World Politics
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Open access publishing costs > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy > Editorial board
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Publications of Kovalev Andrei Andreevich
Genesis: Historical research, 2021-12
Kovalev A.A. - History of security as a new field of Western historical science pp. 225-241


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in consideration of the history of security as a relatively new field of Western historical science. It can be achieved by solving the three interrelated tasks: 1) review of the concept of “security” as the subject of research of Western historical science; 2) analysis of the recent changes in the concepts of security that exist in modern historical science of Western countries; 3) examination of boundaries set by a particular historical era for implementation of the concept of security. Currently, even within the framework of Western historical sciences, which has systematically examined the phenomenon of security, it is difficult to speak of the existence of special history of security, although the works of the leading Western historians covered in this article, significantly contribute to examination of the security issues. Such issues are viewed through the prism of the events of world history. Analysis is conducted on the achievements of Western historical science in studying the phenomenon of security, as well as conceptual changes that have taken place within this problematic over the recent years. Any historical era establishes certain boundaries for the study and implementation of security. Western historical science has achieved considerable results in determination of the concept of “security” as the subject of historical research. Multiple humanities and social sciences explore the sphere of security; and the complex of historical disciplines examines security as an interdisciplinary concept that remains relevant throughout history of mankind. Security is a general concept, which is commonly used in historical research on the one hand; however, does not exists as an independent historical discipline. If political science, criminology, sociology, and jurisprudence, namely international relations, imply a consistent and broad field of research on security, history is yet to develop a corresponding subject category.  
Law and Politics, 2021-12
Kovalev A.A. - Conceptual interpretations of law in foreign sociology and their importance for effective public administration pp. 1-21


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in determination of the core philosophical-legal concepts in foreign social philosophy and sociology, which are relevant in modern era for the effective solution of political and administrative tasks. The article examines the views of the prominent foreign philosophers and theoreticians in the field of sociology of law (M. Weber, E. Durkheim, H. Kelsen, D. Nelken, D. Balkin, and others). In light of the uniqueness of their views, they can be encapsulated into the following perspectives: law is the order of relations between people who comprise the society, i.e. social order; politics is one of the regulators of social order, determines the relations between the government and individuals; such political order alongside the economy and culture is one of the three global social systems that are closely intertwined with each other and permanently affect each other. The essence of sociological interpretation of legal ideas can be formulated in three positions: 1) law should be understood as an aspect of social relations, since it is utterly associated with coexistence of individuals in social groups; 2) social phenomena of law should be viewed empirically, through detailed consideration of variability and continuity of social coexistence in the actual historical models, rather than in respect of idealized or abstractly imagined social conditions; 3) social phenomena should be examined systematically: from the empirical fact of social reality to socio-philosophical theory. Sociological comprehension of legal ideas methodologically expresses the own disparate and diverse characteristics of law. It must inform about the legal ideas and provide their interpretation for solving particular tasks of politics and public administration.
Sociodynamics, 2021-6
Kovalev A.A. - The idea of commonality and Western philosophical-legal concepts: history and modernity pp. 14-30


Abstract: This article discusses the idea of commonality within the system of philosophical-legal concepts through the prism of history and modernity. This problem is important for understanding the systemic nature of philosophical-legal concepts, considering that the philosophy of law throughout its conceptualization was often either replaced by the philosophy of politics or social philosophy, or veered off, virtually losing commonality with the “unified philosophy”. The research employs the components of comparative law, socio-philosophical, historical-logical, and political science analysis. The works of the foreign authors of the XIX – XX centuries served as the foundation for this research. The scientific novelty lies in the following: 1) the author establishes that the legal concept of commonality offers a means of reconsideration of the attitude of law towards the diversity of social groups and associations that characterize modern life; 2) an important trend is determined in studying the legal concept of commonality, developed for indicating the need for normative reflection of social relations based on trust; it recognizes the diversity of such relations and forms of their expression. This selected topic is relevant in modern world, as well as socio-humanistic knowledge, thus the author's approach allowed achieving the novelty of the formulated conclusions.
Philosophy and Culture, 2021-3
Kovalev A.A. - The peculiarities of dialectic of good and evil in works of the philosophers of the Early Modern Age (T. Hobbes, B. Spinoza, G. V. Leibniz) pp. 85-100


