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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Contents of Issue 01/2022
Contents of Issue 01/2022
History of urban development
Vdovina E.V. - Prerequisites for taking into account the influence of air exchange in the design of residential districts in the regulatory documentation pp. 1-25

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2022.1.38141

EDN: BCCWZL

Abstract: Many cities face environmental problems, which are currently receiving a lot of attention. The layout of the city' micro-district corresponding to the regulations can provide the most favorable environmental conditions due to air exchange. The building of the city has been developing for centuries, microdistricts have a layout that was regulated by the law, valid at the times of their construction. The object of research is the processes of air exchange in city districts on the example of Krasnoyarsk. The method of analysis of scientific sources and standards was used for the study, which allowed determining the chronology of changes in factors affecting air exchange and building blocks. The study includes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of the building regulations affecting air exchange in the neighborhood; to determine the principles of planning a residential neighborhood and establish their compliance with the standards on the example of the city of Krasnoyarsk; to consider the prerequisites for the implementation of an environmental aspect in building codes. For the sake of clarity of the data obtained on the problems of air exchange and the principles of development of microdistricts, the history of the planning structure of the development of Krasnoyarsk is investigated. As a result of the study, a general characteristic of the development of regulatory requirements for the development of microdistricts has been identified and presented. The relevance of the topic is determined by the presence of a problem with the accumulation of harmful substances in residential neighborhoods in Krasnoyarsk. In the current planning methods of development in some residential areas of Krasnoyarsk, this problem cannot be solved due to the increase in height and density of buildings while maintaining the same values of distances between buildings, since the regulatory requirements of insolation do not ensure effective ventilation of the district. According to the results of the study, it was concluded that not all previous standards included effective regulations to ensure the necessary air exchange, or they are completely absent. In these standards, factors affecting effective air exchange (height of buildings, distances between buildings and the angle of the buildings) were determined by other requirements, such as sanitary and fire safety standards, insolation requirements.
Town planning
Bubenchikov E.A. - Architectural and planning organization of peasant (farmer) farms in the conditions of socio-economic transformations in Russia: current trends and prospects for the development of farms pp. 26-39

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2022.1.38026

EDN: BJGYCQ

Abstract: The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as: the development of farms, the organization of the production environment, the formation of the architectural and planning structure, the influence of socio-economic legal conditions of the region and the peculiarities of the country on the planning structure of the farm, emerging trends in rural architecture. These aspects are now most relevant due to the complexity of rural production, the social stratification of the rural population, the establishment of market relations, new socio-economic requirements for architectural objects and new aesthetic requirements for the design of buildings and structures. The novelty of the research lies in the use of an environmental approach to solving urban planning and architectural problems of organizing a farmer's habitat. The main conclusions of the study are the formation of types of planning structures of the farm. Based on the conducted research, a scheme of planning structures of farms has been formed, the dependencies between the production and residential area of the farmer have been determined. The architectural and planning organization of peasant (farmer) farms in the structure of the district, region and industrial zones is determined. The sustainable direction of the rural environment has been determined at the present time. Also an important conclusion of the work is to determine the influence of the world order on the planning organization of farms.
Dranitsa M.V. - External enclosing structures of a rural house in Siberia: Soviet experience pp. 40-48

