Genesis: Historical research
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Publications of Mol'kin Aleksei Nikolaevich
Sociodynamics, 2014-5
Koroleva L., ., . - Russian Orthodox Church in the Educational Policy of Post-Reform Russia pp. 71-79


Abstract: In article Russian Orthodox Church activity in respect of folding of system of orthodox education and education and a condition of orthodox education in Russia in the conditions of religious "revival" is analyzed: dynamics of opening of new orthodox educational institutions of various level, problem of formation of educational system (management decentralization, insufficient financing of educational institutions, lack of necessary legal status of educational institutions, deficiency of teaching structure and theological literature, low level of preparation of scientific theological shots, etc.) . The Teoretiko-metodologichesky basis of research is made by the principles of objectivity, historicism, systemacity, the complex accounting of social and subjective studying in a subject and the greatest possible neutrality of the relation of the researcher to interpretation and an assessment of the actual material. At opportunity the principles of social and psychological approach and a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the facts and events were applied. At the end of 1980 - the 1990th there was a mass opening of new spiritual educational institutions that, in turn, generated also new problems. At times open spiritual schools and seminaries had "facultative" character, that is in them there was no regular released person to which duties the organization and control of educational process and an institution as a whole would belong. Reviving the system of the Russian religious education fully was influenced by difficulties of formation, deficiency of teaching structure, an undermanning of libraries, a lack of manuals, shortage of buildings, lack of the necessary status were basic of which. The situation became complicated decentralization as financing of new religious educational institutions and schools was carried out not from Educational committee, and directly from dioceses; some educational institutions at all didn't receive any – neither central, nor local financing, being in self-sufficiency conditions. Only by 2000 in principle the issue of centralization of religious education in Russia was resolved: mass inspection inspections by Educational Committee are carried out, the question of obligatory licensing of spiritual academies, seminaries and schools and the subsequent their accreditation is designated.
Genesis: Historical research, 2014-4
Koroleva L., ., . - Islamic Religious Workers in the USSR in 1940s (on the Materials of Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) pp. 95-119


Abstract: The article researches the Islamic clergy of the Middle Volga Region (Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) in the 1940s: the age, level of education, nationality, social position of the Islamic religious workers, forms and methods of their confessional practice (organization, religious practice, elements of the religious modernization), relations with the Soviet power representatives (with the representatives of the Religion Affairs Council). The mosques of the Middle Volga region are reviewed as a material basis of the social consolidations of the Muslims, spiritual centers for the Muslim population. The following principles were takes as a theoretic and methodological basis: a) objectiveness; b)historism; c) systematicity; d) objective measurement of the social and personal in the subject of the research and the most possible counteraction of the subjective attitude of a researcher when estimating and interpreting the facts.     The following special historical principles have been used in the research together with the methodological ones: historical comparative, actualization, problematic chronological, diachronic. Also, general scientific principles have been used: structural systematic, statistical, classification. All of the principles let analyze the evolution of the relation between the State and the Islam, view the Soviet/Russian Muslims in the set of their constituents, analyze and compare different data to find out the main peculiarities and existential characteristics.   During 1940s the number of mosques in the Middle Volga region remained more or less constant. Most mosques were situated in the countryside, in Penzenskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions in the regional capitals mosques did not function. The number of the Muslim religious workers remained on the same level (corresponding to the number of mosques) after an increase during the period after the war. The Islamic religious workers in the Middle Volga region were mullahs and muezzins. In some villages there were no imams and muezzins because of a very small number of Islamic religious workers. Sometimes there duties were performed by other people or old men – babajs.    The Muslim religious workers were quite active in working with the local people. The most important element of Islamic religious practice was a preach.  The Muslim religious workers of the Middle Volga region were characterized by high age limit and low level of education, both general and religious. The imams were rather old and some of them did not often preached, especially in Penzenskaya region. In the middle of 1940s the Soviet government allowed the Soviet Muslims to go on journeys to Mecca. A mullah, especially in the countryside had great authority. The main Muslim ceremonies in the Middle Volga region were janazah, nikah, isim, sunnet.
Genesis: Historical research, 2014-1
Koroleva L., . - Religious Beliefs of the Soviet Population in 1960 - 1980 (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 17-23


Abstract: The object of the author of the article is to arrange for the research of religiousness of the population in the USSR for the purpose of scientific justification of process of an ateization of the Soviet people; level of religiousness of the population of the USSR in the 1960-1980th (commission of various ceremonies, social and demographic characteristics of believers, a national identity, etc.) on the basis of sociological researches of inhabitants of the Penza region. The Penza region was typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies of religiousness of the population, activity of believers, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material were as far as possible applied. Novelty of research is that religiousness of the population in the USSR in the 1960-1980th is for the first time studied. on the example of inhabitants of the Penza region; - in a scientific turn the layer of specific archival sources which wasn't demanded earlier owing to various reasons is introduced for the first time.Conclusions:- from the point of view of religiousness of the population the Penza edge represented obviously unsuccessful region: the area surpassed all in level of religious ceremonialism the others of Central Volga Area;- religiousness of the population of the Penza region continued to remain stable and rather high for the 1960-1980th.
Sociodynamics, 2014-1
Koroleva L., ., . - Religious denomination policy towards the Islam in the USSR in 1940s - 1960s: closing of the mosques (materials of the Middle Volga region). pp. 76-88


