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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Contents of Issue № 01/2021
Contents of Issue № 01/2021
Design and technologies
Aliev S.A. - Cladding panel material as the basis for the typological variety of hinged facade systems pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.1.35714

Abstract:  The article discusses the variety of facing panels of hinged façade systems. Typological classification was made on the basis of a variety of materials used for facing panels. The author identifies 6 groups of materials: clay, wood, cement, titanium dioxide, metal, special components. Analysis is conducted on the 18 names of facing panels according to the following characteristics: cladding material, exterior, image application technology, weight in kg / m2, attachment, durability, and manufacturer. The article determines 6 criteria and 2 requirements for ventilated facades. Based on the typology of the material, the author outlines advantages and disadvantages of certain types of facing panels. The article determines the criteria and requirements set for ventilated facades. Leaning on the provided typology of material, the advantages and disadvantages of individual types of facing panels for hinged façade systems are indicated. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the growing need for modern technologies and means to make buildings look architectural and expressive due to an assortment of combinations of facing materials in hinged ventilated systems.  The study reveals a wide variety of characteristics and types of facing panels. The market offer fully reflects the modern production technology capabilities with regards to construction materials. Despite a number of restrictions imposed by the normative acts, facing panels fully meet all the requirements, as the construct of hinged façade panels in general. Thus, is safe to say that facing panels fully satisfy the market demand. Titanium dioxide panels purify the air, which is in line with the current environmental trends contributing to emission reduction and environmental cleanup.
Color in architecture and design
Cheglakov A.D. - The nuances of toning and wood dyeing in the process of creating the original wooden sculptures pp. 15-22

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.1.35757

Abstract:  This article states that the ways to improve the decorative qualities of wood have been known to mankind since ancient times. The techniques of woodworking material have improved over years. The author underlines the importance of proper choice of finishing materials, as it intended to preserve the cultural objects, as well as produce certain aesthetic perception. Therefore, the choice of materials is substantiated by the nature of the wood and the work performed, as well as by the author's plan and conceptual idea. The article discusses the key methods of wood finishing in the process of creating wooden sculptures. The author lists the main types of wood finishing, as well as the original techniques. It is noted that there are various technologies for giving a wood surface a different color. Description is given to such methods as fire-treatment and waxing of wooden surface; as well as to the original techniques of treating wood damaged by the bark beetle or exposed to fire. It is claimed that proper firing gives wood strength and resistance, protecting it from various influences and significantly extending its durability. Special attention is given to the wood ash treatment, and how this ancient technology can be applied in modern wooden sculpture. The recommendations are given for proper selection of applicators that contribute to quality dyeing of wooden surfaces.
Construction and architecture
Alipova V.A. - Study of the structure and characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete pp. 23-32

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.1.35767

Abstract: The lightweight and porous building material has many advantages over conventional concrete, such as a higher strength-to-weight ratio, a lower coefficient of thermal expansion and good sound insulation. This article focuses on the historical periodization of the development of autoclaved aerated concrete and a literature review that focuses on the influence of porosity, vapor permeability and strength properties of a given building material. The subject of this research is the analysis of the key historical events and manufacturing technologies that influenced the creation and transformation of the structural components of autoclaved aerated concrete. In the course of research, the author revealed that although aerated concrete is a new material in construction, it appeared a long time ago. Initially, five thousand years ago, this composition of the material was used as a plaster and brickwork mortar; showing a positive effect in construction, the aerated concrete over the years took the form of a cellular block, and its characteristics continue to be discovered. The properties, composition and structure of autoclaved aerated concrete are being improved through its composition and geometry of the shape of block, which contributed to environmental friendliness of the new building material, its durability, and creation of comfortable living conditions for people. However, the material requires new rational manufacturing technologies are needed in order to improve its quality and characteristics.
Legislation and regulations
Ivanova L.V. - Evolution of regulations for thermal protection of buildings pp. 33-44

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.1.35796

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of regulatory documents in the field of thermal engineering in construction and the development of regulations for thermal protection of buildings. The object of the research is the standard documentation in the field of thermal engineering in construction. A retrospective analysis of the norms and requirements for thermal protection of buildings was carried out by identifying qualitative changes in the content of standard documentation. Building codes and regulations, Code specification, Federal laws and Government decrees have been adopted as such regulatory documents for this study. The documents that influenced these changes are considered. The normative requirements of the past years in the field of building heat engineering have been systematized. Six stages of the formation of norms for the thermal protection of buildings are determined, based on changes in the formulas for determining the resistance to heat transfer of enclosing structures and the introduction of the characteristic of the degree-day of the heating period, depending on the climatic features of the region. Trends in the development of standards for thermal protection of buildings have been determined. The main goal is to reduce the specific characteristic of heat energy consumption for heating and ventilation, which requires a change in the requirements for thermal protection, in particular, an increase in the required resistance to heat transfer, which can contribute to updating the existing set of rules for thermal protection of buildings.
Economy of architecture and urban development
Odnopalova D.A. - Historical development of domestic experience of shared construction of apartment buildings pp. 45-54

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2021.1.31804

Abstract: Currently, the most common way to finance the acquisition of residential real estate is shared construction, which has its drawbacks. This article discusses the domestic and Russian experience of shared construction, and compares the activities and organizations. The object of research is the financing schemes for residential real estate. The subject of the study is the comparative characteristics of financing schemes for multi-apartment residential buildings. The aim of the study is to analyze the experience of shared construction of multi-apartment residential buildings in the USSR and modern Russia. Summarizing the comparative analysis of the features of the organization and activities of domestic and modern experience in shared construction, we can say that these schemes have similarities in attracting public funds for the construction of multi-apartment buildings and that these mechanisms for acquiring housing in the primary market are not safe for their members. Therefore, there is still a need to develop the most effective organization of financing investment and construction projects in the residential real estate market, providing for the interests of the developer, participant in shared construction, the state and the bank.
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