Urban Studies - rubric Design and Environment
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Design and Environment
Kuryleva L.A. - Modern concepts of artificial lighting in the context of historical urban environment pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this article is the artificial lighting environment in the historical cities of Russia. The author examines and analyzed some existing Russian concepts of lighting of public urban spaces, as well as underlines the most interesting and promising approaches and principles used within them. The author also notes the positive and negative aspects of their application within the historical city environment depending on the type of the planning pattern and location of the historical center, as well as sophistication of street network and system of public urban spaces. The article provides international criteria of the quality of modern lighting environment of a city, and reveals the correspondence of the used in lighting concepts approaches with these criteria. The result of the research consists in a number of summary analytical tables that visually demonstrate the level of applicability of the existing in modern Russian concepts of lighting principles towards some historical cities of Russia. Such classification determines the weak sides in the existing concept, and accentuates the aspect that deserve attention in development of the future concepts of city lighting.
Baklyskaia L.E., Il'in K.S. - Biofriendly design: arrangement of sustainable and smart environment pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of this research is application of the principles and techniques of biofriendly design in various environmental situations – open urban and interior spaces. The relevance of this research is defined by the need for new paradigms and conceptual solutions in order to change the relationship between urbanized environment and nature. Biofriendly design is of particularly demand in the conditions of such global challenges to modern society as the 2020 pandemic, as it opens additional opportunities for sustainable development. The research methodology is based on the unity of theory and practice. The theoretical part of the work consists in consideration of the current state of the question, analysis of the key principles of biofriendly urbanism and techniques of biofriendly design. The practical part reviews the examples of projects of the open and interior spaces, in which biofriendliness is one of the fundamental principles of arranging the environment, and simultaneously, the space organization techniques. The empirical framework is comprised of such methods as observation and analysis of the results of creative works that allow assessing  the effectiveness of forms and methods of the development of creative component of professional activity. The research is conducted at the premises of the department of Design of Architectural Environment of the Pacific National University within the framework of educational course “Environmental Factors in Design” and is of applied nature. The novelty of this work consists in implementation of the obtained results in practical architectural and design engineering of environmental objects.
Baklyskaia L.E., Goncharova N.V., Denisova A.A., Mamontov A.Y. - Aesthetic aspects of the design of the courtyard space of an apartment building pp. 15-26


Abstract: The article analyzes and evaluates the adjacent spaces in residential areas. A survey of about a hundred yards of Far Eastern cities (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) was conducted. Using the methods of full-scale survey and comparative analysis, positive and negative characteristics are determined in terms of aesthetics, functions and convenience for residents, the conditions of visual comfort on the selected site are revealed. The study is carried out from the point of view of architectural composition and functional organization. The study includes an analytical part, which presents the characteristics of house spaces and a practical one, which contains recommendations for improving the aesthetic qualities of the courtyard environment. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time such an analysis is carried out in the process of architectural design training in order to understand the special importance of aesthetic comfort in an urban residential environment. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to introduce theoretical research into design practice for further development of the courtyard of an apartment building: from reasonable functional organization and simple physical comfort - to aesthetic comfort, to artistic expressiveness of space and a unique sense of place identity. The study was conducted by the Institute of Architecture and Design of Pacific State University as part of the training courses "Environmental factors in Design" and "Aesthetics of Architecture and Design".
Fomina E.V., Barsukova N.I. - Multilevel open urban spaces: current trends pp. 20-33



