World Politics - rubric Russian foreign policy
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Rubric "Russian foreign policy"
Russian foreign policy
Borodin E.A. - Central Asia as a geo-strategic project guaranteeing the long-term interests of Russia. pp. 1-17


Abstract: None of the post-Soviet states have not and probably shall not manage to form a self-sufficient, balanced and globally competitive national economic system after the break-up of the Soviet Union.  Moreover, the post-Soviet states, including the Central Asian states and the Russian Federation, did not manage to develop new economic connections, which could have facilitated intensive development of all of the industrial branches.  The processing industries of the Central Asian states were hardly competitive in the global market.  Currently Russian and Central Asian enterprises in the sphere of raw materials processing are either on stand-by or their work in insufficient amounts (when compared with the Soviet time), and the new enterprises are not introduced.  And it is only the raw material sphere that remains "afloat", such as energy, mining, non-ferrous metals production, etc., while the states are mostly exporting raw materials.
Shapkin M.N., Vasetsova E.S. - The Republic of Kazakhstan in the Central Asian strategy of the Russian Federation pp. 1-12


Abstract: The paper analyzes the foreign policy strategy of the Russian Federation towards Central Asia, one of the most significant regions in Russia’s foreign policy. The research subject is the role of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the region and its place within the Central Asian strategy of the Russian Federation. The authors study the key factors, influencing the contemporary Russia’s foreign policy strategy formation and their potential danger to Russia’s national interests. The authors analyze the shortcomings of Russia’s regional strategy and formulate recommendations for the formation of an effective foreign policy strategy towards Central Asia. The research methodology is based on general scientific methods and approaches together with the complex approach, involving the wide range of social sciences. The authors come to the conclusion about the necessity to extend multilateral cooperation in the context of regional political and economic challenges. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the consideration of Russia’s strategy towards the Republic of Kazakhstan with a special emphasis on the economic interests of the Russian Federation in Central Asia in the context of its broader geopolitical interests. 
Borisov A.V. - Russias Soft Power: specificity of understanding and evaluating
pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article contains the critical analysis of the understanding of “soft power” in Russia as a state’s foreign policy instrument. The author notes that the strategic planning guidelines defining the fundamental principles, priorities, goals and tasks in the field of foreign policy and national security contain numerous references to the importance of “soft power” and emphasize the necessity of increasing Russia’s role in the global humanitarian space. However, the instrumental understanding contradicts the initial understanding of “soft power” as a way to legitimize a state’s foreign policy efforts and leads to refocusing from the evaluation of the effect of using humanitarian technologies to the evaluation of the humanitarian activity itself. In the author’s opinion, such approach hampers the appropriate usage of Russia’s resources of “soft power” for the purposes of its foreign policy, and sidetracks from the understanding that the efforts aimed at the cultivation of soft power are directed towards a state’s internal policy, whereas being only projected outwardly.   
Koval'ska M. - The relevance of study of decision-making processes in Modern Russia. pp. 18-20


Abstract: Abstracts: Under present conditions political decision-making models and procedures (both internationally and domestically) become crucial for the development of a country and the determination of it role in World Politics. Therefore the study of political decision-making processes in Modern Russia is an urgent goal. During the study of political decision-making processes in Modern Russia one can come to the conclusion that the study of these processes owes to the scientific analysis of the functioning of the presidential power institute its interaction in what relates to decision-making with other branches of power: legislative and judicial. On the whole, the relevance of study of decision-making processes in Modern Russia (on the example of the institute of presidential power) is determined by set of special factors.
Demidov A. - Interpretations of the current foreign policy of Russia in the publications of research institutions of Argentina
pp. 19-46


