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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Культурное наследие"
Культурное наследие
Uzhgerenas M.P. - The last summer residence of the Emperor Nicholas II: role of engineering infrastructure in formation of the “Lower Dacha” in Alexandria Park of Petergof pp. 14-29


Abstract: This article examines the question regarding the preservation of the object of cultural heritage “Lower Dacha” in Saint Petersburg (town of Petergof, Alexandria Park). In the course of architectural and archeological explorations, have been discovered the remnants of the underground engineer communications of sewerage through ceramic pipes. Such discovery confirms the assumption that the construction of buildings at the lower terrace of the park in the riverine conditions of shallow water and spring flowage was possible in terms of solving a number of engineering and ecological tasks. The article applies the system-structural method of studying the archival funds that contain geographical materials of engineering and executive documentation, photo images, explanatory notes, as well as bills for construction supplies and executed services. The result of the research lies in determination of the role of engineering infrastructure in establishment and development of the architectural complex “Lower Dacha” – as the basic document to justification of its historical and cultural values and need for its preservation. Despite the fact that it was not the primary residence of the Emperor Nicholas II, but rather the favorite country retreat of the family, signifying the birth of three daughters of the Emperor and the crown prince Alexey, it symbolizes multiple remarkable memories and events in the history of Russia.
Berestovskaya D., Petrenko A. - Architectural space of a city: semiotic approach pp. 24-34


Abstract: The object of this study is the semiotic character of architectural space that allows characterizing the city as a complex multi-level system with typical texts and codes, belonging to different language culture. The subject of this research is the architectural image of the city of Feodosiya with houses of worship and museums, historic monuments and fountains, public buildings and mansions of the urban elite – the architectural objects that are dominant in the urban space. The authors explore the city as symbolic integral institution, which is in constant search of its own relevant image. Special attention is given to the meaning of signs and symbols that manifest as the media in architectural space. The problem of creating an integrative holistic image of the city, understanding of structure and principles of formation of its architectural space is revealed through the semiotic method. The article is first to analyze the architecture of Feodosiya in the context of the uniqueness of the cultural landscape of Crimea, which carries a certain information framed into the semiotic system. Examination of the urban space of the Crimean cities becomes relevant in contemporary cultural studies, because the formation of semiotic cultural space was influenced by the lifestyle of multiple nations. The application of semiotic method of analysis is justified and requires further study.
Nesterova A.A. - The Summer of the Urban Pioneer: Early 1960's experience pp. 33-43


Abstract: The subject of this research are early 1960-s Pioneer organizations. By the materials from Tambov region cities (Michurinsk, Morshansk, Kirsanov, Kotovsk, Rasskazovo and Tanbov), the author studied the implementation of May 1963's decree by the Central Committee of Leninist Youth "On the tasks of Summer Leisure Time Committee’s goals". The author also attempted to take the special conditions of Russia's smaller cities into account. The bulk of research materials is constituted by the State Archive's freshly released materials on the social and political history of the Tambov region. The theory of governmentialization of Komsomol lies at the base of the study on the Pioneer and Komsomol organizations. It implies that Komsomol is viewed as a "Ministry of the Youth" - a link between the state and the younger generation. The work of Komsomol and Pioneer organizations is also viewed from the standpoint of humanitarian and government positions. For the first time in the post-Soviet period, this article examines the experience of using weekends and holidays, as well as summer vacations for education and upbringing of city-dwelling schoolchildren, in the end of the "Khrushchov thaw".The author provides examples of various forms and methods of organizing active pastime for children, the implementation of which is still relevant in smaller cities of Russia. 
Pryadko I.P. - V.G. Shukhov: the architect's portrait before two eras pp. 39-50


