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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Rubric "History of international relations"
History of international relations
Raikhlin E.I. - Did they create history? Or did history create them? pp. 27-46

DOI:
10.7256/2306-4226.2013.4.9421

Abstract: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Franklin Roosevelt are usually recognized among the most outstanding leaders of the USA throughout the history of this state. Our goal is to attempt to find out whether these leaders of three American revolutions (each at his own time) define history of their state, or was it the history that defined their place in it.  For this purpose and in accordance with the historical periods, we shall start with President Washington. Discussion is separated into two parts: brief overview of social, economic and political environment, in which George Washington leived on one hand, and a description of his personal qualities on the other hand.  Our conclusion shall be based upon the comparison of the "input" of the environment, with the personal "input" of President Washington into his greatness.  There is a question: whether the North-American colonies of the Great Britain could achieve independency and formation of a sovereign state - the USA  without George Washington?
Raikhlin E.I. - Abraham Lincoln and the second American revolution. pp. 62-85

DOI:
10.7256/2306-4226.2014.2.9464

Abstract: The article is divided into three parts: social and political situation, which caused the Civil War; personality and biography of Abraham Lincoln, and, finally, evaluation of the role of Lincoln in the second American revolution.  The end of the war for the independence did not introduce changes into the development of either the North or the South, each of the parts of the new state continued its development according to the path, which was predefined by its geographical, climatic, demographic, and cultural situation.  The goal of the article was to find out how viable was the statement, that Abraham Lincoln played a prominent role in the development of the USA. There are usually two arguments in favor of this statement. According to the first one, role of Lincoln was purely positive. That is, if not for Lincoln and his participation in the Civil War,  the state would be split in two, slavery would remain in the South, and the USA would have never become what it is now. According to the second position, Lincoln played a purely negative role in the US history, since the Civil War was forced upon Lincoln by the South, and the war with all of its personal, material and financial losses was not necessary, the institution of slavery was dying out in the Southern states, which bordered the North, and the industrial revolution in the South made slavery outdates and non-economical anyway, so these processes would naturally preserve the Union and a united democratic nation.
Shchuplenkov N.O., Shchuplenkov O.V. - The Soviet-Chinese relations in 1920s-1930s. pp. 86-181

DOI:
10.7256/2306-4226.2014.2.10775

Abstract: The article concerns role and place of the Soviet Union in the foreign political strategy of the Kuomintang. The trouble spot of the civil war in Manchukuo remained for a very long time. The Russian population was divided into the opponents of the Soviet rule and those supporting it.  The financial situations differed, which  caused passive opposition. The lack of rights, economic dependency, unemployment made the Russian emigrants opposed to the Soviet citizens, causing them to join the military political anti-Soviet organizations. These organizations posed a serious threat to the Soviet Union, especially  at the early time of its existence. the "white" military immigration was watched by the Soviet intelligence services very attentively.  The counteractions to the undermining activities of the "white" emigrants, which was often aimed at the downfall of the Soviet rule took a lot of effort.  The tensions between two groups of former Russian residents in the territory of Manchukuo often involved victims.  It was especially obvious in the conflict for the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929. The article used comparative method, allowing to compare the positions of China and Russia within the framework of their bilateral relations.  The authors worked with the large quantity of literature, materials, and based their article on these materials. In the last decades a lot was done. The fundamental studies were published, as well as analytical articles, and the historical issues were often discussed at the scientific conferences.  Special attention should be paid to the issuing of documentary series, which are mostly based on archives and other materials, illustrating the sources base for the Soviet studies, and there were also additional publications of certain archive documents in the Soviet journals. The documents, which were published, usually attracted attention of the general public. Currently, there is a new stage in casting light upon the past, including the foreign political history of the years before the war. It relates to the restoring of the scientific connections between the scientists in the USSR and the PRC, accessibility of the archive materials in Russia.  For many years, the Russian studies of China gave priority to the Soviet policy in the Soviet-Chinese relations.
Grigor'eva O.G. - International legal assistance in the system of international relations of the USSR. pp. 92-129
Abstract: The article describes the main trends of Soviet foreign policy in the period from 1917 to 1991, was reflected in the formation of the institute of international legal assistance in civil matters. The author analyzes place, role and importance of international legal assistance in civil matters in the international relations of the Soviet state. This process is covered in terms of the basic foreign policy objectives of the USSR on a particular historical stage of development of international legal assistance in civil matters. The author provides analysis of the content of universal international conventions, which involved the Soviet Union, which are fundamental to the institution of legal aid in civil cases. The article expands upon the provisions of bilateral treaties of the USSR on trade and navigation, friendship and cooperation, legal assistance and legal relations, consular conventions. 
Belyakov D.A. - Russia-United States relations in the mid-19th century pp. 103-114

