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Genesis: Historical research
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Publications of Vyazmitinov Mikhail
History magazine - researches, 2019-2
Osipov S., Vyazmitinov M., Kamalova R. - Organizational and Technical Problems in the Formation of the White Guard Award System pp. 51-61

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0609.2019.2.28672

Abstract: The research subject of this article is the issues behind the organization and technical provisions of the award institutions of various White Guard armies during the Civil War in Russia. The authors analyze the problems of administrative, production-technical and personnel nature that appeared during the development and production of award groups belonging to various White Guard formations and governments. Additionally, the approaches and possibilities of "whites" and "reds" in forming award systems are compared. The authors examine the supply channels of White Guard units and divisions of award insignia and raw materials for their production, and distinguish the specific features of the White Guard award system. The article is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity, systematics, and the methodological basis of this research is the historical-genetic method. The multilateral analysis of the many disparate objects (awards) allowed the authors to draw general conclusions about the specific problems and particularities in the White Guard award system and to highlight the elements of continuity and novelty in this system. The novelty of this study lies in the abandonment of the traditional individual-descriptive approach to award systems and the identification of common issues and approaches in White Guard governments regarding their award systems, with the emphasis being placed on organizational and production-technical difficulties. The authors point to various means of organizing the production of awards (pre-revolutionary reserves, centralized command orders, personal initiatives of unit commanders, placing orders abroad, etc.) and sources of raw materials (melting tsarist awards, confiscations of jeweler and church goods, gold reserves, etc.). The common problems of various White Movement branches were reflected in their award system: lack of a unified system, limited raw materials and production capabilities, drop in quality. It was precisely their attempts to create an award system with a limited set of resources that made the White Guard award system a unique phenomenon.
Genesis: Historical research, 2018-7
Osipov S., Vyazmitinov M., Kamalova R. - Honors and rewards in the education system of Imperial Russia (the late XVIII Ц the early XX centuries) pp. 96-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.7.26465

Abstract: The object of this research is the reward signs bestowed upon the students of secondary and higher education for academic achievements and behavior in prerevolutionary Russia (the late XVIII – the early XX centuries); stages of the establishment of reward system; marks of distinction, etc. The author underlines the versatility of educational rewards, their tangible values, as well as the value in case of employment. The authors review the mechanism of ensuring credibility of such rewards, as well as describes the particular marks of distinctions of the various higher education facilities (medals, rings, tokens, etc.). Based on analysis of the collected data with the use of historical-hermeneutic methodology, the work defines the origins, peculiarities and development stages of the rewards system. Determines its levels, and underlines the moral and material aspects. The authors systematize the records on the rewards of secondary and higher schools of Imperial Russia, turning attention to the holistic character of many of the marks of distinction (moral rewards, tangible rewards, sign of corporate solidarity). A conclusion is made on the merits of prerevolutionary rewards system due to the presence of tangible component, and advantages in recruiting for government service, etc.
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