Abstract: The object of the study is multilevel open urban spaces. The subject of this study is the general principles and design techniques of the organization of the subjectspatial environment of multilevel spaces. The article analyzes and systematizes a large project material devoted to new global trends in the organization of multi-level open public spaces. For the first time, a comprehensive overview of their conceptual varieties and compositional features is given. Design techniques aimed at the formation of multilevelness in the urban environment using landscape and design methods of shaping are revealed. A systematic analysis of the principles of the organization of multilevel open spaces in the unity of axiological, ecological, artistic, aesthetic and contextual approaches is carried out. The article identifies current trends in the organization of open multilevel urban spaces, defines them as separate fragments of a transportless urban environment, representing one or more tiers, at least one of which is above ground or water level, intended, as a rule, for recreation and walking. Among them there can be both monofunctional and multifunctional spaces, but they are all united by such qualities as recreational function, accessibility and openness. Typological types are proposed for the first time: multi-level pedestrian zones and additional levels of transport interchanges; tiered gardens and parks; above-water recreational spaces; mini-courtyards integrated into a multi-storey building; green roofs for various purposes; multi-level playgrounds. The conclusion is formulated that the design of multilevel open urban spaces is an actual trend of modern project culture and helps to solve various project and social tasks.
Atanesyan G. - Reconsideration of the new practices of erection of city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia pp. 21-26


Abstract: This article examines the mechanism of erection of the new city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia, as well as the reconsideration processes of their aesthetic significance in transformation of the urban symbolic landscapes. The residents of Armenia continue to welcome the erection of new monuments, thus the city authorities actively install the new statues across the country, approving all propositions of benefactors to rearrange the symbolic space of post-Soviet Armenia. Having examines the monuments erecter by benefactors in the cities of post-Soviet Armenia, it is stated that over the recent years the memorial landscape was transformed on both, physical and symbolic levels. Using the methods of observation and interview, the author clarifies the specificity of perception of the new monuments by the creative community and residents of the Armenian cities. The appearance of new monuments erected at the discretion of benefactors and entrepreneurs started to draw criticism of the experts and public that compare these statues with the tombstones. The residents of post-Soviet Armenia fear that in terms of continuing such practice, the cities will be filled with low-quality statues and tombstones, this blaming the city authorities that remain to approve all propositions on erection of monuments across the country.
Weber R., Griber Y.A. - Intensive weeks of color in professional training of the architects pp. 23-34


Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural color didactics – the theory of systems and methods of professional coloristic training in the architecture universities. The goal of the article consists in presentation of the unique course of coloristic training of the architects, developed in the Technical University of Dresden (Germany). The authors meticulously reviews the stages of approbation and improvement of the proposed didactical model. Particular attention is given to analysis of content of the course, as well as determination of the key technological conditions, regarding the formation of a set of competences and skills in working with the color in terms of designing the environmental objects by architects. Methodological foundation for the conclusions and generalizations consists in the system-structural consideration of the conceptual and technological peculiarities of implementation of the intensive weeks of color into the professional training of architects. The scientific novelty consists in expansion of the framework of scientific-methodological substantiation of the comprehensive system of exercises in development of perception of the color alongside its application in the design of environment. The results of analysis carry practical and theoretical value, and will contribute to the further comprehension of architectural education in the world.
Skivko M. - The potential of a short tourist route on the example of a single street: tourist attractiveness of urban spaces pp. 32-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is tourist attractiveness of the walking rout of a section of a single street in Samara. The object of this research is such characteristics of the route as visual attractiveness, convenience and safety, atmosphere, and uniqueness. This article provides the analysis of urban space and environment on the example of a specific street in the city of Samara. The selected section directly connects the railway station, which is the place of daily arrival and transit tourists, and the Volga promenade – as one of the main symbols of the city and the center of attraction for locals and visitors. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of the existing conditions for the tourist route, which can be improved and extended for increasing the overall assessment of tourism infrastructure. The empirical framework of this research synthesizes the approaches towards interpretation of the psychogeography of the city and towards the analytics of individual experience in the urban environment. The field notes and information analysis allow examining the potential of a tourist route in this section, as well as making recommendations for increasing tourist attractiveness and development of tourism infrastructure of the city. Such pattern can be applied in the research of large and small cities for assessing the current situation and efficient planning of tourism infrastructure in the future. The author formulates the categories of tourist attractiveness that reflect physical, psychological and emotional characteristics of feasibility of urban environment for local tourism. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the development of categories for the analysis based on the key approaches of Paul Kidwell and Colin Ellard towards studying psychogeography of the city and architecture of the urban environment.
Bulatova E.K. - Design Code of the urban Environment along the main Avenue of Yekaterinburg pp. 34-49