Abstract: The article includes analysis of implementation of one of the key directions of the Soviet policy on religious denominations towards the Islam: limiting the number of mosques, the cult buildings of the Muslims in 1940s - 1960s, taking as an example the Middle Volga region, where the Islam was traditionally widespread in the USSR.  The local state policy on religious denominations was implemented first of all via the Soviet plenipotentiaries on the issues of religious cults (religions), whose activities were aimed on one hand at the closing of the mosques, and on the other hand, on guaranteeing compliance with the Soviet legislation.  The believers actively resisted the closing of the cult buildings. Even after the closing the mosques kept their appearance. The theoretical and methodological basis for the study is formed with the principles of objectivity, historicism, systemic character, full account of the social and subjective elements in the object of study, and the neutral approach of researchers towards interpretation and evaluation of factual materials.  Where it was possible, the authors used the principles of sociological and psychological approach and the principle of correctness and tactfulness in evaluation of facts and events, since the specific feature of the Islamic practice has always been a strong moral and ethical element of its participants. In addition to the methodological principles, the authors applied special historical principles, such as actualization, comparative historical method, diachronic method, problem-oriented chronological method; general scientific methods - statistical, classification, structural systemic. The novelty of the study was due to the fact that for the first time the authors studies the activities of the Soviet administration, acting mostly via the Soviet plenipotentiary on the issues of religious cults (religions) on closing the mosques at the regional level - in the Middle Volga region within the above-mentioned period of time, and many specific archive materials are brought into the scientific turnover for the first time, since earlier they were not used for a variety of reasons.
Sociodynamics, 2013-10
Koroleva L., ., ., . - Russian Orthodox Church and Political Activity (Second Half of the 1980's - 1990's) pp. 126-133


Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the Russian Orthodox Church' position concerning participation in political activity in general and in elections at different levels in particular. In late 1980's the question whether to participate or not to participate in elections of Deputies was essentially new to religious confessions in the USSR. In 1989 six religious figures from the Russian Orthodox Church were elected as deputies. However, they were elected not as representatives of their religious organizations but as candidates from allied and republican public organizations. During elections of Deputies of RSFSR in 1990 48 priests of the Russian Orthodox Church were elected as deputies in city and regional village councils and 5 bishops and 11 priests were elected as deputies in regional councils.  In December of1989 due to elections of Deputies of RSFSR and local councils, the Council for religious affairs under the Council of the Ministers of RSFSR published the document "Extract from Definitions of the Hierarchal Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church". The main point of recommendations was to that in each particular case the question whether a priest should participate in elections had to be resolved by the head of the confession. After events of 1993 when Orthodox priests appeared on opposite sides of the barricades that could lead to the split in the Russian Orthodox Church, Alexis II made the decision to forbid priests to participate in state elections.In 1995 the statement of the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Alexis II was published. Later participation of priests in authorities and elections was condemned by the Hierarchal Cathedral in 1997. 
Genesis: Historical research, 2013-2
Koroleva L., ., . - Islamic Political and Informal Organizations of Russia During the 1990's (Based on the Example of the Middle Volga Region) pp. 76-88


Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the process of creation of Muslim political organizations in Russia at the federal level during so called religious Renaissance in the 1990's (All-Union Islamic Revival Party 'Nakhdat', Islamic Cultural Center, Social Movement 'Nur' ('Light'), the Union of Muslims of Russia, 'Ittifak al'-muslimin' (Muslim Union) and political movement 'Refax'). The authors also analyze programs carried out by these organizations, activities of their leaders, relations with political parties and etc. The process of formation of informal Islamic groups had the following peculiarities in the Middle Volga Region: more 'earthly' nature of units, close relations to usual Muslims, radical nature of those organizations and their activities, political neutrality and focus on the issues of national culture. The authors also study associated programs, targets, activities and documents ('Tatar kanun' - Constitution of Tatar People, 'Tatar mekhellese' and others) created by both radical and moderate groups such as Tatar Social Center, Tatar Party of National Independence 'Ittifak', Youth Union 'Azatlyk' and etc. The authors also describe the Muslim closed group 'Saf Islam' (Pure Islam).  Even though Tatar national movements appealed to Islamic values, their programs and activities were mostly socially oriented.
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