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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Culture and Cult
Arapov A.V. - Metaphorical Language in Sacral Texts pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.1.10757

Abstract: The subject matter of the reserach is the metaphorical language in sacred texts. The term "metaphor" has an old story. Aristotle defined a metaphor as a figure of speech similar to comparison but in which there are no sheaves "as", "is similar" comparisons expressing an essence. The metaphor, unlike allegory, isn't intended for bit-by-bit interpretation, it can be understood only as whole. It has no the unambiguous key, allowing to receive the unique parallel deciphered text entirely expressing sense of a metaphor. The metaphor stores in itself diverse potentialities of the meanings which are staticizing in the course of her perception and interpretation. In work the social and philosophical analysis, the comparative analysis, the psychological analysis, and also general scientific methods are used. The comparative analysis allowed to define the general and special in structure and contents of sacral texts. Thanks to its application the main types of metaphors and the symbols which are universal for sacral texts of various traditions were revealed, and also to define specifics of their realization in various texts. Possibility of use of metaphors for the description Sacral, is based on analogy between Sacred and wordly, God and the person. The metaphor leans on known of empirical experience, just as a metaphysical discourse – on known of a rational reasoning. The metaphor and metaphysics recognizes that the relations of God and the person, God and the world can be described in terms taken of human life. Such opportunity, first, relies on analogy between the Creator and his creation which in medieval philosophy was called as "Analogia entis" - "analogy of life". If the person is an image and similarity of God, means and God can be considered in a certain degree just like the person. Secondly, possibility of a metaphor is based on possibility of dialogue between the person and God, carried out by means of a prayer and reading the Scriptus. If good luck it is possible to carry on dialogue, so it at least in a certain aspect is the personality. For the avraamicheskikh of religions the lichnostnost of God is self-evident. But even in an advayta-vedant the Brahman acts not only as the impersonal absolute, but also as personal God (Ishvara). And in those religions where it isn't supposed existence of uniform personal God, dialogue between the person and separate deities is possible. The known anthropomorphism of metaphors shouldn't confuse us. Actions of God understood as "You" or "personal God", are understood also as acts of man, comprehended through paradigms of human activity. For the religious person these paradigms are set by actions of God and other protagonists belonging to the transcendental world. For critically adjusted thinker opposite, the description of actions of the Deity is transfer to the transcendental sphere of the human relations. Anyway allocation of such paradigms of interpersonal interaction by means of which is lawful the relations of God and the world are described. We don't apply for the solution of metaphysical questions and we are limited only to the statement about correlation existence between paradigms of human activity and the human relations on the one hand and the description of actions of divine persons of sacral texts and their relations with people on the other hand. 
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Koptseva N.P. - Modern Cultural Practices to Preserve Ethnic Identity of Northern, Siberian and Far Eastern Indigenous Peoples in the Republic of Buryatia pp. 17-30

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.1.10989

Abstract: Object of research is to study processes of ethnic and cultural identification and self-identification, the characteristic North for indigenous people and Siberia, living in the Republic of Buryatia. The problem of research specific Post-Soviet the practician of preservation of a unique cultural heritage of the indigenous small people is put. Legal mechanisms, information cultural practicians, art cultural practicians are considered. It is suggested that modern practicians of preservation of ethnocultural identity of indigenous people of the North and Siberia are genetically connected with the Soviet cultural policy. Still key role belongs to state regulation which is carried out not so much by means of law-making, how many by means of activity of executive bodies of the power in subjects of the Russian Federation. The main method - field researches in places of compact accommodation of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East under the leadership of the author in 2010-2013. As important methods poll and questioning, processing of results of questioning, focus group, expert interviews act. As a result of the conducted research the following conclusions, the contents elements of scientific novelty were drawn:1 . In the Republic of Buryatia of a measure of the state support of ethnocultural identichnost of the indigenous small people by means of legal mechanisms carry "secondary" character in relation to the federal legislation. The republic has no own unique regional legislation connected with preservation of a unique cultural heritage of indigenous people, measures of the state support of the native languages of these people. However this situation means that support of processes of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in this subject of the Russian Federation is carried out by means of other mechanisms, which, probably, not especially нуждают in special legal guarantees.2 . For a state policy on support of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in the Republic of Buryatia the specific Post-Soviet practicians connected by are characteristic that the executive body of the government – the Ministry of Culture – assumes the organization, coordinating, the budgetary financing of a number of the actions which sources of carrying out root in the Soviet cultural policy. These are calendar national holidays, support of national creativity, amateur performances. It is difficult to tell what would be processes of ethnocultural identity without these active actions of the state. It is possible to assume that assimilation processes which are fixed by demographers, would be much more intensive, than now.3 . The state language policy in the Republic of Buryatia in relation to the native languages of indigenous people is also connected not with law-making, and with support existing pedagogical and information the practician on teaching of the native languages at schools, and also on functioning of information resources in the Evenki language. The Soyot language is in more difficult situation, than Evenki. It is obvious that the cultural heritage of Soyots needs more intensive state protection, than now.
Applied culturology
Shchuplenkov N.O., . - The Russian Language of the Emigre Community of the 'First Wave' as the Method to Preserve National Self-Identification pp. 31-57