Abstract: The research subject is the interpretation of Russia’s foreign policy in the 21st century by the researchers in Argentina. The purpose of the study is to form the image of Argentinean researchers’ ideas about the peculiarities of Russia’s foreign policy, its goals and methods, main directions, results and defining factors. The analysis is based on more than 60 works of specialists of the three most significant research institutions in Argentina involved in international studies. These articles were published in 2000-2019 and hadn’t been translated into Russian before this publication. The research is based on the historical method used for the analysis of the evolution of Argentinean scientists’ ideas about Russia’s foreign policy. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that scientific works (as opposed to journalistic ones) haven’t been analyzed by Russian scholars yet. The author analyzes and generalizes sources and finds out that the academic community of Argentina characterizes Russia’s foreign policy as pragmatic, mainly defensive, aimed at the restoration of influence in the domestic region and the preservation of the status of a superpower. The author demonstrates Argentinean scholars’ interpretations of the U.S.-Russia relations, the 2008 conflict with Georgia, the inclusion of Crimea and the 2014 crisis in Ukraine, Russia’s participation in conflicts in the Middle East, and its politics in Latin America. The author outlines the theoretical and methodological background of Argentinean studies of Russia’s foreign policy.
Konovalova K. - Russian-Latin American Strategic Partnerships in New Geopolitical Context pp. 37-51



Abstract: The object of this study is contemporary Russian-Latin American relations. The influence of the current international context related to the crisis around Ukraine on Russia's strategic partnerships (SP) with a number of Latin American states is considered in detail. The first part reveals the specifics of this relationship format. The second part analyzes the dynamics of the dialogue with Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua, Peru and Ecuador, depending on the depth of the impact on them of the confrontation between Russia and the West after the start of the Russian special military operation in Ukraine. In conclusion, the work highlights similarities and differences in the lines of conduct of Russia's Latin American strategic partners in today's conflicting international political conditions. This study is one of the first attempts to comprehend the effects of the Ukrainian crisis on the state and possible future of strategic partnerships between Russia and nations of the LAC region. A new look at the issue, involving systematic approach and case study method, which allows analyzing and including each national example of bilateral strategic partnership in the broader context of the dialogue between the Russian Federation and Latin America, determines the author's contribution. Main conclusions are as follows. First, although the reaction of Russia's strategic partners to the Ukrainian crisis and its global consequences varies, their common desire to maintain the momentum of mutually beneficial cooperation with Russia is noticeable. Secondly, within strategic partnerships, one can single out a material and symbolic components, and it is on the second that the complication of the international context has hit the hardest. Finally, the current situation clearly requires Russia to revise its Latin American strategy, the first step of which could just be a rethinking of the SP format.
Ozmanyan M.S. - The Image of the Russian Federation and Russian-Kurdish Relations in the Context of the Syrian Crisis (2015-2017) pp. 38-47


Abstract: The article is focused on an analysis of the image of the Russian Federation and its relationship with the Kurds in the context of the Syrian crisis. The article performs the following tasks: to consider the concept of the image of a State; to provide insight into Russian-Kurdish relations; to identify the features of Russian policy in Syria; to determine the ways to maintain a positive image of the Russian Federation in perception of the Syrian Kurds. From the outset of the Syrian conflict, the Kurds are one of the forces opposing the "Islamic state". The military operation in Syria was an important event for the foreign and military policy of the Russian Federation and significantly influenced Russia's political image in East and West. Participation of Russia in the settlement of the internal conflict in Syria contributed to improvement of the situation for the Kurds. At the same time the Kurds implement a two-pronged strategy: they seek to get Russia's support with regard to the situation in southern Syria and form an alliance with the United States with regard to the situation in the north of the same country. Strengthening of Russian-Kurdish constructive relations can make an important contribution to formation of a positive international image of the Russian Federation. Russia is taking a lead role in the Levant countries, and the establishment of strong relationships with the Syrian Kurds is of particular importance for the success of Moscow's Middle Eastern policy. Intervention of the Russian Federation in the Syrian conflict has not only strengthened the position of B. Asad, and bolstered the Kurds’ influence in the west of the Syrian Arab Republic, but also has significantly increased the credibility of Moscow from the international community, since Russia's loyalty to its allied duty and obligations positively affects its image abroad. 
Rep'eva A.M. - The energy policy of Russia and the Asian Pacific Region states. pp. 40-58


