Электронный журнал Мировая политика - №3 за 2017 год - Содержание - список статей - ISSN: 2409-8671 - Издательство NotaBene
World Politics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Grigoryan A.V. - NATO’s decision-making process and small countries’ diplomacy pp. 1-11


Abstract: The topicality of this problem is determined by the fact that NATO remains one of the strongest security structures in the international arena, and the processes in this organization are among the most important issues to be studied. The research subject is the decision-making process within NATO and the role and significance of small countries in this process. To protect their interests, small countries connect their national security with different regional defense organizations such as NATO. Important components of NATO’s decision-making process are the consensus principle, consultations, and indivisibility of security within the Alliance. The author also considers the attitude of other members of the Alliance to the small countries’ policies and maneuvers. The author uses the institutional method to detect the key functions and directions of NATO’s activities, structural-functional analysis – to consider the structural peculiarities of the organization and the role of its member-states, and the ontological method – to study NATO’s power and the relations of domination and subordination within NATO. The author concludes that small countries within NATO have particular leverages within the decision-making process. It is determined by the institutional and legal peculiarities of the organization and its fundamental principles. For small countries, it is possible to guarantee security and protect national interests within NATO, and at the same time, each member-state concedes a part of its sovereignty to the organization. 
World politics
Altamimi K. - Factor analysis of relations between Russia and Bahrain at the present stage pp. 12-22


Abstract: The research subject is the promising directions of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Bahrain at the present stage. In this context, the author focuses on two factors, affecting the intentions of both countries, – relations between Washington and Manama and domestic political situation in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The purpose of the article is the analysis of the level and the nature of these factors’ impact on the dynamics of relations between Russia and Bahrain at the present stage.The research methodology is based on the system approach, which helps cover the “text” and the “context” of relations between the two states in 2017. The author uses the historical, factor, content- and event-analyses. The scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that this problem hasn’t been studied sufficiently enough so far, and by the viewpoint of the analysis, which covers foreign and domestic policy having impact on bilateral relations between Moscow and Manama. In conclusion, the author considers the effectiveness and the possibility of Russia’s role as a mediator and a pillar in local and regional conflicts influencing Bahrain’s security. 
Plokhotnikov K.E. - Mathematical model of geopolitics pp. 23-74


Abstract: Mathematical model of geopolitics is a conditional name of several models, which are naturally connected with and serve as companions to the main theme – geopolitics. The author introduces the central notion of a mathematical model of geopolitics – capacity of a habitat. Geopolitics includes climate, terrain, peculiarities of logistics of global flows of commodities, and geopolitical confrontation in terms of “sea – continent”, i.e. all those things composing the material set of conditions of existence of the population of the world. This set to a significant extent mediates political behavior of people. The author doesn’t adhere to the position of environmental determinism in the form of geopolitics, but tries to outline manifestations of geopolitics in the real politics. In all the demonstrated mathematical models, the author refers to a computational experiment, the results of which are presented and discussed in the text. The computational experiment is based on the data about climate, terrain, population and other components typical for modern geo-information systems. The mathematics of these models implies knowing the fundamentals: numerical methods, statistics, methods of optimization and some other disciplines. The author describes the density of habitat capacity in different countries. Par for the course, the top positions are taken by, in decreasing order, Russia, the USA, Brazil, China, Australia. The author defines and studies the index of specific capacity of habitat per capita, ranks countries and territories according to this index. Special attention is given to the correlation between these indexes in particular countries compared to Russia. The author studies the issue of interaction between the density of habitat capacity and terrain, compares territories concentrating 50% of the population and 50% of density of habitat capacity, and outlines the density gradient margins. The author classifies countries and territories in terms of “high – low” and “favourable – unfavourable”, i.e. in four categories taking account of terrain and density of habitat capacity. The paper contains the maps of territories of all four types. The author introduces and calculates the diversity index of particular territories and countries. Within the global traffic calculation, the author creates a specific index of percentage “sea – continent”. Based on this index, the author classifies points (territories) in geopolitical terms. This index helps formalize such well-known geopolitical notions as “Heartland” and “Rimland”. The author composes combined global and regional maps with political and geopolitical marking. These maps are analyzed for so-called geopolitical splits. Such splits are detected when some geopolitical lines don’t coincide with the state border, but lay deeply across its territory. The author demonstrates the numerical solution of the problem of optimal distribution of points (in terms of minimal transportation expenses) serving as logistics hubs on the planet. 
International separatism
Frolova I.N. - Problem of self-determination of Catalonia: positions of Spain and the EU pp. 75-81