Abstract: The subject of this research is the categories of good and evil in philosophy of the representatives of the Early Modern Age (on the example of the works of T. Hobbes, B. Spinoza, and G. W. Leibniz). These philosophers conceptualized the dialectic of good and evil leaning on the shifted paradigm at the turn of the Middle Ages and the Modern Age. However, the article advances a hypothesis that despite a fundamental turn in the philosophy of the Modern Age, the prevalent n medieval philosophy dialectic of good and evil had a strong impact upon the views of the philosophers of the Early Modern Age. The research employs the dialectical method and metaphysics, which allowed viewing the categories of good and evil from the perspective of the logical-philosophical position of their contradiction, as well as revealing their initial nature and the role in human world. The novelty of this study consists in the fact that in a certain sense it explores the dual dialectic: on the one hand, it is a longtime problems of good and evil, while on the other hand, the philosophy of good and evil of the Early Modern Age is ambiguous and contradictory, when the previous paradigm is no longer relevant, although a new philosophical concept of good and evil is yet to be formed. There is a good reason why the author chos the ideas of T. Hobbes, B. Spinoza, and G. W. Leibniz – their approaches towards the problem of good and evil in the traditions of the Early Modern Age mark the key milestones in the research of these categories in the transitional historical period.
Security Issues, 2021-2
Kovalev A.A. - Topical issues of the security strategy of small states pp. 28-40


Abstract: The goal of this article lies in examination of the topical issues of modern security strategy implemented by small states. For achieving the set goal, the author solves the following tasks: 1) define a “small country” as a concept of modern political science; 2) outline the current needs and problems of small states; 3) analyze the existing and possible security strategies of small states. Analysis is conducted on the security strategies used by small states, as well as the policy of small states in the current complicated international situation that threatens the security of all mankind. The Modern small states face a range of problems related to security, which determine their foreign policy behavior and security strategies. Small states are much more vulnerable than major powers, and thus are limited in their domestic and foreign policy. In order to enhance their security and sustainability, as well as have greater influence and meet their own economic and political needs, the small states either seek partners and allies to fulfill their goals or remain neutral. The security strategies of small states are aimed at improving their chances to stay the course and conduct their independent policy in the modern conditions of civilizational clash and escalating confrontation. Depending on their geography, historical fate, and existing limitations from the perspective of economic, political, and territorial capabilities, the small states choose different behavioral models in their foreign policy.
Philosophy and Culture, 2021-1
Aleksandrov A.I., Kovalev A.A. - Philosophical conceptualization of evil in the ethical space of Confucianism pp. 30-41


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical conceptualization of evil in the Confucianism. This goal is achieved by solving the following tasks: 1) assessment of Confucianism as a synthesis of the philosophical views of Confucius and Mencius; 2) determination of good and evil as  the contrasting concepts in the ethical space, which is based on the ideal of a “person of high nature” Junzi and the real world of a “petty person"; 3) evaluation of evil as the antipode of good, which is based on the sense of duty and regard of moral rules. The novelty of this research consists in the first within the Russian historical-philosophical literature comparative analysis of the views of Confucius and Mencius upon the nature of evil, examination of the genesis of such representations, and their relevance for modern philosophy. Representations on the nature of good and evil of Confucius and Mencius are based on the contrast within the ethical space of the ideal of a “gentleman” (due) and the reality of a “petty person”. The virtue of a “gentleman” is a means of achieving good; and the virtuous life leads to prosperity of the country. Evil of a “petty person” captured by selfish motives, leads to social demise and political disintegration. Mecius applies same moral principles, which govern the individual’s everyday life, to the political sphere of social existence. The thinker underlines circumscription of the monarchs, indicating that even the monarch – if not a “gentleman”, but merely a “petty person” – can be corrupted by evil, in which case the country faced demise.
Law and Politics, 2020-12
Kovalev A.A. - Law and social theory: problem of dialectical connection in the works of philosophers of the XIX XX centuries pp. 57-75