Abstract: This article is devoted to energy policy of Russia, which is the first among the pillars of the Russian economy in the XXI century.  It should be noted that the energy policy of any state is a complex of interactions of various internal and external factors. The internal factors include situation in the energy sector of Russia, presence of necessary equipment, technologies, cadres and strategies in the development of energy complex, existence of necessary legislation, facilitating instances, institutions and funds, assisting implementation of the goals, improvement of investment attractiveness of the Russian economy and some other measures, which are necessary for the growth of the Russian economy. Among the external factors one should single out the interests of the importers of the Russian resources, necessary amount of energy sources, acceptable supply routes, and political relations with the potential importers of the Russian raw materials, as well as with the competing states.  When speaking of external factors influencing the energy policy, one should not but mention that currently the states of the Asian Pacific Region play a more and more important role in the global economic and political relations. It is much more profitable for these states to purchase traditional resources, rather than developing alternative energy sources.  Russia has strategically beneficial geographic position towards this region, and it may trade without any intermediaries, which has a positive influence on the prices.  The need to modernize economy, development of the Far East and Siberia, strengthening the position in the global arena are the causes due to which Russia needs energy partnership with these states of the Asian Pacific Region. The energy policy of Russia is aimed towards solution of these topical problems. Accordingly, the object of study in this article includes political relations between Russia and the APR states, while the immediate object includes specific features of these relations and the ways to optimize them.
Kosorukov A.A. - Public Discourse as the Factor of Russia's Public Policy (the Case Study of Eurasian Integration) pp. 47-58


Abstract: The subject of the research is the public discourse as the factor of efficient implementation of Russia's public policy viewed on the basis of its institutional basis, and the development of the Eurasian Economic union and European union. The public discourse of the Eurasian regionalism is viewed by the author of the article from the point of view of the development of state authority's legitimacy, the latter being created as a result of different political approaches and defined by national and regional identity of a state. The national and regional identity of the state is created is in relation to the 'others', i.e. the main foreign partners. The methodology of the research includes historical method, content analysis, functional and non-functional approaches to integration. The main conclusions of the research are the following: - a state needs a public discourse to define significant 'others' and its national interests which raises the efficiency of public policty; - efficient public discourse allows to achieve international recognition of state's interests and letitimacy of its political system; - the fact that the European Union is not ready for equal interaction with the Eurasian Economic union in the space of public discourse means that the public discourse of the EU and its identifiction of significant 'others' bear an exclusive nature; - public discourse of Eurasian Economic Union member states is in still developing and includes unstable representations of Russia and the EU as significant 'others'. 
Karabanova M. - China in Russias Foreign Policy: Opportunities and Threats pp. 52-57


Abstract: The subject of the study is current Russian-Chinese relations. The article addresses the process of implementation of the most large-scale joint projects and agreements in the economic sphere. The author highlights special importance of China in the implementation of foreign policy and the economic activity of the Russian Federation, as well as possible threats to Russia associated with the enhancement of the role of China in world politics. The article analyses the areas of possible competition between Russia and China: the competitiveness in Africa, Latin America and other promising regions; it also marks the interdependence of economies of the two countries in the sphere of direct trade, raw materials and financial markets. The research methodology includes a theoretical analysis of the scientific literature and official documents on the problem; a study, generalization and analysis of information on the state of Russian-Chinese relations and possible negative consequences of this cooperation for the Russian Federation. The main conclusions of this article are the following: 1. Currently, Russia is the main priority partner of China. Besides, China occupies a key position in Russia's foreign policy. 2. The current state of Russian-Chinese relations allows us to talk about significant financial benefits derived from the implementation of projects by both countries and the strengthening of the position of the two countries in world politics in the course of this cooperation. 3. There are a lot of threats to the Russian economy from rapprochement with China but these problems can be solved by further diversification and strengthening of their own regional structures.
Kolomeitseva N.A., Kolomeitsev Y.Y. - The Russian Far East in Geo-Economic Space of the Asia-Pacific Region: Institutional Transformation pp. 58-64


