Urban Studies - rubric City and suburbs
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City and suburbs
Merdassa F. - The peculiarities of informal settlements in cities of the developing countries: on the example of Addis Ababa pp. 60-65


Abstract: The object of this research is the informal settlements in Addis Ababa. Despite the differences in residential sectors in various countries and regions, the common reality of cities in the developing countries became demand for residential real estate, which virtually led to economic barrier for acquisition quality residence for the majority of population with low or medium income. Similar to other cities in the developing world, Addis Ababa – the capital of Ethiopia, was not capable of ensuring due residences within the framework of formal, planned urban structures. However, diverse measures taken for the solution of issues of informal settlements, could not reach the desired result. Thus, the author examines the informal settlements as one of the aspects of sustainable development and partial solution rather than a problem in the developing countries. The article presents a historical review of the system of land use, analyzes the factors affecting the expansion of informal settlements, and explores the typologies of residential architecture in such settlements of Addis Ababa. In the course of the research were analyzed and summarized the documents and proclamations on the policy of urban development and management of land resources, as well as the comparison of the Russian experience of development of informal settlements. The author’s contribution consists in determination of factors affecting the expansion of informal settlements along with typology of architecture of a residential building in such settlements of Addis Ababa. The conclusion lies in the statement that the principles of vernacular architecture are important in development of informal settlements for sustainable development of the city.
Аль Савафи М.Х. - The peculiarities of urban planning in the Iraqi cities Al-Kūt, Amarah and Najaf pp. 127-136


Abstract: This article follows the stages of urban planning in the Iraqi cities Al-Kūt, Amarah and Najaf. These large cities have emerged as populated localities in different historical periods. This has played a certain role in formation of the urban landscape. The author determines the stages of urban development of these cities. Depending on the period of establishment of the populated locality, the author distinguished from six (Najaf) to three (Al-Kūt and Amarah) stages of formation of the functional planning structure. The historical periods of Iraq impacted the formation of urban planning periodization and models of the ongoing urban processes. The article reviews the models of urban processes proposed by Western scholars, and their influence upon the formation of new characteristics of Iraqi urbanism in the modern landscape of the listed cities. The Iraqi cities have certain similarity in functional planning structure; however, each city has own peculiarities that define its uniqueness. The uniqueness of cities is determined by a number of characteristics: the hierarchy of urban structure, architectural image of the city, social harmony through the organization of residential environment, transport and pedestrian accessibility, recreation and tourism sites, human resources, and level of environmental pollution. As a result  of studying Al-Kūt, Amarah and Najaf, it is revealed that Najaf plays a special religious role among Shiite Muslims; it also features archaeological sites attractive for tourists, such as the ancient mosques and churches. Al-Kūt and Amarah also have a rich history, although they have emerged in a later period. Urbanization of Iraq is particularly specific with regards to residential developments in the new urban districts. It manifests in the construction of residential areas by the type of professional activity (for example, a district for teachers, workers, police, etc.)
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