Abstract: The research object is correlation and contradiction between the fundamental principles of modern international relations: the right of people to self-determination and the principle of the state sovereignty. The problem of Catalan self-determination in Spain is the result of such contradiction. This problem is one of the key issues of Spain’s policy; with the development of the EU as a political association, it’s become an important issue on the European agenda, too. It is not only the matter of self-determination, but it is also the matter of possibility to form a new independent state after the referendum scheduled for October 2017. The complexity and ambiguity of the issue is worsened by the difference between the positions of the key actors of the problem: the region, Spain and the EU. The author studies these positions. The author uses the methods of indirect and instrumental monitoring. It is based on the sources of the EU and the Government of Catalonia. The author uses the results of the interviews of Spanish specialists in this problem. The author concludes that the key method of the problem settlement should be constructive negotiation process with the participation of the representatives of the EU, the governments of Spain and Catalonia. At the present time this instrument is not used, and the parties to this conflict confirm it. Besides, the position of the EU on the problem of unilateral secession of Catalonia remains firm: the EU doesn’t accept unilateral secession of regions from the EU member-states. If it happens, the citizens of such regions will not be the citizens of the EU anymore. 
World politics
Hao L. - The “One Belt and One Road” initiative in the context of strategic cooperation between Russia and China pp. 82-91


Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of international interaction between the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China since the late 20th century to the present time within the upcoming new prospects of long-term cooperation. The author makes a brief review of the recent history of interrelations between the two counties and forecasts their development for the nearest future within the adopted joint program “One Belt and One Road”. This project is based on the “complementarity” principle, i.e. the unification of advantages of China and Russia thus forming modern largescale “development partnership”. This study is based on a set of scientific methods, including the historical, institutional, system and comparative methods of scientific analysis. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that the political science problem under consideration reveals the new understanding of the vectors of development of relations of the two largest world powers. Particularly, the author considers the role of China in realization of the largest projects of the Eurasian Economic Union in the context of economic decline in Russia and other countries, close to Russia, caused by the Western sanctions. In the context of the possible narrowing of the EAEU’s potential, China’s project of “one road” can naturally compensate Russia’s demand for effective partnership. A special author’s contribution to the study of the topic is the conclusion that in the contemporary world, the alliance of Russia and China can define many vectors of development of world politics for the nearest decades. 
Concepts of political structure of the world
Ursul A.D. - Formation of global world and transition to a sustainable future pp. 92-102


Abstract: The article shows that the formation of global world to a significant extent depends on solving global problems and reducing negative impacts of globalization during the transition to sustainable development (SD). Global process of transition to sustainable development is understood not only as a new form and strategy of development of mankind, which gives equal opportunities to present and future generations to satisfy their requirements, but also as a new, co-evolutional, way of interaction of society and nature, accompanied by the formation of global world. Sustainable development is considered in the context of solving priority global problems, not merely the ecological problem. To develop the issue, the author uses such general scientific research methods as the system-global, socio-natural, integrative-interdisciplinary and evolutionary-historical approaches, the methods of futures studies, especially the futurology approach and sustainable development prognostication. The author focuses on the fact that globalization and global problems are to a considerable degree determined by socio-natural factors: features of the planet and limits of the planet as a space body and the need to fundamentally change the traditional forms and ways of people’s life and their interaction with nature. The author studies the formation of global world in the context of solving the key socio-natural contradiction between the growing needs of mankind and impossibility to meet these needs without quick degradation of the biosphere. The author emphasizes that in the context of multiplication of global challenges and threats, it is necessary to move from eradication of emergency and other negative consequences of natural disasters and anthropogenic activity to prevention and preventive measures consisting in further movement to global sustainability. 
Regional configurations of international relations
Pestcov S.K. - Regionalism and new China’s periphery policy pp. 103-118


Abstract: The research subject is China’s regionalism as a set of views and opinions about the surrounding space, preferable regional orders and regional development processes. The study is based on constructivist principles of the new regionalism theory, which offer a set of ideas important for contemporary regionalism understanding. Regionalism issue has become more prominent in China since empowerment of Xi Jinping and the fifth generation of Chinese leaders in 2012. It is proved by a series of new concepts and initiatives in the sphere of regional development, offered by the Chinese leaders, and active discussion of the new regional strategy of China in the academic milieu. Analysis of ideas and suggestions, which appear during this discussion, helps construct the entire vision of the direction and character of probable changes in its foreign policy and the outlines of the forming new vision of regionalism. The author attempts to review the new Chinese approach to regionalism as a sum of ideas about the surrounding regional space, views on regional rules and strategies of behavior in the regional milieu, which form during its growth and development. The research methodology is based on the complex approach containing the historical, logical and comparative methods of scientific cognition, and the methods of system, conceptual and comparative analysis of sources. The scientific novelty of the research consists in detection and interpretation of the currently forming new ideas about the periphery diplomacy space, goals and tasks of diplomacy of China’s neighbours, principles and tactics of interrelations with regional neighbours, geographic references and regional activity priorities. The analysis helps understand the new trends and the content of the general vision of regionalism and country’s policy in the regional milieu, which are forming in China. 
Privatization of world politics
Karpovich O.G. - World politics and non-state actors of international relations pp. 119-128