Abstract: The subject of this study is the institutional transformation of Russia’s activity in political and economic space of the Asia-Pacific region. The author highlights the factors that hamper the process of integration of Russia into the Asia-Pacific region and, along with them, the aspects of the Federal "Eastern" policy that refract the negative trends of the foreign policy of the State in this area. The number of international forums organized by the Russian side over the past five years is marked as one of the variables of the institutional transformation. The analysis showed that the peak of activation of the "Eastern" foreign policy vector of the Russian Federation comes at a time of the drastic decline in inter-state relations in the "Western" direction. The article uses an extensive primary material selected by the researcher from various sources, which serves as the basis for the system approach with a view to determine the format of the ongoing transformation of the foreign policy vector of the Russian Federation. The author of the study presents several contradictory trends in the process of Russia's integration into the Asia-Pacific region and analyzes the institutions created by Russia and the countries and organizations of the Asia-Pacific region which contribute to entry of the Russian Federation to the largest markets of the fast developing and most populated world region. The article concludes on the changing role of Russia in geo-economic space of the Asia-Pacific region. 
Sagaidak E.A. - The Indian gambit: Kudankulam nuclear power plant. pp. 59-86


Abstract: This article touches upon a number of foremost important issues of Russian-Indian cooperation, among which the key spheres are military cooperation and nuclear energy.  The author defines the main causes of the disruption threats for construction of new power plants and launching the existing nuclear power plants, which were built by the Russian companies.  The author analyzes the relation between domestic policy of India and its foreign policy, growing role of the USA in the region, as well as the issues regarding competitiveness of the Russian military industry in the situation of change in the positions of political forces.  Current international relations may be characterized by appearance and development of a novel tendencies in the global politics and economics, including global problems, which may only be resolved with the aid of international cooperation in economic, political, scientific and technical spheres.  The energy commodities problem is one of the most topical problems for many states, including India, where the role of mineral resources has grown considerably in the latest years.
Romadan L.I. - Evolution of Russias approaches to the UN peacekeeping in the context of formation of a polycentric international relations system pp. 68-80


Abstract: The research subject is Russia’s policy in the UN, particularly in the sphere of peacekeeping and international security in the 21st century in the context of formation of a polycentric international relations system. The author focuses on the analysis of a contractual legal framework regulating the participation of Russian citizens in international peacekeeping, and the activities of peacekeepers in the modern UN peacekeeping operations. The author analyzes the geography of Russian peacekeepers’ participation, detects the tendencies and problems in the context of the UN reforming and the formation of Russia’s foreign policy priorities. The research methodology is based on the principles and methods of political research based on the system approach. To study the evolution of participation of the Russian Federation in the UN peacekeeping activities, the author uses the general logical approach, which includes analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparison, generalization, and the method of critical analysis of documents (content-analysis). The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to comprehensively analyze the participation of Russia in the UN peacekeeping activities in the context of formation of a polycentric model of international relations. To effectively promote Russia’s foreign policy in the UN, the author believes it is reasonable to focus on peacekeeping activities. 
Borodinov E.N. - Analysis of the foreign political operation in the Crimea. pp. 81-88


Abstract: This article concerns the analysis of the foreign political operation in Crimea, which was implemented by the armed forces of the Russian Federation  ("polite people"), the author provides evaluations of efficiency of this operation, conclusions are made on the key elements of unexpectedness and conspiracy. Considering the fact that the documents on this foreign political operation are not in open access,  the conclusion that secrecy was upmost important follows from the statements of the Russian politicians and diplomats, who have commented on the results of reunion of the Crimea and the Russian Federation.  It is noted that in spite of the fact that this foreign political operation was successful and its goal was achieved, it did have some shortcomings, which may be explained by the specific features of the Crimean precedent. As a result of the analysis the author reveals some moments which partially showed the participation of the Russian armed forces in the events in the Crimea.  The conclusion is made regarding what could be done to avoid the preliminary publicity on the fact of participation of the Russian armed forces. The conclusions in this article may be used for planning and implementation of similar scenarios. 
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