of the social-communicative essence of the sound recording system. He researches the regularities of development and the functioning of the sound recording institutions (Record Labels) in the system of social communications in times of socialism. The scientist analyzes the business model of music-publishing corporations of Yugoslavia in the second half of the twentieth century. The article deals with problems of interaction between senders and recipients in musical subsector of media space based on a systemic understanding of multichannel communications in the sphere of music sound recording. The author outlines the priorities of the information strategies to promote the phonographic releases, including special role of PR-technology and «feedback» in the music business. In conclusion he offers the understanding of Recording as a complex cluster of media sphere, in which stable rules, historical regularities as well as specific principles were formed.
Arapov A.V. - Pictures in Mitreums and Their Interpretation pp. 51-63


Abstract: Object of research are images in the mitreumakh - places, Mitre mysteries were made. The author claims that in each mitreum the central place was taken by the image of the Mitre, the killing sacred bull, and also that the second for value after a tavroktoniya the image in a mitreuma is the image of a feast. On this image the Mitre and the Sun feasting over the killed bull are shown, tasting various parts of his body. One more often found image according to the author: the Mitre birth from a stone. A miter it is represented by the young man appearing from a stone with a dagger in one hand and with a torch in another. In article it is also approved that the mitraistskikh of images is one of the most characteristic also leontotsefat: the naked man's figure with the lion's head twisted with a snake or two snakes as a caduceus. In research are used the comparative analysis, classical and modern researches of mitraistsky symbolism are considered. Article shows a current state of a problem of interpretation of images from mitreum. The author draws a conclusion that, the only thing that reliably is established at interpretation of a tavroktoniya is that the bull is a sacrificial animal. And to the middle of the 1970th dominating the concept of "transfer" which is put forward by Frans Kyumon was classical. In article conclusions of Kyumon who believed are also investigated that the mitraizm represented transfer of the Persian cult on the Roman soil. Mysteries of the Mitre were according to him "the Roman form of Zoroastrianism". The author notes that in the second half of the XX century on the first place interpretation according to which astronomical and astrological symbolism have key value in Mitre mysteries in general and in a tavroktoniya, in particular moved forward. Assumed Yulens that Mitr is symbolized by Perseus's constellation which in the stellar sky is located directly over constellation of the Bull. Mikael Shpaydel offered other interpretation within astronomical approach. In his opinion, Mitr corresponds to constellation of Orion. Roger Beck criticized Shpaydel and Yulansi for bukvalistsky cartographical logic of their interpretations. According to Beck Mitr is the sun which passes through constellations. Now among the academic researchers there is no consensus concerning interpretation of tauroctony. 
Brykina Y. - Marital relationship in merchant family in the early works of A. N. Ostrovsky pp. 56-63


Abstract:  The subject of this article is the marital relations of various generations in a merchant family described in the early compositions of A. N. Ostrovsky. In the literary world, Ostrovsky holds a role of the “daily life writer” of the merchant class. His contemporaries perceived the plays of the dramaturge not just as artistic oeuvres, but also “paintings of life”. Having responded to the emerged in society interest for the life of different social classes, Ostrovsky, being well familiarized with various aspects of merchant life, made it open for the wide audience. Dramaturge’s plays were considered as sketches from the daily life, and established a new stereotype in the perception of merchants. The goal of this work consists in determination of the level of authenticity in depicting one of the personal aspects of a merchant family – the marital relationship. The author examines the descriptions of the relationship between wife and husband in the early compositions of A. N. Ostrovsky (“The Young Man's Morning”, “Celebratory Sleep Is That Before Dinner”, “The Storm”, “Picture of a Family Happiness”, etc.), as well as the reminiscences of representatives of the merchant class of the mid-XIX century). The scientific novelty of this research consists in the use of dramaturgical compositions as a historical source alongside the attempt to reveal the nature of marital relationships of the older and younger generations of the merchants over the period of 1840’s – 1860’s. The work demonstrates that the pattern of family life of the merchants of older generation, described in the early works of Ostrovsky, was based on the traditional principle taking its roots from “Domostroy” – full authority of the head of family and servile obedience of the wife. Marital relations of the younger representatives of the merchants were more diverse. Memoirs of the representative of merchant class of this time are extremely poor in description of the relationship between husband and wife, which can be explained either by the desire to keep their life private, or in lack of vivid memories.  
Evseev V.N., Makasheva S.Z. - Traditional costume of the Starozhily of Ob-Irtysh North (late XIX early XX century) pp. 63-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the traditional costume of the descendants of the Russian Settlers of Eastern Siberia – Starozhily, namely Ob-Irtysh North, which elements have been formed for over three hundred years by the XIX century. The author examines such factors of development of the festive and casual, female and male clothing as the natural and climatic peculiarities, elements of other ethnic groups emerging in a certain environment and substantiated by the communication with other indigenous peoples of Ob North, as well as the influence of fashion at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. Based on the historical-typological method, the author applies systemic approach towards the description of traditional elements and specificities of costume of the Starozhily of Ob-Irtysh North, verifying with the reference to the studies of experts of everyday life and culture of the population of Ob North of this time. Folk clothing of the Starozhily of the Northwestern part of Trans-Urals inherited mostly the traditions of Northern Russian type of clothing, retaining the national elements of casual and festive garments. Casual and work clothing was greatly influence by the costume of indigenous peoples of the region, mostly it regards to winter clothing of indigenous communities, which generated a mixed (polyethnic) type of winter clothing of the Starozhily. The ceremonial costume did not undergo any transformations. Festive garments retained national traditions; however, at the turn of the centuries it was losing the distinct national attributes. The cause lied in the new realities of life and culture: polyethnic composition of regional population, fashion dictate (in clothing), variety of imported clothes at the northern market, as well as the ability to choose manufactured clothes.
Serebryakova E.G. - The value of social action in axiology and self-consciousness of the Soviet nonconformists of the 1960s 1970s pp. 73-79