Abstract: The article studies the role and place of non-state actors within the international relations system and world politics. The research object is the system of world politics, the research subject is the role and place of non-state actors of international relations – “actors beyond sovereignty” in world politics. The purpose of the research is to define the role and place of non-state actors (including special subjects of world politics – non-governmental organizations and trans-national corporations) within the system of world politics. The research methodology is based on the system, structural-functional, comparative-political approaches, the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and observation. The author gives attention to the fact that in contemporary world politics, non-state actors play a special role: their “intervention” into the international relations sphere has led to complete transformation of fundamental principles of international politics, emergence of global politics, erosion of sovereignty and borders of nation-states and their loss of monopoly on relations between nations and peoples. Trans-national corporations are among the most active non-state actors. In their form and mode of existence they are not specialized actors: they can successfully embed into any vacant political niches and play any roles using the support of nation-states. TNCs create specialized subordinate branches – political movements, parties, fractions, blocks, which they use to solve particular problems. Contemporary TNCs consider political activity as a natural continuation of project activity, which is a natural component of any business. Solution of political problems via bargaining based on equivalent exchange is a typical style of TNCs, which they stick to in the sphere of political relations. In response to non-state actors “intervention” into world politics, the system of conventional actors of international relations dynamically transforms begetting new forms of participation of nation-states in global political processes and new forms of inter-state interaction, which suit the changed conditions of competition and the international relations system’s evolution trends. 
Peacekeeping operations
Kovalev A.A. - The format of peacekeeping missions in the context of the contemporary geopolitical confrontation pp. 129-140


Abstract: The research subject is peacekeeping missions as an instrument of modern international and domestic conflicts. The author considers the problem the conflict phenomena in the modern political process. Special attention is given to the analysis of instruments of regulation of international and domestic military and political conflicts and the role of peacekeeping operations in this process. The author defines various approaches to understanding the essence of peacekeeping and a peacekeeping operations and their place in the modern international relations system. The multifaceted nature of the problem under study determines the methodology as a set of interrelated principles of cognition and research methods, realized on the base of popular synergetic and praxeological approaches to assessing and analyzing foreign policy problems of security. particularly, the author uses the set of recognized in political science cognitive principles, such as integrity, objectivity, historicism and alternativeness. Practical importance of the acquired results consists in deep and complex understanding of foreign policy of modern states in terms of collective security. The author’s conclusions and evaluations can be used for further consideration of the security component in foreign policy of a modern state for the purpose of studying the role of this aspect in the modern architecture of the European, Euro-Atlantic and global security. The author carries out the political analysis of evolution of international foreign policy in the sphere of security and defense in order to define the role and purpose of peacekeeping missions in the process of political and military conflicts settlement. The author analyzes various opinions about understanding the essence of peacekeeping and peacekeeping operations; considers the role of such operations within the modern international relations system; characterizes the essence of domestic and inter-state conflicts; presents the principles of peacekeeping operations. 
International image of the state
Urazaeva N., Morozov E. - Conceptualization of the image of Russia in the German mass media: turn for the better? pp. 141-154


Abstract: The article studies the conceptualization of the image of Russia in Germany during the period of 1990 – 2016. The research object is the conceptual background of the concepts interpreting the image of Russia. The author studies the example of the “Die Zeit” newspaper. To reconstruct the image of Russia, the author analyzes such key aspects as “size”, “economics”, “democracy”, “aggression”, and “political leader”. The topicality of the study is determined by the lack of scientific works about the linguistic representation of the image of a state, which is formed by the mass media and is the subject of discussion in political science, philosophy and history. In the context of the new cold war between Russia and the West with a prominent mass-media and information component, the author believes it is important to analyze the linguistic manipulation in mass-media aimed at the formation of a definite public opinion about Russia. The author uses the statistical, descriptive, interpretative and comparative methods, the method of continuous sampling and specific sampling and complex studies, and analysis of scientific works on this topic. Based on complex and diversified analysis of materials, the authors conclude that against the background of cooperation between Russia and Germany, mass media create the negative image of Russia, to a large extent based on stereotypes, but having dynamic features. In general, in Germans’ worldview, Russia is a huge country with low-developed economy, absence of democracy, pursuing aggressive policy. The authoritativeness of Russian leaders in the country often doesn’t correlate with the attitude towards them abroad. During the period under study, the image of Russia in the German mass media has changed several times. The positive dynamics has been observed in the recent year. 
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