Abstract: This article examines the problem of correlation and dialectical connection between the theories of social being and law in the works of the prominent philosophers of the XIX – XX centuries (Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, Georges Gurvitch, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Niklas Luhmann, Jürgen Habermas, and others) who worked at the intersection of several fields of social sciences and made significant contribution to the theory of state and law. These scholars predicted multiple problems of modernity; therefore, reference to their theoretical heritage is valuable in the search of new legal understanding, the need for which has existed for a long time. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of views of the leading theoreticians who dealt with the correlation between law and social sciences. Social in the social sciences was often considered from the perspective of evolution of human relations. The essence of the social was revealed in various types of cohesion of population or connectedness between the members of social groups. In such relations, an important element was morality, which emerged much earlier than law. Morality emerged with the conception of the social, while law – only with the advent of the state. The classical social theories of the late XIX – early XX centuries, identified the concept of “society” mostly with the politically organized and territorially restricted society of the modern Western national state.
Philosophy and Culture, 2020-12
Kovalev A.A. - Correlation and dialectical connection of law and culture as a problem of the philosophy of law pp. 11-24


Abstract: The dialectical connection of law and culture is the relevant subject of research in philosophy, theory, and sociology of law, first and foremost due to the fact that insufficient theoretical substantiation lawmaking activity of politicians currently generates serious issues. Those of one cultural-legal traditions are unable to understand their partners belonging to another legal culture. Any modern legal theory should take into account the definition of culture the backbone factor for modern civilization. The novelty this research consists in examination of the fundamental aspects of “law-culture” system alongside on the analysis of views of Western researchers previously unfamiliar to the Russian science. The goal of this work lies in revealing the key aspects of dialectical connection of law and culture and their correlation in modern era. The philosophy of law features ambivalent interpretation of the phenomenon of law: 1) as one of the forms of collective consciousness – along with culture, morality, philosophy, science ,or religion; 2) in broad view of culture as a synonym of civilization, law would manifests as the crucial element of culture that generates multiple realities of sociocultural life of the people, society and the state. The research of dialectical connection of law and culture developed in the modern era, may contribute to resolution of complex problems that emerge in the contradictory “law-culture” system, which is of vital importance for the existence of separate national communities, as well as for survival of all the entire humanity.
Philosophy and Culture, 2020-11
Kovalev A.A. - Conceptual pluralism in foreign philosophy and sociology of law: history and modernity pp. 27-43


Abstract: This article analyzes conceptual representations of the prominent foreign philosophers of law as a reality of social existence and a form of collective consciousness, which are traditionally attributed to philosophy and sociology of law. The goal of this research consists in the following: 1) assess the attitude of analytical jurisprudence towards theoretical integration of various aspects of law by analogy with the sociology of law; 2) follow the correlation between philosophical and sociological approaches towards interpretation of socio-legal meanings of modernity; 3) analyze the dependence of development of the philosophy of law, which was often searching for explanations in distinct underlying logic inherent to practice of law, on the sociology of law, which tends to comprehend  law in relation to various aspects of organization of social life (including professional legal and administrative practice). The novelty of this of this work is defined by the following aspects. The article makes an attempt of comprehensive analyze of various approaches and theories, as well as assesses feasibility of examination of questions of social and legal nature in the context of sociology of law. Attention is given to the experience of Western law, which in the author’s opinion virtually implies national state law, i.e. what British philosopher, the founder of legal positivism John Austin, called independent political societies. The article reveals the question of critical potential of sociology of law, which criticized the assumption that nature of the social is not a problem for legal theory
World Politics, 2020-4
Kovalev A.A., Knyazeva E.Y. - The global governance problem in the modern Western academic literature: the main approaches and concepts
pp. 65-77