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.1.10686

Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the Russian immigration speech of the 'first wave' that reflect profound changes in the Russian language and national identity of their descendants at the end of the XX century. Today many researchers speak of a certain gap in conceptual grounds and emphasize the need for reconsideration and new undestanding of the old conceptual approaches to the analysis of the phenomenon 'Russian immigration'. First of all, this is the question about what terms and categories the cultural and historical phenomenon of the diaspora should be described in. Should it be described in terms of national history and/or collective memory or in terms of trans-national history being developed nowadays? Their desire to return to Russia predetermined the constant and varied in form and method battle of the Russian migration for preservation of their national identity. Culture had the primary importance in this battle. Attempts of the Russian diaspora to preserve their ethnocultural identity created grounds for the idea of the national rebirth. That was the idea about the revival of the previous, prevolutionary Russia and entailed a strong socio-cultural dominant including the concept of the national unity (Sobornost in Orthodoxy), service to the community (immigration community understood as the 'small homeland'), sacrifice and protection of the previous national and cultural traditions. 
Culture of the body
Popova O. - 'Be a Body' or 'Have a Body', 'Be a Project' or 'Have a Project' pp. 58-76

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.1.10961

Abstract: The article is devoted to the main models of representations of the physical in ethics and philosophy. In particular, the author of the article analyzes the three approaches to the phenomenon of corporeity which she conditionally calls paradigms. These approaches are: 1) the paradigm of being (existential or holistic approach to the physical); 2) the paradigm of possession (instrumental or functional understanding of the physical) 3) the paradigm of 'construction' (body as a projet or a technological artifact). Each of the model has a certain content and presents a particular understanding of Self in the world as well as the image of one's body reflected in the physical. By using the historical and philosophical approach and the method of ethical analysis, the author shows how the dialectics of being, possession and construction develop in the real life of a modern human. The author concludes that at the epoch of the intensive technological development of the body techniques  as the result of external soio-cultural transformation of the biotic substrate is constantly transforming into body techniques as the result of the symbiosis of life and technology. Instrumentalization of human body by the means of technical devices and biotechnologies shift the process of construction of the subjective into construction of the physical. 
Architecture and design
Nazarova L. - Current Trends of Style Formation in Design of Museum Web Sites pp. 77-90

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1618.2014.1.11061

Abstract: Composition of museum web sites is aimed at organization of art elements (text, two- and three-dimensional graphics, audio- and video materials) and creation of the hierarchy of their components. This allows to harmonize the space of the multimedia product as a creative art, to formulate and specify the image and sound models and predict special features of the consumer culture. For a designer it is very important to express their creative intention by using the graphic arts and make it understandable for the audience. The subject matter of the research described in the article is the designing of a museum web site as a multimedia product. The focus of the research is the process of designing of a musem web site as a multimedia product and criteria for evaluating the design of a museum web site as a multimedia product including: the structure of the scenario (multi-variant and non-linear), functions (easy to use navigation, good usability of websites) , correspondence of the multimedia design to the creative intention and stylistic elements of oneof the three paradigms of culture development (classic, modernism or post-modernism).  
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