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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 04/2020
Contents of Issue є 04/2020
Fine arts
Wang J. - Works of the artist Zeng Fanzhi in the dialogue of traditions of Western European and Chinese painting pp. 1-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.32802

Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the works of a contemporary artist Zeng Fanzhi in the context of dialogue of traditions of Western European and Chinese painting. The author reviews the stages of formation of this original artistic manner that combines different stylistic approaches and techniques; reveals the key artistic peculiarities of his works – from referring to Western expressionism to formation of an individual style. A detailed analysis is conducted on the principles of conceptual art of Zeng Fanzhi realized in the use of meaningful images and symbols, such as “masks”. The author examines the methods of abstract painting in the works of Chinese artist reflected in the technique of “chaotic brush”, which is based on the expressive linear abstractions. In the period after 2018, which marks the period of experimental painting, Zeng Fanzhi combines the artistic methods of Paul Cézanne with the concept of traditional Chinese art, with the “found object” technique, offering a completely new interpretation of the works of Chinese classical painting. The article discusses the specificities of linear constructs and brush strokes in the artist’s works for determining the features common to his works of various periods. A conclusion is made that the paintings of Zeng Fanzhi represents a visual manifestation of harmonious interaction of the Western European and Chinese art tradition. Each stylistic approach used by Zeng Fanzhi demonstrates a profound understanding of painting, reveals his creative interpretation of artistic principles of Western European art that formed as a result of personal experience and high level of education. Chinese painting entered the era of non-modernism, remaining in many ways similar and simultaneously different from the art of Western modernism and postmodernism.
Culture and cultures
Zabrodina E.A. - УSacred TheologyФ of Nicholas of Cusa in the portraits and altar paintings of the artists of the Early Netherlandish painting pp. 21-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33349

Abstract: The subject of this research is the processes that unfolded in the spiritual sphere of the Netherlandish society of the XV century, which can be assessed by the treatises of the prominent philosopher and figure of the Catholic Church Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464), as well as by the images, scenes, artistic techniques used by Netherlandish artists of that time such brothers van Eyck, Rogier van Weyden, Hans Memling, Petrus Christus, Hieronymus Bosch, Robert Kampin, and others. Main attention is given to the comparison of the views of Nicholas of Cusa, as well as the manner and ideological program that can be seen in the work of the XV century artists. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of just how the views of Nicholas of Cusa correlate to the worldview of the people of the XV century – transitional period from the Medieval Era to the Modern Age. Perceptions of the Netherlanders of that time of the world and people’s place within it, of divine predestination and everyday life are reflected in the orders for a new type of altar compositions and portraits. The conducted analysis uses specific examples to reveal the theme of commonness of the worldview in the examined chronological period. Comparison of the paintings and thoughts of Nicholas of Cusa demonstrate the commonness of views that reflect the transformational era in the history of art.
Culture and civilization
Tuzovskii I.D. - Global holiday as a cultural phenomenon of the Digital Age pp. 33-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.31767

Abstract: The subject of this research is modern celebratory culture in the context of impact of globalization processes upon festivities. The author explores a new phenomenon that emerged in the early XXI century – a “global holiday” within the framework of sociocultural transformations related to transition of humanity towards the Digital Age, and formation of the global information space. Special attention is given to the following aspects: creation of media and post-mythological global holidays of the Digital Age, and transformation of the traditional holiday into new metanational forms. The methodological foundation for studying the holidays that received the status of "global" in modern culture became the adaptation of “head page method” applied in sociological, cultural and futurological research and sociocultural monitoring, including overt observation. The conclusion is made that modern culture marks the formation of several types of global holidays that carry metanational character: the first group includes media-produced holidays associated with post-folklore and post-mythology of modern society, or represent celebratory events as award ceremonies in the field of politics, art and science; the second group includes ethnic traditional holidays that received the global status (Halloween, St. Patrick's Day, Mexican Day of the Dead, Holi “Festival of Spring”, etc.). The phenomenon of global holidays should be taken into account in creation of the national strategies of cultural policy, and the global holiday itself may become one of the "soft power" tools in the Digital Age.
Culture and science
Tun D. - The peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia and China pp. 49-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33469

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia and China. Based on comparative analysis of the studies dedicated to history, religion, language and mentality of both countries, the author reveals the key characteristics of cultural peculiarities of Russia and Chin. The interest towards this topic is substantiated by the existing cross-cultural contacts between Russia and China at various levels, as well as the factors and role of contiguity of different cultures in the period of globalization and cultural integration. The goal of this research consists in comparative analysis of the peculiarities of development of Chinese and Russian culturology. The author determines the peculiarities of development of the Russian and Chinese cultures, which allows forecasting the future and potential of both. The conclusion  is substantiated that Russian culture bears the traits characteristic to Western civilizations, while Chinese culture is typically Eastern. It is established that the peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia are closely related to education, and thus are of integrative nature (a combination of philosophical, sociological and psychological positions). The specifics of culturology in China is reflected in the fact that it is based on the ideas of Marxism, Neo-Confucianism and axiology. The conducted research contains the scientific novelty, since many scholars justifiably place emphasis on the cross-cultural dialogues. Namely these processes contribute to deepening the existing knowledge on peculiarities of Russian and Chinese cultures.
Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture
Krushinovskaya E.G. - Technification of human body as a practice of removing biological restrictions pp. 65-76