Abstract: This paper analyzes several separate aspects of the work of the outstanding Russian engineer and architect, Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov, and evaluates his projects of innovation. As the brightest examples of this, the author chose the main railroad project of the scholar - the débarcadère section of the Kiev railway terminal and the famous radio tower in Shabolovka. Shukhov was a virtuoso who managed to combine functional technological qualities (ease of use, technical simplicity) and aesthetics, the most important of which is the commensurability of the building and the surrounding landscape. The article focuses attention on the similarities in the approach to architecture between Schukhov and modern biotech, which suggests that the Russian architect employed the analogy method. The second part of the article explores the methodology of V.G. Shukhov's work. The biomorphic analogies, created by Shukhov's patents, are on-demand by world architecture's celebrities. Aesthetic tastes that developed with the contribution of the works by the Russian genius, continue to dominate modern engineering practices to this day.Methodological aspects of Shukhov's creativity are a good reason to return to the topic of "Shukhov and the social and cultural dynamic of the XX century", to address the issue of the synthesis of cultures - the technological and science culture, and the humanitarian culture that persisted in this period of time.
Zhabina S.A., Danilov A.A. - Urban reading: a food for thought, a subject for research pp. 39-46


Abstract: This article examines reading as one of the traditional leisure activities of urban dwellers. The reading culture as a distinct kind of communication has already been studied by social and cultural scientists of XX-eth century like N.A. Rubankin, I.A. Butenko, P.B. Biryukov, B.A. Uspenskiy. Reading is presented as a necessary attribute for urban cultural life. Attention is focused on youth reading, especially technical collegehigher education institution student reading. This defined the object and subject of the research for this work. The authors employ public opinion surveys, based on MGSU control groups. The authors also employed the systemic analysis methods that enabled the authors to link the state of modern information culture with reading traditions. The novelty of this research is defined by the fact that the authors have successfully conducted a synthesis of cultural and social science approaches to studying reading as a phenomenon, as well as information culture as a whole. Cultural science's non-numerical conclusions were taken into account, as well as social science's numerical data in youth control groups. Another novelty is the attempt to compare traditional forms of reading head to head with IT-spread-based information exchange forms.
Ulchitckii O.A. - International experience of historical reconstruction of ancient architecture and its development in the Russian practice: using the example of Southern Ural pp. 44-65


Abstract: The subject of this study is the historical reconstruction with the international theory and practice. The object of this study is the global experience, examples and methods of historical reconstruction of the most famous objects of antique architecture of I-III millennium BC. The role of historical reconstruction in solving issues of archeology and preservation of monuments is being examined. Particular attention is paid to the following aspects: analysis of the key legislative documents of the Russian Federation regulating the protection of  the objects of cultural heritage; terminological apparatus regulating the protection activity associated with the objects of cultural heritage; analysis of the examples of global experience of historical reconstruction of the objects of ancient architecture; main problems and directions of this type of preservation activity. Methodology of the research lies in analyzing the factographic sources, natural examination, and analysis of a number of examples and method of historical reconstruction of ancient architecture known on world practice. The main results of the research are related to the expansion of terminological apparatus and detailed theoretical comprehension of the new approach towards preserving the ancient architectural monuments in the Russian practice. The article reviews the Russian experience of implementation of the methods of historical reconstruction aimed at the ancient architectural objects in Southern Ural.
Sertakova E.A. - Visualizing the image of the city and its dwellers in the Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel in Krasnoyarsk pp. 50-64


Abstract: The subject of this study is the urban space of modern Krasnoyarsk, as well as the visualization processes of Krasnoyarsk and its dwellers in the monument of architecture, Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapel. The Chapel is serves as a symbol of Krasnoyarsk, its apeparance condensing various synmolic complexes, linked to the unique identity of Krasnoyarsk and its inhabitants. The article examines the signs, images and symbols that preserve and transmit this unique urban identity. The Chapel's image possesses its particular dynamic of image and symbol. It is possible to identify the main elements of this image, and compare them to pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet eras of Krasnoyarsk history. The chief method of this research is the semiotic- and symbolism analysis, as well as philosophical and art analysis of the Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapel as a paragon representative of Krasnoyarsk's urban environment. The scientific novelty of this work is based on the modelling of national identity dynamics of Krasnoyarsk dwellers, based on semiotics and symbolism analysis, as well as history and arts study of the representing monument. For the first time, the Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapen is analyzed in the context of modern regional and urban identity. The indication of historic dynamics in the interpretation of the Chapel's image, as well as the analysis of this image from the citizen self-identification point of view, is also a novelty.
Griber Y.A. - Decrees that regulate coloristics of the cities of the Russian Empire pp. 57-72


