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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 06/2021
Contents of Issue є 06/2021
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Loshchenkov A.V. - Classes and texts in the curriculum of Drepung Loseling Monastic University pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.36985

Abstract: This article examines the system of education in the philosophical college of Drepung Loseling Monastic University (India), introduces into the scientific discourse a full list of subjects and titles of the texts with their identification by the collected works of Indian and Tibetan authors posted on the digital platform TBRC (Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center). The primary sources and commentarial literature are determined. The learning process begins with the preliminary study of logic and epistemology, proceeding with the five great treatises that are core of the curriculum. The article combines classical textual approach and contextual analysis, with consideration of the Buddhist commentarial tradition; as well as methods of analytical comparison, structural and content classification. The novelty of this research lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of the previously unexplored system of education and its study guides. It is established that the monastery relies on the study guides compiled by Panchen Sonam Drakpa, as well as other prominent Tibetan authors – Je Tsongkhapa, Gendun Drub and Sherab Sangpo. The main method for digesting the material is the debates. Although with immigration of the Tibetans to India and reestablishment of Loseling College the curriculum structure was preserved, there are also innovations due to adding several grades and classes on the grammar and history of the Gelug School.
Culture and science
Zubanova N. - Alexei Vasilyevich Filippov and the State Museum of Ceramics pp. 13-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.37013

Abstract: This article refers to previously unknown pages in the history of State Museum of Ceramics – its functioning as an industrial museum. The transformation of the Museum of Porcelain Art into the “industrial” State Museum of Ceramics took place in conditions of escalating discussion on the need for creating "industrial art” in the USSR. One of the initiators of such direction was the ceramic artist A. V. Filippov. His name earlier was not associated with the State Museum of Ceramics; however, Filippov contributed to the emergence of art-industrial laboratory in the museum structure, which not only experimented with manufacturing glazes and ceramic mixtures, but also set the production process. The novelty of this article lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of previously unknown archival documents, which allows tracing the history of origin of the art and ceramic laboratory. It was deemed that the structural division was opened in the State Museum of Ceramics. However, the laboratory was originally founded by A. V. Filippov at the Faculty of Ceramics of the Russian State Art and Technical School, then transferred to the Institute of Silicate Chemistry, and only in 1928 transferred from the Institute to the museum. The establishment of the laboratory has prompted a significant shift in the vector of development of the museum towards instusrial museum. It is also proven that Filippov developed the concept of exhibitory-manufacturing department in the museum, which included educational activity with interactive elements. These museum competencies would be in demand in the world museum practice only by the late XX century, which determines the activity of the State Museum of Ceramics during 1920s as innovative.
Architecture and design
Pushkareva T.V., Ivanova E.Y., Utkina I.V. - Architectural model through the prism of cultural-historical tradition and new technologies pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.37053

Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive research of the architectural model as a cultural phenomenon in cultural-historical dimension since its origin to the latest technological solutions applied in modern architectural modeling. Research methodology is based on the structural-functional and semiotic approaches. The analysis of historical-cultural and modern development of architectural model reveals the five sociocultural functions fulfilled by the architectural model in professional activity, society and culture: professional planning and coordination of architectural project; presentation of the project to customer; commemoration of the outstanding results of human activity; educational engineering; art modeling, namely within the framework of the ensemble type of stenographic art.  It is demonstrated that since the beginning of the XXI century, the main function of architectural model – improvement of the project – intertwines with digital modeling for the most part. However, the presentational, commemorative, educational and artistic functions of the architectural model continue to be implemented in actual material, scaling up the distribution and improving the professional methods and techniques of implementation. Analysis is conducted on the role of 3D- printing for the development of modern architectural model. The conclusion is made that the architectural model is a universal form of retaining and transmitting cultural experience, the possibilities of which are not diminished by the advancement of digital technologies and virtual reality. The relevance of architectural model in modern world is associated with the unique quality of the phenomenon- to give a person an enticing illusion of symbolic appropriation of space. Digitalization of the society, professional activity, and education expands the needs for architectural modeling, and simultaneously provides new opportunities for implementation of a number of sociocultural functions of the architectural model on a new level.
Culture and cultures
Shumov M.V. - Evolution of the Russian film festival movement: trends, forms, themes, and genres of children and adult amateur filmmaking in the XX Ц XXI centuries pp. 34-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.37160