Abstract: The strategy for the development of modern cities includes an analysis of a comfortable urban space, with the subsequent goal of improving the quality of life of the city's population. The main transit type of public space is the streets and avenues of cities. The study provides an analysis of the modern use of public space in city streets, as well as recommendations for the development and formation of a comfortable territory of Yekaterinburg streets for city residents. Recommendations after the analysis, when implemented, will allow the main city avenue to be not only comfortable for residents of Yekaterinburg, as well as visitors from other regions and foreign students, the avenue will attract domestic and foreign tourists even more. The subject of the study. Features of the current state of urban space and prospects for further modernization of urban areas and restoration of residential and public buildings. For the first time, the analysis of the current state of Lenin Avenue was carried out, the missing positions in the design code of the Yekaterinburg landscaping concept were identified and the points of recommendations for further implementation in architectural subject-spatial characteristics were indicated, taking into account sociological factors. To improve the organization of the public space of Lenin Avenue, it is proposed: 1. Exclude the presence of "visual noise" outside the points of attraction; 2. To restore the facades of residential and public buildings facing the avenue, including objects of historical and cultural heritage; 3. To give in general terms a unified design to small architectural forms; 4. Highlight an additional "image of the city"; 5. Creation of a full-fledged lighting line in a single style, along the entire avenue; 6. Organize linear landscaping along the roadway and pedestrian zone, plant perennial herbaceous plants; 7. Create a separate path for the bike infrastructure, additional bike parking; 8. Select a surface street pedestrian crossing instead of an underground one, with priority for pedestrians; 9. Exclude sidewalk fencing, which is not appropriate in this case.
Zadvornaia E.S., Gorokhovskaya L.G. - The objects of street art in urban environment of Vladivostok: practices of handling the tiger art objects pp. 35-49


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in determination of the specificity of urban identity through the analysis of representations in urban space. The subject of the article is the contemporary public art of Vladivostok in the context of communication practices. The term “public art” is viewed as a form of street art within the social space of the city. Urban identity manifests as a construct and simultaneously – as a result of communication actions held within. The research is dedicated to the assessment of representations of the urban identity through public art. The authors conduct a pragmatic analysis of the objects of public art in urban environment: sculptures, murals, mosaics, reliefs, and others. Among the objects of public art are determined the markers of urban identity (distinctness of the city), classified by the type, theme, and disposition. The authors reveal the unique objects – sculptures and murals of the walls that resemble an image of tiger. The “tiger” art objects also enjoy most popularity within urban environment of Vladivostok. Using the methods of observation and interview, the authors clarify the specificity of perception of such symbols by the city dwellers. As a result, a contradiction is determined pertinent to the semantics of the image, which simultaneously resembles the city brand (for the government authorities), is a rare predator (for environmental organizations), and corresponds with the cultural code of the totem (for city dwellers).
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A., Dvoinev V.V. - Color preferences of senior citizens in various stages of house design pp. 36-49


