World Politics - rubric Non-government agents in international relations
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Rubric "Non-government agents in international relations"
Non-government agents in international relations
Hussein D.J. - Hydrocarbon fuels as a basis of the Kurdistan regions global diplomacy pp. 39-56


Abstract: The author of the article empirically studies the way countries are competing for establishing diplomatic relations with a non-governmental actor. The author focuses on the government of the Kurdistan region which uses its soft power to attract the attention of countries. Among other instruments, hydrocarbon fuels (oil and gas) were the main driving force of the Kurdistan region’s soft power. The author proves that economic and hydrocarbon ambitions have made the countries transform their traditional understanding of global diplomacy which inspires some former antagonist states to rebuild their relations with a non-governmental actor even more, and even to consider it as their close partner. The conclusions of the research correspond with the idea that the Kurdistan region will more actively participate in global diplomacy as it is rich in oil and gas resources.   
Strakevich A. - On the question of the prospects of cross-border right-wing populism in the European Union pp. 51-59


Abstract: The research subject is the prospects of cross-border cooperation of European political actors defined in public and academic discourse as “right-wing populists”. Within the corresponding national context, right-wing populists fight for the reversion to the mythical past, celebrate “the common man”, and strive for finding simple solutions to complex problems, at the same time appealing to their potential electorate as to the “chosen”, privileged group. The author of the research wonders to what extent such political guidelines hamper successful cross-border cooperation. Based on theoretical conclusions and empirical data, the author uses the method of modeling and develops an original model of political behavior of a right-wing political party. The author considers the historical data through the lens of the approaches which had become classical: the idea of natural inconsistency of national priorities of right-wing populists and the opposing idea of the linkage between the external strategy of right-wing populists and the internal success. Combining theoretical approaches with his own model, the author makes a discouraging forecast for right-wing populists. According to the research results, the discrepancy of the positive agenda of the parties, and the typical understanding of their privileged position will hardly allow them to create a stable coalition. It is supposed that the tendency will be reproduced in terms of a populust agenda being in opposition. Any attempt to assume a wide normalization of populist concepts will lead, in the author’s opinion, to the paradox: having lost their protest component, populists stop being themselves.   
Mladenovic M. - Russia-Serbia relations in the context of the activities of pro-western and pro-Russian NGOs pp. 57-68


Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze the most active western and pro-Russian non-governmental organizations working in Serbia. In the Mass Media and non-governmental sphere, the influence of Russia is rudimentary, and is often hampered by the supporters of the Euro-Atlantic ideas. The maintenance and development of a positive image in the face of information war led by Western countries against Russia, requires constant attention of Russia’s foreign policy agencies in their work with Serbian government and social structures. The active work of the government and civil society is needed for mutual promotion of cultural achievements in Russian and Serbian cultural space. The research methodology is based on the comparative approach. The author arrives at the conclusion that Western NGOs have huge financial capacities to influence the society of Serbia. They create, promote and develop their own NGOs through local contractors, whilst pro-Russian NGOs are authentic projects of pro-Russian Serbs which typically lack money and wide public action and whose projects don’t get wide information or financial support. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that it is one of the first attempts to comprehensively analyze and assess the work of non-governmental organizations in modern Serbia.  
Naumov A.O. - Amnesty Internationals role in the global governance system: the past and the present
pp. 73-88


Abstract: The article’s research object is the international non-governmental human rights organization Amnesty International. The research subject is the NGO’s activity since its establishment in 1962 till 2019. The author delves into such aspects of the topic as the history of creation of Amnesty International, its activities during the Cold War, the evolution of its approaches to the main problems in the field of human rights protection during the post-bipolar period, and analyzes the modern campaigns of this global NGO. The research methodology is based on the systems, structural-functional and comparative-political approaches, the methods of historicism, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and observation. The given research is the first in Russian historiography to analyze, based on primary sources and academic works, the role of Amnesty International within the global governance system from its creation to the present day. The author concludes that, despite its controversial character, this NGO has played and is still playing an important role in the world policy.   
Stenko A.I. - The spiritual presence of the Russian Orthodox Church in Africa: recent situation, current risks and potential threats pp. 74-83



