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International Law
Reference:

Refusal to return a child to the country of ordinary residence due to his adjustment to the new environment: problems of classification and application

Kurchinskaya-Grasso Natalia

International Law Scholar, Grasso Law Firm (Italy – Russia)

90046, Italiya, g. Monreale, ul. Xvi Marzo, 18

natgrasso@libero.it
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2306-9899.2019.2.29646

Review date:

05-05-2019


Publish date:

13-05-2019


Abstract.

The unlawful relocation of a child to another country does not always entails his return to the country of ordinary residence. One of the reasons of refusal to return is “child’s adjustment to the new environment”; however, neither the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, nor Russian legislation reveals this term. There is no unanimity of vies in the judicial and doctrinal interpretation. Therefore, the problems emerge in application of the aforementioned Convention. Based on the analysis of regulations of the European Court on Human Rights, as well as case law of Italy, Russia and other countries, the author makes an attempt to determine the qualifying features of the concept of “child’s adjustment to the new environment”. The article substantiates the need for its new practical interpretation, including the characteristics of the outside actor of “new environment” (society) and the analysis of inner component (the family, in which a child lives prior to relocation). The conclusion is made on the necessity to adopt an additional protocol to the Convention, which contains the criteria allowing the national courts to unambiguously interpret the term under consideration. After the termination of one-year adaptation period, the child’s interests are not always respected, therefore, in the new additional protocol, the author suggests envisaging the right of both parties involved to request the court to establish the fact of adjustment of a minor child to the new environment earlier than the fixed period. A uniform mechanism must be developed for solving the difficulties of practical implementation of court decisions.

Keywords: refusal of child's return, wrongful child's removal, wrongful child's retention, international child abduction, child's interests, European Court, the Hague Convention, adaptation period, return of abducted child, child's adaptation
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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