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective, expressed in a certain arrangement of basic colors and their shades. The goal of this study lies in the empirical determination of quantitative and qualitative structure of color images that are most popular in the house interior (hallway, dining room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom) among senior citizens, as well as in the analysis of the acquired data with regards color perception that changes over time. The research method is an experiment, involving 50 senior citizens, in the age between 60 and 82 (average age of 67.54; 8 males and 42 females). The scientific novelty consists in description of the specificity of color coding attained by various functional zones in house design of the senior citizens. The most distinct color margin is between the intimate and personal spaces and those that carry out a representative functions. The noted opposition of the internal and external, shielded and open in color preferences of the senior people is realized through the parameters of lightness: in arrangement of bedroom and bathroom prevail the light shades; for hallway and dining room most often are selected the saturated and dark tones. All types of living spaces mark natural colors and shades. The determined color preferences are specific for designing certain types of house interiors. They significantly differ from the preferences associated with other types of objects (for example, the façade color) and do not match with the abstract favorite colors.  
Fomina E.V., Barsukova N.I. - Engineering design and modernization of building-adjacent territories in industrial cities (on the example of Tolyatti) pp. 40-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the urban space of Tolyatti – a large industrial center built during Soviet times. The article analyzes the Soviet and post-Soviet ideas of designing the urban environment. The object of this research is the building-adjacent territories of the most problem, standard residential areas that in a lesser extent correspond with the modern perception of human comfort in urban environment. The need for modernization and harmonization of courtyard spaces for increasing the quality of life of the urban population is demonstrated through the complex environmental approach, namely the engineering design. The authors conduct a correlational analysis of the contemporary design projects of creating the comfortable environment along with the idea resources laid in the project of an “ideal” Soviet industrial city. In the course of this research were determined the positive city-planning ideas of “city of the future” that allow efficiently develop the building-adjacent territories. The authors examine the problematic of the standard residential construction of Tolyatti and transformation of the functions of urban environment, as well as substantiate the role of courtyard as an important territory for increasing the quality of life in the modern industrial city. The concept of a contemporary courtyard space is presented.
Griber Y.A. - Monochromatic model of urban coloristics pp. 58-64


Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural coloristics as a historical and cultural phenomenon. The subject of this research is the monochromatic color pallet of the building facades common for certain urban areas of the world. The goal of this article consists in identification of the mechanism of formation of the monochromatic model of urban coloristics and systematization of its sociocultural specificities. The author thoroughly examines the key principle of the model that defines the correlation between the color and shape in urban space, as well as analyzes the strategies of spreading the monochromatic coloristics and mechanism of inheriting the color tradition by the culture. Special attention is given to the expert evaluation of the areas with monochromatic color pallet of the building facades. For resolution of the research problem, the author uses the method of classification aimed at the well-ordered description and explanation of the diverse variants of monochromatic model of the urban coloristics. Author’s special contribution lies in formulation of the historical and cultural grounds for structuring the typology of monochrome within the architectural coloristics. The scientific novelty consists in determination and description of the three major versions of monochromatic model: evolutionary, artificial, and mixed, which noticeably differ from the perspective of mechanisms of formation and sociocultural properties. Evolutionary versions represents a product of natural development of coloristics of the area; artificial is the result of target color design; and the mixed combines the artificial mechanism of introducing the new coloristics with natural way of future development of the new color traditions in urban fabrics.
Pryadko I.P. - Biosphere and social processes in the aspect of strategic design of urban environment pp. 88-101


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of social meaning and the role of urban development and architect. The author brings up the key concern for the modern architectonics and design of urbanized territories regarding consideration of the requirements of preservation of nature, adjacent landscape for the harmonious coexistence of biosphere and urban communities. The research juxtaposes the principles of the arrangements of anthropogenic space in the context of Eastern (China and Japan) and Western cultures, as well as traces the application of such principles in modern architecture with biotech vector. Leaning on the results of document analysis, sociological survey, and comparative-historical method, the author gives recommendation to architects and city planners with regards to studying social and environmental needs of the residents of urbanized territories. The scientific novelty is defined by the perspective upon the functions of design and architecture, viewed as the components of unified system of measures on the arrangement of biosphere-compatible space in large metropolitan cities. The conclusion is made on the prospects of using the principles of architecture and landscape biotech design in creating urban environment convenient for people. The author criticizes the idea of “super comfort”, which manifested as an objective of industrial and landscapes designs of the industrial era. The concept of “strategic” design is being introduced.  
Kuzmina N.M., Fedorov A.V., Ardasheva O.A. - Factors affecting the decorativeness of flower beds in a regular style on the example of the city of Izhevsk pp. 96-107