Abstract: The global governance theories assessment is among the poorly studied problems in Russian political science, though its topicality in the modern age of civilizational confrontation is beyond dispute. Primarily, the necessity to study the key global governance concepts is determined by the need for establishing effective relations with the Western and the Eastern countries. The purpose of the article is to analyze and estimate the main foreig global governance concepts, and it is achieved by solving the following tasks: 1) to consider the main definitions of global governance; 2) to detect the problem of legitimacy in international relations; 3) to consider the legitimacy of global governance. The authors give special attention to the underestimated source of global governance legitimacy - the liberal legal principles. As a political program, global governance is understood as a political and legal aspect of globalization. In recent decades, global governance theories have been adopted as a research program in the field of social sciences. Within the (neo)liberal institutionalism tradition, particularly, the interdependence theories, global governance approaches consider the consolidation of international cooperation and the transformation of the global system in which the anarchical system of sovereign national states is considered as a multilayer system including nongovernmental subjects. The researchers try to model power as “governance” without subjects which  are formally justified and entitled with the use of force monopoly. The future of global governance is connected with effective international law able to timely settle the arising disputes and deter possible aggression which, in the age of civilizational confrontation, can lead to the last war in human history. The effectiveness of global governance depends on what globalization direction the leading civilizations will choose: the force-based American way, or the way taking into account the interests of most peoples of the world.   
Theoretical and Applied Economics, 2020-3
Kovalev A.A. - Economic nationalism: prerequisites of its emergence and impact on the modern world pp. 62-77


Abstract: The goal of this research is the analysis of such phenomenon as economic nationalism. A detailed comparison is conducted between economic nationalism and other forms of government policy commonly used by the states for achieving their goals. Emphasis is made on prerequisites for the emergence of this trend in politics, among which the author determines political, cultural, economic and social. The article examines the basis of economic nationalism at different times and for countries with different government structures. The impact of economic nationalism on global world community at different stages of economic and political development is demonstrated. The conclusion is formulated on the meaning of economic nationalism for the global community based on the obtained results. At the time its emergence, this structure contributed to strengthening of the local economy. In the modern era of militarism and globalization, the economic nationalism, if not being controlled, is dangerous and deprives others of the right to financial wealth, aims to minimize wealth of the nation at the cost of other counties, and incites the application of force for achieving national goals.
International relations, 2020-3
Kovalev A.A. - Geopolitical activity of Nordic countries in the Arctic and their defense programs pp. 1-17


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in examination of current defense policy of Nordic countries associated with geopolitical activity in the Arctic, as well as the potential role of NATO and the European Union thereof. This goal is specified on the example of defense policy of Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden and Finland. An overview is conducted on the role of defense policy of each state within the overall strategic picture of Nordic countries, as well as framework documents. Assessment is given to the defense plans of each aforementioned state. All Nordic countries along with Euro-Atlantic security institutions showed interest in the Arctic. Current risks in the area of security noticeably differ from those existed during the Cold war; each of the Nordic countries encourages the interested parties to responsible economic and political behavior. The article explores defense strategies of the countries that always belonged to the capitalist socioeconomic formation and had no socialist experience, although in the XX century, the island monarchies of Norway, Sweden and Denmark were able to implement most advanced accomplishments of social and technical thought and achieve extraordinary living standards and utmost level of social security for their citizens. Russia has vested interest in the Arctic region substantiated by the historical, cultural, geopolitical, and even pure geographical reasons. This justifies both, competition and cooperation with Nordic countries, which organically fit in the Western civilization.
Law and Politics, 2020-2
Kovalev A.A. - Norwways Arctic security policy: agenda of 2019 pp. 23-35