Abstract: The subject of this research of this article is the trends, forms, themes and genres of children and adult amateur filmmaking on the context of development of the national film festival movement. The author traces  the evolution of the Russian film festival movement, which is reflected in trends, organizational forms, themes and genres of children, mixed and adult amateur filmmaking in the XX – XXI centuries. Methodological framework of this research is comprised of the dynamics of formation of the experience of emotional-value perception of the visual image of reality (B. M. Nemensky), content analysis, comparative, genre-thematic, statistical, historical-culturological analysis of the themes and genres of works of amateur filmmaking of the Soviet and post-perestroika periods presented at film festivals. As a result of the conducted research, the author divides the traditional filmmaking into enthusiasts of cinemagorahic art and amateur videographers; outlines the organizational forms and development trends of the Russian film festival movement; highlights the thematic peculiarities of modern amateur filmmakers that consist in the successive, traditional, new and lost themes of children and adult amateur films. The traditional amateur film and modern amateur video genres of screen works are determined. The novelty of this research lies in nontraditional approach, as well as comprehensive analysis of the problem of modern development of the amateur film festival movement. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) the division of traditional amateur filmmaking into two groups: enthusiasts of traditional cinematographic art and amateur videographers – creation of the works of new and traditional themes is substantiated by sociocultural peculiarities of modern development of the amateur film festival movement; 2) It is noted that the lost thematic groups, such as the Soviet legacy, would be revived in the works of modern authors; 3) there is an important feature in the development of modern amateur videography in the context of film festival movement and establishment of the new genres.
Palatkin V.V. - Modern approaches towards the study of food culture in foreign scientific discourse pp. 49-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.34248

Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern scientific discourse on food culture, while the object is the foreign approaches towards the study of food culture. Research dedicated to food culture is a crucial part of modern scientific discourse. The goal of this article lies in determination of the key approaches towards the study of food culture. The majority of foreign researchers claim that the modern study of nutrition shifted towards examination of the communicative aspects of food consumption (identity, cultural symbolism, social activity, etc.). From year to year, food and its consumption are explored by mass media and non-specialists as a form of art, leisure, source of social status, as well as method to express social / global differences, which manifests in the growing number of “trendy” food practices, magazine and newspaper publications, video blogs, cooking shows, etc. The author’s special contribution consists in outlining the three main approaches towards the study of nutrition: natural scientific, anthropological, and sociological. The natural scientific approach is associated with the basic principle of vitality of nutrition for people, which at the present stage is turning into a cult of healthy eating. The anthropological approach is based on determination of the anthropic characteristics of nutrition and is ramified and multidisciplinary. A special place is assigned to culturological direction. The sociological approach is focused of revelation of the role of alimentary culture in strengthening of social ties, social differentiation and integration on the micro- and macro levels. However, due to broadening of the research field related to nutrition, such classification can be elaborated.
Culture of the mundane
Levandovskii A.N. - Everyday life of the Sakhalin exiles reflected in their songs and poems pp. 62-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.35081

Abstract: This article examines the everyday life and mentality of the Sakhalin exiles based on their songs and poems, using the historical-comparative and historical-genetic methods. This gives a different perspective on these problems, since the sources created by the exiles were not widely used. One of the few examples is the memoirs of I. P. Yuvachev and articles of L. Y. Sternberg and B. O. Pilsudsky. However, they could not be referred to as ordinary prisoner, unlike the creators of many hard labor songs and poems. In the course of research, the author determines that although there was virtually no original song culture on Sakhalin, however, it was replaced by the rich culture of versification, which alongside the common motifs of home, love and the hard fate of the exiles, touched upon the characteristic local problems. The author assumes that such state of affairs was caused by the overall atmosphere of distrust and reticence prevalent on the island. This explains the high popularity of poems, since they could be written for a narrow circle of friends or stored inside the desk, unlike songs, which were supposed to be performed for a wide audience.
Styles, trends, schools
Tanyushina A.A. - The landmark nature of visual art in of Weimar Germany and the principle of visual narrative pp. 69-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.34441

Abstract: The subject of this research is the art practices of Weimar Germany, first and foremost displayed in photomontage works of the Dadaist artists, as well as paintings and photographic compositions of the representatives of “New Objectivity” since the early 1920s until coming to power of the Nazi in 1933. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the heightened interest of modern researchers in the cultural processes of the early XX century, which had a significant impact upon the establishment of modern visual imagery system. Within the framework of study, the author also touched upon the problem of assimilation of modern art practices associated to the integration of art into all spheres of social life. The interpretation of this trend is one of the most relevant vectors of modern art history. The novelty of this work lies in the use of complex methodology that implies the unity of socio-analytical and philosophical-anthropological approaches, as well as the method of structural-semiotic analysis that leans on both classical theories and works of the contemporary art historians and culturologists of post-structuralism (P. McBride, R. Krauss, B. Buchloh, P. Stettler, and others.). The result of the conducted research lies in determination of interinfluence of photomontage practices of the Dadaists and the art of “New Objectivity”, which clearly demonstrate the “landmark” nature of the works created during the indicated historical period. The acquired conclusions may be valuable for further research of the German art of “New Realism”, reflected in the works of the artists of “New Objectivity” and “Magic Realism”, and as well as the upcoming trends in art of the XX century.
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