Abstract: The emotional state and quality of the citizens' rest depends on the quality of the decorative floral design. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the floral design of the central part of the city of Izhevsk, to determine the optimal planting area of annual ornamental crops per 1 m2 and the factors that influenced the quality and decorative effect of regular-style flower beds in the conditions of Izhevsk. The selected objects for research are located along one route: Victory Square, Kuzebai Gerd Square, Likhvintsev Boulevard, the square near the residence of the Head of the Udmurt Republic, the square near the Children's Cafe. The examination of flower beds was carried out according to the principle of the route method. For a qualitative assessment of flower beds, the following were taken into account: the surface of the flower bed, the habitus and decorative properties of plants, the presence of decay, the state of the soil, the planting rate, and the littering. To assess the decorative effect of flower beds in the floral design of Izhevsk, the Department of Plant Introduction and Acclimatization of the Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (UdmFIC UrO RAS) developed a 4-point assessment taking into account the laws of composition. Flower beds located on the territory of the studied objects are decorated mainly with annual flower crops and occupy an area of 3464 m2 (99.5%), including 1570 m2 (45%) in regular style, 13 types of ornamental plants of singleseason use belonging to 10 families participated in the landscaping of regular-style flower beds in 2019-2020. When studying flower beds in the central part of Izhevsk in 2019-2020, the dependence of the assessment of quality and decorative effect on the density of planting flower seedlings was revealed, with increasing density, the decorative effect of flower beds improves. Several reasons have been identified that have affected the deterioration of the decorative nature of flower beds: violation of the planting dates of flower crops, sparse plantings (16 pcs / 1 m2), low level of agronomic care of flower beds.
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A. - Gerontological specificity of color preferences associated with selecting color of the facade of residential building pp. 99-113


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective color affinities that are expressed in certain arrangement of the basic colors and their hues. The goal of this work lies in examining the mechanisms of the matching color preferences of the senior citizens in situation when the color is viewed as part of the facade of residential building; determining the degree of impact of coloristics of the existing buildings upon their solutions; comparing the abstract and matching color choices of senior citizens with the color preferences of younger people. The experiment involved 20 senior citizens in the age between 61 and 72 (average age 64.95; 6 males and 14 females). The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the statement that the mechanism of color choice among senior citizens differs drastically from the preferences of younger participants of the experiment. The abstract color preferences in various age groups significantly vary in tone. In the matching choices of senior respondents prevail the soft and light shades. Cold colors are selected more often than warm. Unlike younger participants of the experiment, color solutions of senior citizens do not accord with the shade groups of stimuli.
Pankratova A.V. - Crisis in the design of modernism on the example of color arrangement of the environment pp. 150-161


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the ideological transformation of the phenomenon of design. The hypothesis lies in the fact that the ideology of modernism, which still prevails in design, does not meet the sociocultural conditions of modernity. The design of modernism is addressed to the averaged consumer and does not consider the age, gender, ethnic and other peculiarities of a human. The author explicates the internal contradiction of modernism and demonstrates the danger of identifying modernism with design: no target orientation and internationality, declared as a goal of design in modernism, make modern not adjusted to a specific human being. Based on comparison of color arrangement of the environment of the three main periods in the history of design – modern, modernism, and postmodern – the author demonstrates the changes in ideology of design related to the peculiarities of episteme. The article reveals the problems of the modern design environment that inherits the principles of modernism. The main conclusion lies in the need for shifting towards the new paradigm design – the era of techno-vitalism, when on the background of the increasing technological progress emerges the inquiry for return of the panhuman meanings and values. Design of the era of techno-vitalism, which unlike modernism, supports the transcendent concepts, will become the service for creating the individualized objective-spatial and visual-information environment.  
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