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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Architecture and design" > Contents of Issue № 02/2020
Contents of Issue № 02/2020
Urban development and society
Tolochko O.R. - Creation of comfortable living environment for senior people in the context of strategic documents of the Russian Federation pp. 9-20

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2020.2.34628

Abstract: The object of this research is the comfort of living environment for people of senior age. The subject of this research is the strategic, normative, and methodological documents of the Russian Federation concerning senior people. In the context of strategic documents of the Russian Federation, special attention is given to the problem of creating a comfortable living environment for senior people as a growing new group of consumers. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the worldwide tendency of population ageing alongside the growing importance of personal comfort within the system of worldview upon the formation of urban and residential environments. The scientific hypothesis is advanced that the increased comfort of the living environment for senior people promotes active longevity and improvement of the quality of life, which in turn, is the key goal of the Russian strategic government programs. The article analyzes the strategic, normative, and methodological documents of the Russian Federation on the improvement of comfort of living environment for people of senior age. The author's contribution to this research consists in identification of flaws in the mechanisms of formation of comfortable living environment for senior people in the Russian Federation, and offers solutions to this issue. Senior citizens should be recognized as a special and expanding group of consumers that opens a new niche in the market of goods and housing services in form of personal specialized housing integrated into the urban development. The author also believes that it is necessary to integrate new urban planning and organizational-administrative decisions on the basis of methodological construction documents, as well as documents on the development residential construction in the Russian Federation, into the strategic tasks on supporting senior population. In order to develop the reform mechanism for the creation of comfortable living environment, it is necessary to consolidate certain actions on the federal level.
Design and technologies
Zvonareva P.P., Filipskaya I.V., Yangulova I.V. - Trends in the use of raw pinecones in furniture design pp. 21-34

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2020.2.36227

Abstract: The goal of this work is to determine the current trends in the use of raw pinecones in furniture design. Pinecones were selected as the research material and for seeking the technological solutions due to the fact that this is a natural raw material available in the entire territory of Russia. An analytical overview is conducted on the foreign experience of using natural raw materials that do not require processing of wood trunks. The article examines the stages of acquisition decorative slab material from the raw pinecones. The author describes decorative and utilitarian characteristics of such material and possibilities of its use in furniture design. The material obtained from raw pinecones has high aesthetic qualities, does not emit harmful toxins during production, and is biodegradable. This topic associated with the processing of pinecones and needles has repeatedly drawn attention of the researchers and developers of slab materials; however, the scientific elaborations have not find wide practical application. The novelty of this work lies in the use of natural product, which is literally underfoot, for producing new material with the  aesthetic characteristics that correspond to the modern trends in design. Although the technology of obtaining the material is quite simple, the process of collecting the raw material is time-consuming. In addition to high decorative properties, the slab material is eco-friendly due to the use of a low-toxic binder.
Monument and decoration design
Cheglakov A.D. - The nuances of wood dye in the process of creating the original wooden sculptures pp. 35-42

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2020.2.35882

Abstract: This article discusses the ways to improve the decorative qualities of wood that are known to mankind since the ancient times, as well as the techniques of working with wood that have improved over time. The author underlines the importance of the proper choice of finishing materials, which is intended for not only preserving the cultural sites, but also making a certain aesthetic perception. The choice of materials is substantiated by the nature of wood, as well as the, the conceptual idea of the artist. The article explores the key methods of finishing woodworking in the process of creating the original wooden sculptures. The author lists the main types of wood finishing, as well as some of the original techniques. It is noted that there are various technologies of wood dye. A description is given to the treatment of wooden surface with wax in its traditional and modern form; as well as to some original techniques such as the woodworking affected by bark beetle and glazing. It is stated that the proper glazing gives wood strength and resistance, protecting from various influences and significantly extending its durability. Particular attention is turned to the method of gilding and implementation of this ancient technique in modern wooden sculpture. Recommendations are given for the proper selection of applicators to maintain wood dye.
Construction and architecture
Syuskin Y.V. - Problems of the loss of technical means of experimental scientific research and objects of such research in construction sector pp. 43-48

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2020.2.35772

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of the loss of technical means of conducting experimental research. The question of the loss of the objects of such research is viewed due to the absence of scientific task for their preservation and subsequent technological development of construction sector. The author outlines the concept of acquisition of new scientific knowledge on the basis of systemic approach with the possibility of full preservation of the technical means of production. The need is formulated for storing the data obtained in the experiments on physical carriers. Consolidation of such knowledge underlies the solution of the issues in construction of buildings and structures. Description is given to the reasons that explain the low demand for the patterns, technical means, and objects of experiments. The author claims that among the key prerequisites for the effective solution of the issues in construction sector is the possibility of application of the concept of interdisciplinary research, including material and virtual “archive” archive of such results. The use of systemic approach is required regardless of the nature of the problems (natural, social, technogenic, etc.). The organization and conduct of interdisciplinary research is the priority task. The conclusion is made on the need to transfer full results of the research to physical carrier, as well storage, archiving of all objects of research, mechanisms and installations for their subsequent use. The implementation of such ideas requires concentration of efforts of the experts in various branches of science. It is necessary to consolidate the knowledge of all experts in all stages of the development – from the past to the present.
Architecture and technologies
Semenyuk A.A. - The key stages in the design of blinds pp. 49-57

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7789.2020.2.35701

Abstract: The object of this research is the sun protection devices for translucent enclosing structures such as blinds. The goal of this research lies in examination of the historical experience and modern practice of using sun protection devices. The author conducts retrospective research of the evolution of blinds in order to determine the key stages in the development of structures that regulate the luminous flux. The historical discourse of the evolution of the system of blinds is based on the retrospective analysis of blinds according to the main characteristics, such as materials used, their location (indoors or building facades), and gear options. The author determines three main periods can in the evolution of blinds. The first period started in 1841, when John Hampton patented dentition blinds and lasted until 1936 (the design and materials used did not change throughout this period).The second period lasts from 1936 to 1960, and marks the emergence of the facade constructs "sun-cutter blinds", as well as the use of aluminum for the production of fins. The third period covers 1960s-1970s, is characterized by progressive automatic control, implementation of PVC, and improvement of energy efficiency of blinds using photovoltaic fins.
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