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.32693

Abstract:  This article is dedicated to comprehension of the idea of technification of body, as well as practical results and consequences of its implementation. The author examines the emergence of individual dimensionality of body, its relevant perception, as well as goals and meanings of the heightened technoscientific attention toward it. The idea of radical transformation of a human, is acquiring the status of feasible, and the purpose of such transformation consists in elimination of natural principles, and thus, predetermination of a human through gradual technification of body — imposition of high technologies for modification of its external and internal structure. A human is essentially opposed to the natural world, his initial biological “insufficiency” assigns the ability to transcend the givenness, which underlies the establishment and evolution of culture. Such circumstance in a certain way is the cause of instrumental attitude to the body, which is of biological origin. In the process of cultural development, body acquires the status of personal property, which means liberation from its nonhuman determination. In the modern context, the aforementioned trends supported by technological progress and transhumanist expectations, result in the fact that body as a "soma", as a local autopoietic biosystem is being abated. The elimination of the purpose of human body set by nature is interpreted as “self-sovereignty"; however, the abolition of natural determinism implies the emergence of technological determinism.  
Theory and methodology of communication
Kalina N.D. - Factors of visual communication as understanding of the processes of designing cultural artifacts pp. 77-91

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.32988

Abstract: The subject of this research is visual communication. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the theory of designing visual culture artifacts in the images that possess communicative potential. Images are structured within a system of interrelated meanings that form holistic mages vividly illustrate semantic models to the people, which is the condition for easier visual perception of the form and content of the artifacts. The theory includes the three factors of visual communication: structuring of aesthetically expressive forms within the system of conventional meanings of the content; design of the spatial structure of artifacts using the universal cultural geometric language and artistic interpretations; creation of culturally significant information in the images using cognitive, artistic and symbolic signs of cultural languages. The novelty of consists in application of constructivist approach towards discrete encoding of the artifacts of visual culture within the system of meanings that represent content through the synthesis of shape of an aesthetically expressive image. Design education carries out a research of application of constructivist approach towards design of visual artifacts. The research results depended on the exhibition of the joint works of students from experimental and other students. The exhibition demonstrated that the works performed in architectonic style attract attention of the audience more than the works of other students. A constructivist approach towards design education contributes to optimization of visual communication with people.
Culture of the body
Grinko I.A., Shevtsova A.A. - Anthropology of the mannequin: traps and prospects in the museum exhibition pp. 92-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33547

Abstract: This article is dedicated to specificity of using mannequins in the museum exhibitions. Emphasis is made on the nuances of selection and preparation of a museum mannequin from the perspective of anthropology, and primarily such aspects as anthropological correspondence and symbolic component that allow turning the mannequin from a technical element into a constituent part of exhibition, which would translate the elements of intangible cultural heritage. The goal this research consists in the analysis of potential risks associated with neglecting the specificity of mannequin as a constituent part of museum exhibition. Field materials acquired from modern exhibitions in Russian and foreign museums served as the source material for this work. The main research methods became he case study and comparative analysis. It is concluded that the choice of mannequins for exhibitions should be conducted with consideration of actual anthropometry of the historical and cultural groups; if the mannequin is not impersonalized, its phenotype should be close to its ethnic group. If the listed above is impossible, the best option lies in deanthropologization of the mannequin; otherwise, they devalue the artistic level of exhibition and worth of the originals. Static mannequins with evident anthropomorphic features are perceived rather negatively, especially in a direct visual contact. Mannequins are capable of retranslating multiple body techniques as the elements of intangible cultural heritage, and this aspect should not be neglected. Mannequins can also be used in exhibition scenography.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Karagodin A.V., Petrova M.M. - Novyi Mishor Ц first country-style resort on the South Coast of Crimea (1898-1920): reconstruction of sociocultural history pp. 103-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.32969

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of the first of country-style resort appeared on the South Coast of Crimea at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries on the lands of country estates of New Mishor belonged to Shuvalov-Dolgorukov family. The phenomenon of country-style construction on the South Coast of Crimes, which starting point was the foundation of the Novyi Mishor, is viewed in the context of the processes of economic and sociocultural modernization of Russian society, formation of self-identification mechanisms of the emerging “middle class”, and new urban culture. Special attention is given to the period from 1917 to 1920, when the cultural figures left the capital and resided in the villages of Novyi Mishor. Based on examination the body of historical sources, many of which introduced to the scientific discourse for the first time, the author formed the database of villages and countryside residents of Novyi Mishor. A vast array of archival funds, reference literature, sources of personal provenance (memoirs, correspondence), and visual sources was attracted in the course of research. The novelty of consists in establishment of identities and social status of the residents of country resort of Novyi Mishor, determination of a range of sources for its further research, reconstruction of chronology of the development of this resort, details of everyday life and mentality traits of the residents, among which were the prominent figures of culture and art of Russia of that time – writers, actors, painters, scholars, and philanthropists.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Dianov S.A., Dianova Y.V. - Geocultural branding of the city: УVerkhokamskaya ManorФ pp. 128-140