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in comprehensive analysis of the domestic and foreign security policy of Norway in the regions of Norwegian Arctic and Northern Norway. This work explores the geographical peculiarities and economy of the regions; questions of international cooperation, impacting the domestic policy as a whole and Arctic policy in particular; Norway’s military interests and military presence of NATO and the United States in the region of Norwegian Arctic. Attention is given to the relations between Norway and Russia, since they influence the overall balance between countries in the Arctic region. The conducted analysis demonstrates that Arctic region is strategically important for Norway from the perspectives of both, domestic and foreign policy. Norway plans to pay attention to respect nation’s sovereignty, which is necessary for successful development of the region, its economy, security, and conducting scientific research in the Arctic. Norway’s Arctic policy is closely tied to relations with Russia and NATO member-states, and its further development on this vector can play a positive role for the entire global community. Carrying out dual policy with regards to Russia, Norway welcomes the strengthening of military presence of the NATO countries in the region.                                                          
Theoretical and Applied Economics, 2020-2
Kovalev A.A. - International economic security in the modern era of the clash of civilizations: problem of conceptualization pp. 61-74


Abstract: This article examines the fundamental approaches towards the problem of international economic security in the developed and developing countries. In each group of the countries prevail the own methodological approaches that depend on civilizational peculiarities and historical experience of a certain country. The goal consists in examination of the key aspect of the problem of conceptualization of international economic security in terms of the clash of civilizations. The author explores various theoretical approaches towards understanding of international economic security; determines the elements of international economic security; indicates the ways for retention and strengthening of international economic security. The article describes the paramount elements of international economic security: need for ensuring sovereignty of the countries; strive towards the absence of exclusive priority in economic development of separate countries or civilizational unions; responsibility of the economically developed countries to the global community for the consequences of implemented by them economic policy; realization of mutually beneficial cooperation of all countries of the global community and peaceful regulation of economic issues; consideration of global problems of the humanity in carrying out the economic security policy; orientation towards free choice of economic paradigm and implementation of own strategy of the political and socioeconomic development by each country.
International relations, 2020-2
Kovalev A.A. - Addressing the problems of security of the Arctic Region from the perspective of regime theory in English-language scientific literature pp. 18-33


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in studying the key concepts of regime theory that exist in the modern English-language literature and relate to the problem of integral security of the Arctic Region. This goal is achieved through analysis and classification of basic theories and hypothesis of the English-language authors. The ongoing confrontation of civilizations mainstreams examination of the fundamental Western concepts pertinent to the problems of international security, including from the perspective of regime theory. An important and relevant objective for the Russian leaders would be to understand the essence of political reasoning of the opponents, since the Western politicians are serious about the theoretical conclusions and practical advice of social scientists. The research considers the variety of existing hypothesis and approaches (based on the power, interests, etc.) towards solution of a range of crucial issues associated with different aspects of using the regime theory applicable to the Arctic Region. The variety of research concepts is fairly wide, but unlike the mass media, scholars usually pursue peaceful and diplomatic solution of the existing and emerging problems. The majority of Western research confidently state that the Arctic Region will remain peaceful in the future. In the examined works, the author clearly traces an appeal to a common political sense, rather than emotions, which to a large extent is achieved due the regime theory.
National Security, 2020-1
Kovalev A.A. - To the question of ensuring international economic security: logics and key stages pp. 38-52


Abstract: The goal of this work is to examine the history of ensuring international economic security. This goal can be achieved through the following tasks: 1) determine and explore the stages of ensuring international economic security within historical-logical aspect; 2) characterize and signify the key events of these stages; 3) assess the effectiveness of the mechanism of international legal provision of economic security within the highlighted historical periods. History of ensuring international economic security allows understanding it as the state of global economy, which drives the significant and sustainable growth of economic indexes and demonstrates efficient satisfaction of the economic interests of all nations. In this article, the provision of international economic security was examined within the historical-logical aspect, determining three stages of this process: 1) period between two world wars, when for the first time humanity set forth a task to ensure economic security as the paramount existential factor; 2) during the 1940’s – 1980’s the struggle between the global system of Socialism and Capitalist world also took place as a competition for economic efficiency of the two socioeconomic formations; 3) the third period, arriving after the collapse of the Soviet Union and global system of Socialism, is characterized as creation of unipolar world that is dominated by the United States, which initiated the globalization processes. This led to collision of civilizations, threatening to morph into a large-scale civilizational conflict. At the current stage of civilizational collision, it is difficult to reach a consensus in majority of the key issues pertaining to international economic security.
Law and Politics, 2020-1
Kovalev A.A. - U.S. Arctic policy: the agenda of 2019 pp. 25-37


