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Publications of Garskova Irina Markovna
Historical informatics, 2019-3
Garskova I.M. - The "Digital Turn" in Historical Research: Long-term Trends pp. 57-75


Abstract: The article studies the relationship of several areas associated with over 50 years that quantitative methods and information technologies in humanitarian and historical research have been in use. Firstly, it is historical information science, its structure and content, which have evolved in the domestic model of this interdisciplinary domain and “historical computing” and its specificity in the European model. Secondly, these are similar areas of general humanities. Thirdly, these are relatively new fields which are more popular in the West such as digital humanities and digital History. Having analyzed Russian and foreign historiography the author studies methodological, methodical and technological issues of the formation and development of these areas, their evolutionary stages and possible prospects for the future. The results of the analysis show the dominance of the general trends of these fields both in Russia and Europe at the initial stages and their divergence over the past 15 years which is caused by the differences in their subject areas and varying degree of influence exerted by quantitative history in the 1960s-1980s.
Historical informatics, 2019-1
Garskova I.M., Simonzhenkova E.M. - Formalized Technique to Analyze Complexes of Memoir Sources pp. 169-188


Abstract: One of the phenomena that left a noticeable mark in the national history of the Soviet period was political repressions which affected all social layers. The large complex of sources of personal origin available reflects authors’ experience and their views on the events or the most significant period of their lives as well as evaluations of the repressions period. A valuable complex of memoirs has been collected on the site of the Sakharov Center. The current study aims at women’s memoirs of the site as a mass source on history of repressions. To achieve this goal one had to solve two main tasks: to describe a collective portrait of memoir female authors and analyze the entire complex of female memoirs revealing common features in their perception of camp life. Prisoners’ memoirs have not been thoroughly studied yet. The same is true as far as female memoirs are concerned. The study uses a set of analytical methods and computer technologies to create a collective portrait of memoir authors (a prosopographic database), carry out their statistical analysis and perform content analysis of the full-text base of memoirs. On the basis of the analysis undertaken, it can be argued that memoirs of female prisoners mainly describe rather the problems of everyday struggle for existence in inhuman conditions that were commonplace in the camp than human emotions which were especially painful to think about.
Historical informatics, 2018-3
Garskova I.M. - Quantitative History in 1960s Ц 1980s in the USSR and its Role in the Development of Historical Information Science pp. 7-24


Abstract: This year marks the 50th anniversary of the institutionalization of domestic quantitative history which began with the creation in 1968 under the leadership of I.D. Kovalchenko of the Commission on the Application of Mathematical Methods and Computers in Historical Research at the Branch of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Today it is necessary to once again emphasize the important role that the quantitative history has played in the development of not only historical information science, but other areas of scientific history in our country as well. The article analyzes those features of the national school of quantitative history which ensured its relevance and interaction with other interdisciplinary areas in historical research, primarily with historical information science, and which remain relevant today. The ongoing development of the Russian model of historical information science against the backdrop of the crisis of “historical computing” in the West confirms the thesis about the balance of the analytical and informational components of the Russian model which is largely ensured by interaction with quantitative history and tradition of testing new methods and technologies for processing and analyzing information of historical sources in historical research for producing meaningful results.
Historical informatics, 2018-2
Garskova I.M., Zueva V.A. - Multidimensional Fuzzy Classification in Historical and Typological Studies: Development and Test of a New Software pp. 6-26