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2015.4.17252

Abstract: The article reveals the issues of the development of relations between the Russian Empire and the United States in the mid-19th century. The authors consider the international-legal situation of that period. The authors carry out the analysis of the Far Eastern policy of the Russian Empire in the post-reform period. The authors note that Russian-American relations in the late 19th century were characterized with the strengthening of friendly relations and establishment of business and trade contacts. Moreover, the US also had their interests in the Far East and could protect them effectively only with the help of the Russian state. The authors of the research apply the general methods of cognition: the materialist and dialectical methods and the method of scientific abstraction which gave the opportunity to study Russian-American relations in their development, to reveal the features of the Far Eastern policy of the Russian Empire of the post-reform period. The general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction and induction and the system-structural method helped in the analysis of Russia-United States relations of the mid-19th century and the formulation of conclusions about their impact on the world politics. Thus, the mutually beneficial cooperation between Russia and the US, established in the late 17th – the early 19th century, continued in the late 19th century. 
Fedyushko D.I. - Transformation of the decision-making mechanism in the sphere of strategic weapons of the USA during Richard Nixon’s Presidency in 1968 – 1971 pp. 113-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2017.2.17833

Abstract: The author studies the transformations of decision-making in the sphere of strategic weapons launched by American President Richard Nixon. The author studies the example of the missile defense program “Safeguard” and considers the modernization of the mechanism of functioning of the National Security Council and Henry Kissinger’s work aimed at this organization restructuring. Special attention is given to the formation of the tandem Nixon-Kissinger and the interaction between these politicians in decision-making in the sphere of missile defense. The author uses the historical-system, historical-comparative and historical-typological methods. To study H. Kissinger’s reforms as the National Security Advisor, the author applies the historical-comparative method. The work of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, considered in this piece, is a poorly studied area of Russian historiography. The author gives attention to this political tandem’s functioning and concludes about its primary role in decision-making in the sphere of missile defense of the USA in 1968 – 1971. 
Iryshkov A.V. - The first difficulties of the “Holy Experiment” at the turn of the 18th century pp. 127-139

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2017.1.22490

Abstract: The research subject covers the main problems and difficulties, faced by the founder of Pennsylvania - a colony on the east coast of North America, William Penn, in the organization of resettlement, the colony administration and arrangement. Special attention is given to the issues of religious tolerance, land disputes, colony administration, and pacifism in the context of a permanent military threat. The author describes the role of Quakers in the organization of the new society, characterizes Penn’s policy aimed at inviting investors to the colony. The purpose of the work is to find out the reasons of the failure of the “Holy Experiment”. The research is based on the general scientific method of structural system analysis, consisting in the consideration of the phenomenon in development and as a complex of all its components. The author studies the phenomenon as a single and inseparable complex of political history, all state institutions, social structure, different political, ideological and religious directions. The author applies the historicism principle as a method of studying the phenomena in the process of their birth and evolution, in close connection with the particular historical context; it helps detect the qualitative and quantitative uniqueness of the phenomena, the common and special features. The acquired conclusions can be used for studying the history of Pennsylvania and Quakers, social and political life in England at the turn of the 18th century, and for religious and philosophy studies, particularly, the origins of Protestantism and pacifism. The author formulates the list of the main reasons, which had led to the failure of the project in its initial form.  
Kosinova M.I. - Formation and development of international relations in the Russian pre-Revolution cinematography. pp. 225-235

DOI:
10.7256/2306-4226.2015.1.12524

Abstract: The article concerns the history of formation and development of the international relations in the Russian pre-Revolution cinematography (1896-1917). At this time the cinema import prevailed over cinema export. And only in the  years of the First World War the proportion has changed, and the purchase of foreign films was abruptly lessened.  During the first decade the leaders in the Russian cinema market were foreigners, first of all, the French. The repertoire was also mostly foreign. The first Russian cinema enterpeneurs (producers, if one is to put it into mdern terms) started their work in the cinema sphere as representatives of foreign cinema firms in Russia. In order to gain the starting capittal they had to serve as intermediaries for the purchase of foregn motion pictures and sale of these pictures to the movie theaters, and later, to the distribution agencies. As for the movie expert, A.A. Hanzhonkov and A.O. Drankov have achieved most in this sphere. The basis for the successful enterpreneurship of A.A. Hanzhonkov was the distribution of foreign films (back when there was no Russian movie production). Then he invested the money into his own movie company.  He both bought foreign films and sold his films abroad. For example, the first cartoons in the world, which were made by V.Starevich at A.A. Hanzhonkov's studio with the method of dimensional animation were successful both in Europe and in the USA.  A. O. Drankov was the founder of the Russian theatrical cinematograph and movie chronicles successfully sold his motion pictures (both theatrical and documentary) in America, England, France and other countries.  In the pre-War yeras the Russian motion pictures played an insignificant role in the repertoire of the Russian movie theaters. The War has changed this situation in the cinematography market, and it lead to the abrupt fall of the import of foreign motion picture and the rise of national movie production.The main approach in these studies is a complex analysis of the issue. It combines the so-called historical narrative of encyclopedical character, where the matters of development of international relations of the Russian pre-Revolution cinematography are shown in much detail and consequitively, the method of phylosophical cognition of these issues, and the art criticism analysis of representative materials. While the history of Russian pre-Revolution cinematography was studied in much detail and volume in many scientific studies, the history of international relations in the sphere of Russian cinetmatography was not previously reflected in the scientific literature. The pre-Revolution period laid the foundation for the international relations of the Russian cinematography. However, the Revolution and the later change in the political regime has ruined these fundamentals. And the young Soviet cinematography had to form the international relations anew.  
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