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2022.1.38142

EDN: BLXMMD

Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the construction of low-rise houses in rural settlements of Siberia of the Soviet period. Changes in the country affected the construction of rural settlements in Siberia. Changes in the formation of rural settlements affected the external enclosing structures. The main development trends and characteristic features of external enclosing structures are determined. Prerequisites for the use of new materials for enclosing structures are described. Typical design is considered as a means of ensuring fast and high-quality construction of rural houses in Siberia, and its impact on enclosing structures revealed. The external enclosing structures in the design and construction of "exemplary" rural settlements are considered. The external enclosing structures of low-rise housing construction in Siberia during the Soviet period are considered as an object of research. The subject of the study is the methods of analysis of scientific literature and systemstructural analysis of rural houses in Siberia and their external enclosing structures built in the Soviet period. The novelty lies in the fact that the changes in the construction of Siberian rural houses during the Soviet period were considered and how they affected the external enclosing structures. The main conclusions are that radical changes took place in rural settlements of Siberia during the Soviet period, this was reflected in the external enclosing structures. The traditional wooden materials were replaced by factory-made materials. At that time, they tried to unify low-rise rural houses. Standard projects were developed that could be adapted to the Siberian climatic conditions. The revision of design standards contributed to the development and implementation of new design approaches. This has led to an increase in the typological diversity of housing with various types of external enclosing structures. During this period, "exemplary" rural settlements in Siberia began to be actively designed and built, for the construction of which materials of factory-made external enclosing structures with the addition of local materials were used.
Construction and architecture
Volkova O.V. - Research of development and solution of problems of combined coverings of buildings pp. 49-60

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2022.1.38124

EDN: BWUBZF

Abstract: The article analyzes the main problems of the structures of combined coatings of residential buildings, during which both climatic and human factors were investigated. In the course of the study, the main methods of solving problems with the use of materials, additional technical means and new construction technologies are considered. Thanks to a retrospective analysis, three main historical stages have been identified from the beginning of the construction of houses under the program of full-assembled housing construction in 1970 to the present. The main problems and solutions in each stage of the development of combined coatings are investigated, as well as modern technical developments to eliminate coating deficiencies are described and existing coating schemes are considered. The main conclusions of the study are the presence of problems in the design of the coating in various climatic conditions by ignoring the construction area. Despite the development of combined coatings, the structure needs to be improved due to the presence of problems in rolled materials - the appearance of cracks due to climatic conditions and not observing the necessary protection, as well as in the thermal insulation layer moisture accumulates and condensation appears due to unreliable rolled materials. Conclusions are drawn on the use of aerators for evaporation of moisture from the thermal insulation layer. Such modern methods of solving problems of combined coating as the device of a rolled carpet made of PVC membrane by a welded method are analyzed. At the moment, the design of coatings with these materials have the best performance characteristics.
Architecture and technologies
Kuz'menko Y.E. - Development of a model and methods for calculating the humidity regime in enclosing structures pp. 61-68

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2022.1.38143

EDN: BWZCUQ

Abstract: The article presents a historical overview of the development of the moisture transfer model, calculation methods, as well as the emergence of rationing for the protection of enclosing structures from waterlogging. In particular, the historical periodization of the development of features and approaches to the formation of methodological concepts in relation to the development of stationary and non-stationary methods for calculating the processes of steam condensation, diffusion and moisture transfer is considered. The article contains information from legal sources on the regulation of technological conditions for the use of methods for calculating the movement of moisture in enclosing structures. The author examines the existing models of visualization of calculated data by means of software. Further prospects for studying the presented calculation methods in the design of the structure and in construction are formed. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the formation of a conceptual innovative approach to the periodization of the development of methodological foundations for the study of stationary and non-stationary methods of calculating moisture transfer systems in Russia over the past century and up to the present time. The review of archival scientific and regulatory documentation made it possible to determine the vector of the emergence and development of the issue of moisture transfer models and methods for calculating the humidity conditions of enclosing structures. The results of the review indicate the great contribution of Russian scientists to the creation of theoretical foundations and the development of methods for calculating the humidity regime of fences. The occurrence of rationing of the humidity regime of external fences has been identified and analyzed. The chronology of the appearance of the model, methods of moisture transfer and rationing of protection against waterlogging of structures are analyzed. The parameters of the basic concepts of the periodization of the formation of the methodology for calculating moisture transfer in Russia since the early 20s of the last century have been investigated. Innovative visualization tools for stationary and non-stationary methods of calculating moisture transfer by means of software are presented.
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