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33134

Abstract: This article gives a perspective on geocultural potential of the city of Vereshchagino of Perm Region, which is appropriate to use for implementation of creative scenarios in development of modern urban environment. The object of this research is the urban cultural landscape, while the subject is a promising brand image “Verkhokamskaya Manor”. In 2023, the city, which in the popular scientific publishers received a name of the “Western Gates of Ural”, would celebrate the 125th anniversary. The article analyzes the problems typical to a provincial city, such demographic, communal, and sociocultural. It is suggested to introduce a progressive color palette into the visual image of urban environment. Special attention is given to historical and cultural aspects of the development of phenomenon of asceticism on the Vereshchagin land. The main conclusion lies in the thesis that Vereshchagino has a unique chance to become a comfortable city for living, a spot for the people who maintain and restore socio-historical uniqueness of economic structure of the country though active ascetic practices. This author's initiative is based on the theory and methodology of geocultural branding of cities and territories (D. N. Zamyatin). The described brand image “Verkhokamskaya Manor” includes visible and hidden meanings of creativity and asceticism, which manifest as mental basis in the author's strategy model of geocultural branding of the city of Vereshchagino.
Art and Art History
Nerovnaia T.E. - Modern piano duet: a retrospective analysis of performing arts pp. 141-150

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33379

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of the art of piano duets since the middle of the XX century to the present day. Leaning on the retrospective analysis of ensemble uniqueness, an attempt is made to determine the key trends in artistic activity of piano duets of that time. The goal of this work consists in the analysis of the types of professional duet ensembles and their peculiarities, substantiated by the mobile form of concerts; study of the relevant questions of renewal of the repertoire; classification of piano duets by “performing specialization”: educational and theatricalized or "eccentric"’ as well as outlining the development prospects of duet performing arts. Research methodology is based on the comparative, logical, and retrospective methods. The retrospective method allowed defining the criteria for ensemble specialization of piano duets in accordance with the duet or duo principle, as well as the variety of educational duets based on the repertoire preferences. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that retrospective analysis applicable to modern duet performance, on the one hand revealed a tendency towards preserving and augmenting best traditions in performing culture of the piano due, while on the other – towards seeking of new, creative in their idea forms of ensemble art. For the first time the source of the new repertoire, which includes original compositions for four-handed ensemble, is presented by annotated catalogue of the American scholar K. McGraw (revised 2016 edition). The conclusion is made that tremendous potential of the genre (the ability to multi-level dialogue, theatrical expressiveness of visual image of the ensemble, and its special telegenic skills) contributes to the successful development of piano duet in music industry. Expanding the boundaries of the traditional concert space, members of the ensemble appose to the aesthetics of show or performance, which testifies to the experimental nature of piano duets in the first decades of the XXI century. As the development prospects, the author outlines the pursuit of new ways for popularization of the genre, research work on broadening the existing duet repertoire, and as well as potential creation of the Internet platform for centralizing the global repertoire of piano ensembles.
Music and music culture
Tsybikova-Danzyn I.A. - Realization of ethnic traditions in piano music of the Buryat composer Y. I. Irdyneev pp. 151-161

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33027

Abstract:  One of the relevant tasks of the modern science of music is the examination of ethnic cultures. The object of this research is the piano music of the Buryat composer Yuri Irineevich Irdyneev. The subject is the peculiarities of realization of ethnic traditions in his piano compositions. The article analyzes opuses for the piano created during the composer's study at the conservatory, attributed to his early period. Based on the analysis of piano compositions, which became a so-called “creative laboratory” of Y. I. Irdyneev, the author traces the evolution of his style: since the first experiments of working with folk material in the piano cycle "Six Children Musical Compositions", through the reference to a romantic genre in the cycle "Three Improvisations", to a monumental conclusion of his creative pursuits – “The Piano Sonata” (1971). For understanding the uniqueness of composer's style, the carried out a comprehensive analysis of piano compositions, which includes examination of each piece from the perspective intonation, tonal and harmonious development, peculiarities of imagery sphere and dramaturgy. Emphasis is made on the specifics of performing interpretation of the ethnic piano compositions. The novelty lies in determination of systemic correlations of Y. I. Irdyneev's piano music with the national and European music traditions. It is concluded that the uniqueness of his piano heritage consists in the profound and multifaceted realization of ethnic traditions in the piano compositions. The author underlines the defining role of Buryat folklore, traditional festivities, songs, dances, imitation of the sound of folk instruments, philosophical and worldview constants in the formation of composer's style. The piano music of Y. I. Irdyneev is known for the original palette of artistic images, which evokes rich emotions and associations. The composer employs the traditional genres along with modern compositional techniques, bringing individuality by means of intonation-thematic material, Buryat ethnic origins and modality, as well as ways of working with thematic material. Yuri Irdyneev has enriched Buryat music with a number of new techniques of musical expression (sonorous consonances, clusters, dodecaphony), and significantly contributed to the piano educational and pedagogical repertoire for the music educational institutions of Buryatia. 
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