Abstract: This article explores the key stages of the development of U.S. policy with regards to Arctic Region. The goal is set to outline the fundamental interests of the United States in the Arctic, as well as analyze the actions aimed at their achievement. The article examines the main priorities in U.S. Arctic policy, namely the protection and preservation of resources and ecosystem in the Arctic Region, scientific study of climatic changes, peculiarities of economic development of Alaska, and national security interests of the state. The questions of interaction of Arctic states with regards to defense cooperation become increasingly relevant. Consideration of the mid-term and long-term prospects of U.S. Arctic policy allowed the author focusing attention on the news aspects of U.S. government actions. Maritime capabilities of the United States in the Arctic waters are views in the context of modern tendencies. The author attempted to trace the prospects for expansion of U.S. influence in the Arctic Region based on the current agenda of 2019.
International relations, 2019-3
Kovalev A.A. - Driving forces behind the changes in the Arctic and their impact upon regional security pp. 38-50


Abstract: This scientific article explores the climatic, economic and political aspects of development of the Arctic region. Changes in the climate leading to active melting of the ice, as well as discovery of new seaway routes, presence of vast unexplored world reserves of oil and gas lead to increased commercial, human and state cooperation in the Polar North. With the increased activity and interests towards the region, emerge new security problems. Destabilizing factory can become the increased presence of the NATO bloc countries in the region. The methodology of this research includes general scientific, comparative, historical logical and specific politological methods (situational analysis, method of expert evaluation). This research allows determining the driving forces behind the changes in the Arctic and the problems met by the Arctic states. The author examines the current structure of governance in the Arctic, with accent on the dominating institutions in the region, as well as answer the question of how ready are these institutions to respond to security challenges in the region.
Security Issues, 2019-2
Kovalev A.A. - Prospects for Creating the Unified Army in the European Union Outside NATO pp. 34-41


Abstract: The subject of the research is the process of legislative provision for creation of sub-divisions that ensure security of European Union states. Providing that security of all EU countries is part of their foreign relations, military units act as such sub-divisions. In his article Kovalev demonstrates that this solution ensures participation of foreign expeditionary forces. He analyzes legislative initiatives and their potential implementation depending on the degree of participation of each member state in global peacekeeping operations. The research method used by the author is the comparative characteristic of the use of national military forces in each EU country as well as forecasting method that defines potential participation of a EU country in international expeditionary activities. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author analyzes opportunity for legislative provision of building a military block based on European initiative. The researcher describes ways for implementation of the aforesaid agreement, relevant support measures and sets goals for the use of the EU countries initiative in terms of global security. The author uses direct comparison of NATO block as a centralised model built according to the sample and targets of global security based on the USA initiative and de-centralized model of European states unitiative.
Politics and Society, 2018-10
Shamakhov V.A., Kirilenko V.P., Kovalev A.A. - Security of modern Europe: between goals and reality pp. 43-52


Abstract: In light of the recent international legal documents, this article examines the paramount aspects of the problem of European security on the example of the gap between the EU strive for implementing independent policy and the strategic reality. In order to achieve this goal, the author explores the factors that affected the new paradigm of European security and escalating tension in the international policy; provides assessment of the European Union Global Strategy on foreign policy and security policy determines opportunities of the EU as an independent actor in foreign policy; and considers the possible scenarios of the current situation. The effective protection of EU requires the application of international law and political power in all of its forms. For reducing the gap between the fraught with risks reality and political intentions, the European Union must develop and adopt the integrated program of European defense oriented towards its own resources or further dependence on the United States. Creation of the European military power under these conditions is an extremely difficult task due to the strategic discrepancies between the partners, and as a result of the ability of the state to adjust to the evolution of complicated foreign political situation in terms of civilizational opposition.
Politics and Society, 2018-7
Shamakhov V.A., Kovalev A.A. - Peace-War opposition as a phenomenon of hybrid political reality pp. 25-39


