Urban Studies - rubric Design and Environment
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Design and Environment "
Design and Environment
Kuryleva L.A. - Modern concepts of artificial lighting in the context of historical urban environment pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this article is the artificial lighting environment in the historical cities of Russia. The author examines and analyzed some existing Russian concepts of lighting of public urban spaces, as well as underlines the most interesting and promising approaches and principles used within them. The author also notes the positive and negative aspects of their application within the historical city environment depending on the type of the planning pattern and location of the historical center, as well as sophistication of street network and system of public urban spaces. The article provides international criteria of the quality of modern lighting environment of a city, and reveals the correspondence of the used in lighting concepts approaches with these criteria. The result of the research consists in a number of summary analytical tables that visually demonstrate the level of applicability of the existing in modern Russian concepts of lighting principles towards some historical cities of Russia. Such classification determines the weak sides in the existing concept, and accentuates the aspect that deserve attention in development of the future concepts of city lighting.
Atanesyan G. - Reconsideration of the new practices of erection of city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia pp. 21-26


Abstract: This article examines the mechanism of erection of the new city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia, as well as the reconsideration processes of their aesthetic significance in transformation of the urban symbolic landscapes. The residents of Armenia continue to welcome the erection of new monuments, thus the city authorities actively install the new statues across the country, approving all propositions of benefactors to rearrange the symbolic space of post-Soviet Armenia. Having examines the monuments erecter by benefactors in the cities of post-Soviet Armenia, it is stated that over the recent years the memorial landscape was transformed on both, physical and symbolic levels. Using the methods of observation and interview, the author clarifies the specificity of perception of the new monuments by the creative community and residents of the Armenian cities. The appearance of new monuments erected at the discretion of benefactors and entrepreneurs started to draw criticism of the experts and public that compare these statues with the tombstones. The residents of post-Soviet Armenia fear that in terms of continuing such practice, the cities will be filled with low-quality statues and tombstones, this blaming the city authorities that remain to approve all propositions on erection of monuments across the country.
Weber R., Griber Y.A. - Intensive weeks of color in professional training of the architects pp. 23-34


Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural color didactics – the theory of systems and methods of professional coloristic training in the architecture universities. The goal of the article consists in presentation of the unique course of coloristic training of the architects, developed in the Technical University of Dresden (Germany). The authors meticulously reviews the stages of approbation and improvement of the proposed didactical model. Particular attention is given to analysis of content of the course, as well as determination of the key technological conditions, regarding the formation of a set of competences and skills in working with the color in terms of designing the environmental objects by architects. Methodological foundation for the conclusions and generalizations consists in the system-structural consideration of the conceptual and technological peculiarities of implementation of the intensive weeks of color into the professional training of architects. The scientific novelty consists in expansion of the framework of scientific-methodological substantiation of the comprehensive system of exercises in development of perception of the color alongside its application in the design of environment. The results of analysis carry practical and theoretical value, and will contribute to the further comprehension of architectural education in the world.
Zadvornaia E.S., Gorokhovskaya L.G. - The objects of street art in urban environment of Vladivostok: practices of handling the УtigerФ art objects pp. 35-49


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in determination of the specificity of urban identity through the analysis of representations in urban space. The subject of the article is the contemporary public art of Vladivostok in the context of communication practices. The term “public art” is viewed as a form of street art within the social space of the city. Urban identity manifests as a construct and simultaneously – as a result of communication actions held within. The research is dedicated to the assessment of representations of the urban identity through public art. The authors conduct a pragmatic analysis of the objects of public art in urban environment: sculptures, murals, mosaics, reliefs, and others. Among the objects of public art are determined the markers of urban identity (distinctness of the city), classified by the type, theme, and disposition. The authors reveal the unique objects – sculptures and murals of the walls that resemble an image of tiger. The “tiger” art objects also enjoy most popularity within urban environment of Vladivostok. Using the methods of observation and interview, the authors clarify the specificity of perception of such symbols by the city dwellers. As a result, a contradiction is determined pertinent to the semantics of the image, which simultaneously resembles the city brand (for the government authorities), is a rare predator (for environmental organizations), and corresponds with the cultural code of the totem (for city dwellers).
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A., Dvoinev V.V. - Color preferences of senior citizens in various stages of house design pp. 36-49


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective, expressed in a certain arrangement of basic colors and their shades. The goal of this study lies in the empirical determination of quantitative and qualitative structure of color images that are most popular in the house interior (hallway, dining room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom) among senior citizens, as well as in the analysis of the acquired data with regards color perception that changes over time. The research method is an experiment, involving 50 senior citizens, in the age between 60 and 82 (average age of 67.54; 8 males and 42 females). The scientific novelty consists in description of the specificity of color coding attained by various functional zones in house design of the senior citizens. The most distinct color margin is between the intimate and personal spaces and those that carry out a representative functions. The noted opposition of the internal and external, shielded and open in color preferences of the senior people is realized through the parameters of lightness: in arrangement of bedroom and bathroom prevail the light shades; for hallway and dining room most often are selected the saturated and dark tones. All types of living spaces mark natural colors and shades. The determined color preferences are specific for designing certain types of house interiors. They significantly differ from the preferences associated with other types of objects (for example, the façade color) and do not match with the abstract favorite colors.  
Fomina E.V., Barsukova N.I. - Engineering design and modernization of building-adjacent territories in industrial cities (on the example of Tolyatti) pp. 40-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the urban space of Tolyatti – a large industrial center built during Soviet times. The article analyzes the Soviet and post-Soviet ideas of designing the urban environment. The object of this research is the building-adjacent territories of the most problem, standard residential areas that in a lesser extent correspond with the modern perception of human comfort in urban environment. The need for modernization and harmonization of courtyard spaces for increasing the quality of life of the urban population is demonstrated through the complex environmental approach, namely the engineering design. The authors conduct a correlational analysis of the contemporary design projects of creating the comfortable environment along with the idea resources laid in the project of an “ideal” Soviet industrial city. In the course of this research were determined the positive city-planning ideas of “city of the future” that allow efficiently develop the building-adjacent territories. The authors examine the problematic of the standard residential construction of Tolyatti and transformation of the functions of urban environment, as well as substantiate the role of courtyard as an important territory for increasing the quality of life in the modern industrial city. The concept of a contemporary courtyard space is presented.
Griber Y.A. - Monochromatic model of urban coloristics pp. 58-64


Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural coloristics as a historical and cultural phenomenon. The subject of this research is the monochromatic color pallet of the building facades common for certain urban areas of the world. The goal of this article consists in identification of the mechanism of formation of the monochromatic model of urban coloristics and systematization of its sociocultural specificities. The author thoroughly examines the key principle of the model that defines the correlation between the color and shape in urban space, as well as analyzes the strategies of spreading the monochromatic coloristics and mechanism of inheriting the color tradition by the culture. Special attention is given to the expert evaluation of the areas with monochromatic color pallet of the building facades. For resolution of the research problem, the author uses the method of classification aimed at the well-ordered description and explanation of the diverse variants of monochromatic model of the urban coloristics. Author’s special contribution lies in formulation of the historical and cultural grounds for structuring the typology of monochrome within the architectural coloristics. The scientific novelty consists in determination and description of the three major versions of monochromatic model: evolutionary, artificial, and mixed, which noticeably differ from the perspective of mechanisms of formation and sociocultural properties. Evolutionary versions represents a product of natural development of coloristics of the area; artificial is the result of target color design; and the mixed combines the artificial mechanism of introducing the new coloristics with natural way of future development of the new color traditions in urban fabrics.
Pryadko I.P. - Biosphere and social processes in the aspect of strategic design of urban environment pp. 88-101


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of social meaning and the role of urban development and architect. The author brings up the key concern for the modern architectonics and design of urbanized territories regarding consideration of the requirements of preservation of nature, adjacent landscape for the harmonious coexistence of biosphere and urban communities. The research juxtaposes the principles of the arrangements of anthropogenic space in the context of Eastern (China and Japan) and Western cultures, as well as traces the application of such principles in modern architecture with biotech vector. Leaning on the results of document analysis, sociological survey, and comparative-historical method, the author gives recommendation to architects and city planners with regards to studying social and environmental needs of the residents of urbanized territories. The scientific novelty is defined by the perspective upon the functions of design and architecture, viewed as the components of unified system of measures on the arrangement of biosphere-compatible space in large metropolitan cities. The conclusion is made on the prospects of using the principles of architecture and landscape biotech design in creating urban environment convenient for people. The author criticizes the idea of “super comfort”, which manifested as an objective of industrial and landscapes designs of the industrial era. The concept of “strategic” design is being introduced.  
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A. - Gerontological specificity of color preferences associated with selecting color of the facade of residential building pp. 99-113


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective color affinities that are expressed in certain arrangement of the basic colors and their hues. The goal of this work lies in examining the mechanisms of the matching color preferences of the senior citizens in situation when the color is viewed as part of the facade of residential building; determining the degree of impact of coloristics of the existing buildings upon their solutions; comparing the abstract and matching color choices of senior citizens with the color preferences of younger people. The experiment involved 20 senior citizens in the age between 61 and 72 (average age 64.95; 6 males and 14 females). The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the statement that the mechanism of color choice among senior citizens differs drastically from the preferences of younger participants of the experiment. The abstract color preferences in various age groups significantly vary in tone. In the matching choices of senior respondents prevail the soft and light shades. Cold colors are selected more often than warm. Unlike younger participants of the experiment, color solutions of senior citizens do not accord with the shade groups of stimuli.
Pankratova A.V. - Crisis in the design of modernism on the example of color arrangement of the environment pp. 150-161


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the ideological transformation of the phenomenon of design. The hypothesis lies in the fact that the ideology of modernism, which still prevails in design, does not meet the sociocultural conditions of modernity. The design of modernism is addressed to the averaged consumer and does not consider the age, gender, ethnic and other peculiarities of a human. The author explicates the internal contradiction of modernism and demonstrates the danger of identifying modernism with design: no target orientation and internationality, declared as a goal of design in modernism, make modern not adjusted to a specific human being. Based on comparison of color arrangement of the environment of the three main periods in the history of design – modern, modernism, and postmodern – the author demonstrates the changes in ideology of design related to the peculiarities of episteme. The article reveals the problems of the modern design environment that inherits the principles of modernism. The main conclusion lies in the need for shifting towards the new paradigm design – the era of techno-vitalism, when on the background of the increasing technological progress emerges the inquiry for return of the panhuman meanings and values. Design of the era of techno-vitalism, which unlike modernism, supports the transcendent concepts, will become the service for creating the individualized objective-spatial and visual-information environment.  
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