Электронный журнал Мировая политика - №3 за 2020 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-8671 - Издательство NotaBene
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World Politics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Contents of Issue № 03/2020
Contents of Issue № 03/2020
Resource competition
Israilov A.K., Shiriiazdanova I.F., Gatamova M.M., Ekazheva E.B. - The energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries in China containment strategy of the U.S. pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2020.3.33779

Abstract: The authors consider the bases of the U.S.’ geopolitical interests in the Persian Gulf region, the increasing influence of China on the region and the consequent strategy of the U.S. aimed at China containment. The Persian Gulf region is of economic interest for a range of countries due to its hydrocarbon resources and unique geographical position. For this reason, it historically has been under geopolitical influence. Sustained growth of China’s economy (prior to the 6.8% GDP reduction in Q12020 due to the pandemic) and strengthening cooperation of China with the Persian Gulf countries raise the U.S. 's concerns about the decrease of its influence in global politics, particularly the loss of influence in the Persian Gulf region. The article demonstrates the main directions and methods of the U.S.’s strategy of China containment implementation in the context of the energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries by means of creation of the Middle East Strategic Alliance (MESA), increase of the share of export of energy commodities on the China market in order to use them as a pressure tool. Special attention is given to the possibility of involvement of the U.S. in the “price war” for the recovery in oil prices. The authors have found out that the energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries plays a significant role in the American strategy of China containment, which is determined by the range of economic and other factors.  
Theory and methodology of international relations
Lukashuk A.A. - Integration processes within the federalist and neo-functionalist theories
pp. 14-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2020.3.32823

Abstract: The research subject is integration processes. The aim of the research is to reveal the essence of integration processes within the federalist and neo-functionalist theories. According to the works by K.Wheare and W. Riker, the factors promoting successful integration are the feeling of military vulnerability, craving for economic benefits, similarity of political institutions, geographic neighborhood, and craving for independence from other countries. Neo-functionalists - E. Haas, P. Schmitter - defined three groups of conditions which, in their opinion, determine the success of integration processes. Integration associations and processes within these theories have the following features: federalists consider integration association as a “federal bargain” in which the stronger state offers protection and wealth to the weaker ones in exchange for their resources. The specificity of integration processes according to the neo-functionalist theory consists in the spill-over of integration from one economic sphere to another, which spills over into the third one, etc. The article also outlines the weak points of each of the theories: federalists don’t disclose the very process of integration concentrating more on its final result, while neo-functionalists, despite the fact that they’d build a model which presumably covers a sufficient number of variables to get an unbiased idea of the successfulness of an integration association, didn’t take into account external factors which are also crucial for the development of integration processes.
World politics
Shkvarun M.A. - Russia in the centre of the Middle East triangle pp. 23-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2020.3.32568

Abstract: The research subject is the political processes in the Middle East. The author analyzes the current situation in Syria in the context of Russia’s regional policy in the Middle East. the author considers the political interests of the key countries participating in the process of civil war settlement in Syria: Russia, Turkey, Iran and Israel. The research is aimed at studying Russia’s role in Syrian conflict settlement, particularly, it contains the comparative economic evaluation of Russian spending on the military operation in Syria. The author gives special attention to the reasons of escalation in Idlib and analyzes the main contradictions between Russia and Turkey in the beginning of 2020. The article analyzes Russia’s role in the military operation in Syria, considers the multifaceted policy of each of the countries-elements of the Middle East triangle, assesses the political and economic advantages of Russia’s involvement in the Middle East conflict. The author concludes that the U.S. withdrawal from Syria allowed Russia to play a major role in the Middle East triangle. However, the “first violin” role in an international conflict settlement can lead to the country’s involvement into a permanent state of confrontation with the actors of the Middle East policy. Scientific and practical results of the research can be used as primary and additional source for further settlement of political problems in the Middle East.  
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - Protestant churches and sects as a political factor in Latin America pp. 33-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2020.3.34023

Abstract: In recent years, the role of protestant churches in the political life of Latin American countries has significantly grown. We can even talk about a specific regional phenomenon. The research object in this article is the modern political activity of Protestant churches in the region, and the research object is Latin American society. The author analyzes the participation of religious institutions in the latest electoral period of 2018 - 2019 using the example of presidential campaigns in Brazil and Mexico. Special attention is given to the fact that churches are becoming the subjects of political process influencing the reformation of public opinion and providing the secular authorities with massive support. The author concludes that during the presidential election in Brazil the largest local evangelical Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (IURD) gave significant support to the far-right candidate J. Bolsonaro, while in Mexico, the victory of the center-left politician López Obrador wouldn’t be possible without the active participation of the National Association of Evangelical Christian Churches (Confraternice). This Mexican politician has become the first democratically-elected leftist president. Of particular interest is also the analysis of internal and foreign policy of the leaders of Brazil and Mexico supported by the local evangelical communities. The topicality of the scientific problem is determined by the fact that in terms of a crisis of traditional political ideologies, economic and humanitarian crisis, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, religion is becoming the only secure basis, and the influence of its cults on the formation of public opinion will be undoubtedly growing.  
Non-government agents in international relations
Strakevich A. - On the question of the prospects of cross-border right-wing populism in the European Union pp. 51-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2020.3.32141

Abstract: The research subject is the prospects of cross-border cooperation of European political actors defined in public and academic discourse as “right-wing populists”. Within the corresponding national context, right-wing populists fight for the reversion to the mythical past, celebrate “the common man”, and strive for finding simple solutions to complex problems, at the same time appealing to their potential electorate as to the “chosen”, privileged group. The author of the research wonders to what extent such political guidelines hamper successful cross-border cooperation. Based on theoretical conclusions and empirical data, the author uses the method of modeling and develops an original model of political behavior of a right-wing political party. The author considers the historical data through the lens of the approaches which had become classical: the idea of natural inconsistency of national priorities of right-wing populists and the opposing idea of the linkage between the external strategy of right-wing populists and the internal success. Combining theoretical approaches with his own model, the author makes a discouraging forecast for right-wing populists. According to the research results, the discrepancy of the positive agenda of the parties, and the typical understanding of their privileged position will hardly allow them to create a stable coalition. It is supposed that the tendency will be reproduced in terms of a populust agenda being in opposition. Any attempt to assume a wide normalization of populist concepts will lead, in the author’s opinion, to the paradox: having lost their protest component, populists stop being themselves.  
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