Abstract: The goal of this research is the problem of hybridism on the example of “peace-war” opposition and its dualistic nature reflected in the works of the prominent scholar of the past and modernity. This goal is specified by the following tasks: 1) to determine hybridism in its political aspect and connection with governance and civilized identity; 2) to examine the hybrid concepts of war in the fundamental for social philosophy and political science texts; 3) to consider the hybrid concepts of the world in classical works of the military theoreticians; 4) to study the problem of the dynamics of military conflicts and their renewal. The “peace” and “war” are the closely related, transitioning into one another phenomena of political reality of hybrid nature. The thinkers of the past and modernity came to the valid and still relevant conclusions on the nature of war, same as the military theoreticians left behind multiple valuable observations on the nature of peaceful existence. In the era of civilizational antagonism and possible civilizational conflicts, the border between the state of peace and war becomes vague, including as a result of escalation of the unresolved in the past geopolitical and sociocultural problems.
World Politics, 2018-4
Shamakhov V.A., Kovalev A.A. - Transformation of the geography of global security in the age of civilizational confrontation
pp. 43-55


Abstract: The purpose of the work is to study the changing geography of international security in the modern age of civilizational confrontation. To achieve this goal the authors solve several tasks: 1) the authors consider the understanding of the territory of a nation-state in the modern studies; 2) the authors study the problem of blurring the areas of war and peace; 3) the authors consider the new geography of  power beyond national borders; 4) the authors analyze the methods and approaches to studying the new geopolitical landscape of the modernity in the age of civilizational confrontation. The results of the research can be used for the preparation of general and special courses in political science, sociology, geopolitics, and the history of international relations. The research methodology includes general scientific and comparative analysis, the historical and logical, and specific methods of political science (event-analysis, case-study, expert assessment). The authors study the modern interpretations of the theory of a nation-state, consider the problem of blurring the areas of war and peace and the key aspects of the new geography of power beyond state borders, analyze the key methods and approaches to studying the new geopolitical landscape of the modernity in the age of civilizational confrontation. In spite of the tendencies indicating the renaissance of nationalism in the modern civilizational confrontation, the larger structural transformations in the world policy still point at the necessity to solve security problems taking into account the geographical borders of a state and the current state of the globalising world. Blurring the borders between the areas of war and peace will mean the decrease of effectiveness of the policy of containment or strategical negotiations which is based on the understanding of states as unitary subjects.  
Security Issues, 2017-5
Kovalev A.A. - The policy of double standards as a threat to the national security of the Russian Federation pp. 12-24


Abstract: The research subject is the influence of the policy of double standards on the national security of the Russian Federation. The term “policy of double standards” is widely used in the modern political practice. The research purpose is the attempt to estimate the threat of the policy of double standards to the national security of Russia. The author formulates the following research tasks: 1) to ascertain the possibility of precise methodological definition of the “policy of double standards” concept; 2) to offer the author’s definition of the concept; 3) to estimate the role of the policy of double standards in civilizational confrontation; 4) to estimate the role of international law institutions in the implementation of such policy. The research methodology includes the dialectical, historical and logical and historical-comparative methods and the methods of political science (case study, event-analysis, expert assessment). The author finds out that the “double standards” concept can’t be precisely defined due to a wide range of assessments and subjective judgements attributed to this concept; 2) the author offers his own interpretation of the “policy of double standards” concept as an intentionally contradictory and exaggeratedly emotional estimation of one and the same phenomenon of objective reality. The practice of double standards is performed in the situations when the actions of some countries are supported and justified, and the actions of others are condemned and punished, while the essence of these actions is the same. Nowadays, the policy of double standards is the reality of the current civilizational confrontation between the Euro Atlantic and the Eurasian communities. It plays the role of an effective instrument of information, ideological and paradigmatic wars. In the modern epoch of civilizational confrontation, international legal assessment is deliberately subjective. International law becomes an instrument of the policy of double standards. The author concludes that the policy of double standards is an effective instrument of information war of the Western civilization against Russia as a stronghold of the Russian world. This policy is a real threat to Russia’s national security. 
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.