Abstract: The current study develops a new version of the multidimensional fuzzy classification program for Windows on the basis of FuzzyClass algorithm created by the Department of Historical Information Science of Moscow State University. The previous version of the program (FuzzyClass1) was created over 30 years ago and is still widely used in historical and typological studies because fuzzy classification methods are not yet available in most standard statistical packages. The need for a new version of the program is caused by the fact that FuzzyClass1 was a DOS program and can hardly be adjusted to Windows, Mac, etc. Moreover, there is a need to make it more simple, friendly, accessible to a wide range of students and researchers. The new program was created by means of the VBA (VisualBasicforApplications) for MS Excel. The program is tested and evaluated on the basis of Russian economic history statistical sources earlier addressed to by Russian scholars. The adjustment has demonstrated similar results to previous studies which considered cadastres (pistsovye knigi) of Vorotynskiy Uezd in the 17th century. The authors have also compared the results of the new program with the results gained when typology of the European Russia guberniyas at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was carried out with the use of fuzzy classification algorithms. The comparison has demonstrated qualitatively similar results and more precise typology through FuzzyClass algorithms. Thus, the program created confirms previous results and provides new opportunities for typological research in history.
Historical informatics, 2017-4
Garskova I.M. - Network Analysis of Historiography: Dynamics of HCA Network Interregional Elements Formation pp. 112-129


Abstract: The article is the author’s second one considering network analysis of historiography of the History and Computer Association (HCA) from 1992 to 2016. The former article studied dynamics of the composition and structure of the HCA network on the level of regional historical information science centers, their problematic issues, methodology and technological aspects. The present article analyzes the structure and dynamics of an interregional group that is the basis element of the HCA network. The author studies four traditional historical information science schools (Moscow, Minsk, Barnaul and Tambov ones) as well as their interaction. The study is carried out on the basis of an information system created by the author that includes a bibliographical and a full-text database of the HCA publications. The research method is network analysis. The author makes a conclusion about further prospects to study academic ties of researchers working within the same filed gained with the help of network analysis methods and technologies. This approach allows us to study the formation of both formal and “virtual” science group. Co-authorship data provide for tracing the advent of research centers and schools of thought, their dynamics, concentration, central figures these groups are formed around. Linking information about these groups with topical sections of the works published one can see their research interests, similarity and distinctive features. 
Historical informatics, 2017-3
Garskova I.M. - Network Analysis of Historiography: Dynamics of Regional Historical Information Science Centers Formation pp. 94-115


Abstract: The article scientometrically analyses papers published under the aegis of the History and Computer Association (HCA) for a period of its 25 years from 1992 to 2016. The main research domains, as well as schools of thought and historical computer science centers, their specific character and cooperation come under review. The article is the first of two dealing with historiography network analysis. It studies the dynamics of HCA network composition and structure at the level of regional groups. The study is based on the information system developed by the author that includes a bibliographic database of HCA published papers and full-text dataset of articles and reports presented at Association’s conferences. The method employed in the network analysis. The novelty of the study is the first attempt to study thematic historiography by means of network analysis (SocialNetworkAnalysis – SNA). The results allowed the author to see the specific character of small groups of authors developing a specific field as well as larger groups which are more stable due to their multi-dimensional “profiles” The technique offered is considered promising for historiographic research.
Historical informatics, 2017-1
Garskova I.M. - The International Conference "Historical Studies in a Digital Epoch: Information Resources, Methods and Technologies" pp. 140-153


Abstract: The article aims at analyzing the reports and messages of the 15th conference of the “History and Computer” association (AIK). The comparison of conference materials with the historiography of Russian historical computer science provides for characterizing theoretical and applied problems related to the use of information technologies and mathematical methods in history as well as revealing new trends of this interdisciplinary field nowadays. The attention is primarily given to such aspects as the development and interaction of modern information technologies, professional information sources as well as analytical methods and approaches. The study employs classification analysis and comparative analysis methods of the problematic field of AIK’s conference materials in relation to research domains and schools of thought that have been formed in historical computer science for the last 25 years. The informational basis is a full-text collection and a bibliographic database of AIK’s publications. The study demonstrates that the conference topics are in line with two main domains of historical computer science: an informational one aiming at creation and employment of informational infrastructure – electronic resources, data bases, historical GIS, 3D reconstructions of historical and cultural heritage objects, and an analytical one involving historical source processing and analysis with the help of computer modeling methods, mathematical statistics, content-analysis, network analysis and spatial analysis. Interaction of these domains provides the growing number of digital on-line sources with the necessary research tools.
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