Abstract: The object of this research is the self-consciousness of the Soviet liberal intelligentsia of the 1960’s – 1970’s. The subject of this research is the axiology of community, implemented within the social behavioral practices. The goal lies in characterizing the basic value within nonconformist axiology. The author believes that such value was the socially responsible action. For achieving the set goal, the author determines the semantics of the concept of “socially responsible action” in self-consciousness of the Soviet nonconformists; reveals the motivation for social actions; as well as assesses the role of social actions in axiology of the community. The research materials contains the reminiscences and diaries of intelligentsia of the “Thaw” era. The conclusion is made that the “action” is a meaning-making concept in axiology and self-consciousness of nonconformists; its semantics implied the generous and selfless action, driven by responsibility of fate of the country, and the desire to demonstrate their civic engagement. The category of “action” allowed the nonconformists to identify themselves and the members of the community. The propensity to a responsible action was considered as fundamental person’s social characteristics that defines their behavioral model, goals and aspirations of the individual and collective activity.
Kandaurova T.N. - The Russian businessmen of XIX the beginning of the XX centuries: whether the encyclopedia of one family is possible? pp. 86-99


Abstract: The object of research is the families of the Russian businessmen (Aprikosov, Botkin, Bakhrushin, Tretyakov, Mamontov, etc.) who were involved not only in the field of industrial production, trade and banking, but also in the sphere of development of Russian culture and social sphere of the post-reform period. In the article the possibility of formation of encyclopedias of one family which made the significant contribution to development of Russian culture is considered. Such kind of encyclopedic practice can be of interest as in respect of preparation of reference works, and widening of information field of historical and cultural research. The methods of historical cultural research were used. The principle of historicism and separate elements of the comporative method were used as well. The author's contribution was the analysis of format of the encyclopedic edition devoted to families of the Russian merchants and businessmen including the analysis of possibilities of representation of various information massifs, sections and blocks which will allow to reflect the main stages of life and activity of big families and their certain representatives. Teoretical and methodological bases of possibility of the encyclopedic edition devoted to a separate family were proposed.
Sertakova E.A. - The Concept of the City in Russian Culture pp. 97-126


Abstract: Object of research - a city concept in the context of history of the Russian culture. The analysis of researches in the field of the concept "concept" is carried out, various theories of a concept are considered. The concept of the city reveals through integration of various definitions of the city, its understanding in annalistic and works of painting of Old Russian culture. Modern theories of the city as welfare phenomenon are considered. The understanding of the city as cultural space is offered, genesis of modern culturological understanding of the city in the context of the analysis of Old Russian chronicles and picturesque miniatures is considered. The main method - the analysis of concepts (Yu.S. Stepanov's technique, A.A. Sitnikova). The terminological analysis of the concept "city" is used, elements of cultural researches (N. P. Koptseva's technique), the art criticism analysis of texts of Old Russian art (V. I. technique of Zhukovsky) are applied. Scientific novelty of work consists in integration of culturological, conceptual, art criticism methods of research. The Old Russian understanding of a concept "city" on material of the analysis of concrete Old Russian picturesque miniatures is specified. The synthetic culturological methodology connected with synthesis of theoretical and applied methods of cultural researches is used. The conceptual analysis of the city is supplemented with the art criticism analysis of works of art.
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