Электронный журнал Мировая политика - №3 за 2019 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-8671 - Издательство NotaBene
World Politics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Contents of Issue № 03/2019
Contents of Issue № 03/2019
Challenges and threats to international security
Lebedev S. - The influence of oil on civil wars: the political economy paradigm pp. 1-7


Abstract: The research subject is the interconnection between oil wealth and political processes. The research object is the influence of hydrocarbons on ethnic conflicts. The author considers the ‘political’ dimension of the problem of resource curse and puts emphasis on the economic component of politics. There’s empirical data proving that the existence of ground or subsea oil or gas fields increases the probability of a civil war. At the same time, political and economic sciences still can’t explain this fact clearly and definitely. The main research paradigm is political economy with the rational choice methodology in the core. The author proceeds from the assumption that political actors try to analyze their profits and costs and make decisions based on this analysis. The article considers three explanations of the influence of oil on civil wars. Firstly, it’s a “honeypot effect”, when profits from hydrocarbons make official positions more enticing. Secondly, it’s the reduction of administrative competences of the state as a result of the resource curse. Thirdly, it’s the increase of probability of international intervention. The author concludes that the key conditions of a civil war are the low cost of a riot and the concentration of hydrocarbon wealth in one region which can be interested in separation.   
Resource competition
Ponomarev N.V. - Transformation of the approaches to using military and political channels of the U.S. international influence in the context of implementation of the energy strategy during Trump’s administration
pp. 8-18


Abstract: The research object is the global energy strategy of Donald Trump’s administration in 2017 - 2019. The research subject is the military and political aspects of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy connected with the plans to gain energy dominance and ensure international regimes favorable for maintaining the U.S. global leadership in the field of energy security and via the mechanisms of international military cooperation which include regional systems of energy export safety military provision formed by the U.S. in the 1990s - 2000s. The research is based on the system-structural approach to the analysis of the evolution of the U.S. foreign policy strategy, comparative analysis of regional vectors of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy, and document analysis. The research novelty of the study is conditioned by the estimation of the change of the role of the military and political factor in the U.S. energy policy in the context of the transformation of the global oil and gas market and the exacerbation of rivalry between the global powers against the background of weakening of the U.S. global position. The author notes both the continuation of policy towards the usage of the international military cooperation mechanisms for keeping control over the regimes of mining and transportation of carbohydrates on the global market, and the growing significance of military and political mechanisms of the U.S. influence aimed at furthering the U.S. interests as a liquified natural gas exporter. The decrease of the U.S. dependence on energy imports and the increase of its role as a huge exporter of natural gas do not lead to the reduction of the existing regional systems of military insurance of carbohydrates export. Competition for control over global energy flows management is still one of the key directions of the U.S. competition and independent centres of the forming polycentric global order.   
Russian foreign policy
Demidov A. - Interpretations of the current foreign policy of Russia in the publications of research institutions of Argentina
pp. 19-46


Abstract: The research subject is the interpretation of Russia’s foreign policy in the 21st century by the researchers in Argentina. The purpose of the study is to form the image of Argentinean researchers’ ideas about the peculiarities of Russia’s foreign policy, its goals and methods, main directions, results and defining factors. The analysis is based on more than 60 works of specialists of the three most significant research institutions in Argentina involved in international studies. These articles were published in 2000-2019 and hadn’t been translated into Russian before this publication. The research is based on the historical method used for the analysis of the evolution of Argentinean scientists’ ideas about Russia’s foreign policy. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that scientific works (as opposed to journalistic ones) haven’t been analyzed by Russian scholars yet. The author analyzes and generalizes sources and finds out that the academic community of Argentina characterizes Russia’s foreign policy as pragmatic, mainly defensive, aimed at the restoration of influence in the domestic region and the preservation of the status of a superpower. The author demonstrates Argentinean scholars’ interpretations of the U.S.-Russia relations, the 2008 conflict with Georgia, the inclusion of Crimea and the 2014 crisis in Ukraine, Russia’s participation in conflicts in the Middle East, and its politics in Latin America. The author outlines the theoretical and methodological background of Argentinean studies of Russia’s foreign policy.
Questions of current interest
Khlopov O.A. - The U.S. military and political strategy in Asian-Pacific region
pp. 47-59


Abstract: The research subject is the U.S.-China relations in the field of security. The research object is the peculiarities, the current state, the tendencies and the prospects of development of the U.S. strategy towards the growing and spreading military and strategic influence of China on the dynamics of processes in Asian-Pacific region. The author studies the content of the U.S. - China problems, the conflict potential and controversies in the field of military politics and military and political doctrines of the U.S. and China. The research is based on the paradigm of political neorealism proceeding from the assumption that the actors of international relations are sovereign states, and world politics and international relations are considered in terms of their systematicity. The main research method is the system approach. To describe the current content of the U.S.-China military and political relations, the author uses the comparative and historical research methods. The author formulates the conclusion that the U.S tries to avoid the revision of the regional status quo in the result of China’s ascending and the growth of its influence, by preserving and expanding military alliances and involving China into the military cooperation system. Against the background of the current economic and military and political controversies and differing understandings of the future world order, the politicians of the two countries try to avoid direct military conflicts based on the balance of forces and unavoidable strategic competition in Asian-Pacific region.   
Theory and methodology of international relations
Ursul A.D. - The global vector of international relations
pp. 60-71


Abstract: The author of the article notes that international processes have global potential, which hasn’t been completely revealed yet, and characteristics which determine their global orientation. Global features, potential and orientation of international processes manifest themselves through principles and general patterns involving all their participants and all the spheres of these social relations. Some international processes won’t gain global status at all, and the author defines the main criteria of their globallity. First of all, it is the qualitative-contensive criterion of globality as a spreading potential unity of particular social patterns, tendencies and principles. Besides, the author considers the spatial-geographical and the temporal criteria of globality, and the criterion connected with the problem of global safety. The author uses the global and the system approaches together with the integrative-interdisciplinary, historical and evolutionary approaches, the methods of scientific forecasting and futurology. Further inclusion of international relations into the process of solving global problems requires the improvement of supranational mechanisms of administration right up to the upcoming establishment of the global level of administration and the formation of global law and global values. The author makes a hypothesis that the phenomenon of statehood will keep the leading role not only in the transition to sustainable development, but also in other directions of the evolution of international processes. The author anticipates the development of international processes for the foreseeable future: the analysis of possible evolution of state as a key subject of international relations implies further development of these relations in terms of spreading sustainable development of humanity on the planet and beyond.   
World politics
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - Protestant churches and sects as a new political subject in Latin America
pp. 72-91


Abstract: Recently, the political presence of Protestant churches in the region has risen significantly. It was proven during the tense election campaign of 2018 - 2019, which demonstrated a high level of political polarization of society. The campaign resulted in the election of the rightist candidates, supported by Protestant communities, as presidents of several countries in Latin America. The sudden rise of Protestant churches was promoted by insufficient work of Catholic Church with the population and the crisis of the leftist parties. Whereas just a while ago Protestant churches limited their political invasion to the local level, today they set larger objectives and influence the results of presidential elections. As the traditional electorate of the rightist parties are the representatives of the upper class, they can’t count on the significant support of the electorate. While Protestant churches solve the biggest political problem of the rightist parties - provide them with the votes of the lower classes and transform them from the elitist to people’s parties. Thus, the author concludes that the new wave of the ‘rightist turmoil’ in Latin America was caused, among other things, by the activity of Protestant churches. The significant influence of these churches in the political life of Latin America can also be considered as a specific regional phenomenon.   
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