Abstract: The phenomenon of the growing complex jurisdictional and dogmatic contradictions between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which at the same time is making increasingly persistent efforts to solve the problem of torpedoing the missionary activity of the ROC in Africa is the object of research. In this context, Alexandria relies on attracting influential external players from among representatives of not only other faiths, but also secular authorities of different countries, especially the United States. Author strives to conduct a retrospective review of the situation around the spiritual presence of the Moscow Patriarchate in Africa, as well as an analysis of the current legislative and institutional framework underlying such an element of US foreign policy as the promotion of "freedom of religion in the world." The study is based on the documents available on the Internet from the archives of the Alexandria Orthodox Church and US government agencies (Congress, State Department) aimed at consolidating the sphere of "freedom of religion in the world" as one of the current international priorities of Washington's policy. A comprehensive study of the prehistory of the conflicts between the APC and the ROC was carried out, as well as an analysis of the multidirectional arsenal of tools available to Washington for potentially exerting pressure on the Moscow Patriarchate in the context of the current spiritual presence of the ROC on the African continent. A holistic picture has been formed of the options for interaction between the Patriarchate of Alexandria and the US administration in the framework of joint attempts to restrain Moscow's activities in Africa. The research materials can be used in educational activities in order to counter the anti-Russian propaganda of the United States and other Western countries, which is increasingly affecting the church-religious "dossier".
Avarskii R.I., Dzhabbarinasir K.R. - The Iranian concept of an Islamic university (on the example of the place and significance of Imam Sadiq University and its influence on the government of Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi) pp. 82-95



Abstract: The objectives of this work are to consider the features of the activities of Imam Sadiq University and highlight the specific features of an Islamic university. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the works of Russian and foreign scientists devoted to the analysis of the activities of Imam Sadiq University and its place in the structure of the modern political course of Iran. The study identifies the general features of the Islamic concept of a humanitarian university, defined by the activities of Imam Sadiq University. The existence of significant contradictions that arise when the values of the Western and Islamic worlds collide during the development of the humanities is highlighted. The relevance of the topic under consideration is also emphasized by the growing conflict of interests of the Western and Islamic communities under the influence of the worsening Crisis in the Middle East, which has obviously increased the gap and confrontation between the two vast cultures. In the study, the authors note that today Iran is strengthening its course to the East, making a significant contribution to the development of the activities of Islamic universities and strengthening the integration of Islamic and humanitarian knowledge. The authors scientifically significant contribution to the study of the characteristics of Islamic universities is the identification of the general features of the concept of an Islamic university using the example of Imam Sadiq University, its activities and the opinion of the countrys spiritual leaders. The article emphasizes that graduates of Imam Sadiq University make a significant contribution to the current course of the Iranian government, since they form the structure of high-ranking officials - in the new government, the influence of Imam Sadiq University, whose graduates have penetrated into all spheres of the highest government power in Iran, is increasingly evident.
Bukalova S.V. - Science Diplomacy: the Nature and Role in the System of International Relations pp. 95-103


Abstract: The subject of the study is science diplomacy that is becoming more and more popular in the sphere of international relations. Meanwhile, the content of this concept remains blurred. The author correlates the concept of "science diplomacy" with the concepts of public diplomacy,"track-II diplomacy" and soft power, which provides a better understanding of its potential in the modern system of international relations. The article focuses on the humanitarian dimension of science diplomacy which, in the author's opinion, most closely corresponds to its mission. Using comparative methodology, the author compares the approach to understanding science diplomacy developed in the domestic discourse with the interpretation of this trend in official documents on Russian foreign policy and the existing domestic practice of science diplomacy. The author concludes that science diplomacy as a form of public diplomacy serves as a means of promoting and protecting the national interests of the state. The direction known as "science for diplomacy" most closely conforms to this role. The diplomacy of scientists is a very promising format of international contacts with the potential of affecting international relations.
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