Abstract: The object of this research is the complex of documents that set and formulate the principles of urban coloristics. The goal of the article consists in expansion of the established boundaries of traditional analysis of the documentation of urban coloristics, as well as present the history of development of the documents, which defined the color norms in the cities of the Russian Empire. The author thoroughly examines the associated with color terminology of the Imperial decrees, the content of the colors and their optical properties. Special attention is given to the analysis of sociocultural situation in the other European cities of this period. The author carried out the content analysis of the chronological index to the full compilation of laws of the Russian Empire, which allowed determining the complex of Imperial decrees regulating the urban coloristics. The applied during the course of this research traditional analysis of the documents lied in compilation of the dictionary of color terms and clarification of the chromatic features of the used pigments. The author’s main contribution consists in determination and systematization of the decrees that set and formulate the principles of urban coloristics in the Russian Empire. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of the color dictionary of the documents containing the color naming, as well as characteristics of the color combinations and their chromatic properties.
Slezin A.A. - Urban routine during revolutionary change: children's games pp. 76-88


Abstract: The subject of this article are the games of young Russians during the Great Revolution. By the materials obtained in Central Russia's cities, the author elaborates on the content of "revolutionary" games of the young Soviet Russia's youth. The role of Communist Youth Union (Komsomol) in the popularization of these games is outlined by the author. The greatest interest, from the author's point of view, lies in the game called "Lenin", which turned out to be an anticipation for the political processes in XXth century Russia (like the emergence of new "Lenins" on subsequent tides of campaigns against brand-new "enemies of the People"). The main sources of information are the materials of State Archive of Social and Political History of Tambov Region, and handbooks for kid's games published in 1920s. Komsomol is studied as a social and cultural phenomenon. As shown in this article, Komsomol, in many ways, continued the play practices of early XXth century. Moreover, Komsomol members responsible for organizing upbringing, have modified the games and attempted to enhance them with logic, make them more exciting and relevant. From the author's point of view, even political reflexes developed from during childhood games may be used for the good of the society.
Pryadko I.P. - Fate of V. G. Shukhov creative heritage in the modern megalopolis in assessment of experts and civil society representatives pp. 83-93


Abstract: Architectural heritage of the prominent Russian engineer and architect still arouses disputes and arguments. Particularly the polemics persists of how his heritage should be preserved. But until the polemicists argue, the genius creations of the engineer and architect continue to destroy. The goal of this article consists in author’s attempt to assess the role of V. G. Shukhov’s constructs in establishment of the image of industrial city, as well realize which losses for the urban architectural-engineering environment will emerge in case if some of the Shukhov’s creations will disappear. Another author’s goal to demonstrate the scale of the Russian engineer and designer. The subject of the research is limited by the study of restoration works that take place in one of the projected by Shukhov constructs – the famous Shabolovka radio tower. The scientific novelty is defined by the topic of the research. The author discusses the questions of restoration that remain to be the subject of acute debates, which involves the specialists alongside the representatives of civil society. The problem at hand consists in application of the innovation technologies with preservation of the avant-garde tradition in urban development.
Frolova E.V., Rogach O.V. - Expectations and preferences of Russian tourists within the framework of cultural-educational excursions through Russian cities pp. 86-94


Abstract:  Cultural-educational tourism represents an important sphere of sociocultural communication and cultural self-determination of people, realized through acquaintances during the tourist excursions with the historical and cultural heritage of different cities. From the economic perspective, cultural-educational tourism becomes the factor that substantiates the dynamics and scale of the socioeconomic development of the territories. The goal of this work consists on evaluation of the level of content of the various social groups with the tourism services received in terms of cultural-educational trips through the Russian cities. The leading methods of this study is the questionnaire-based survey that allowed revealing the preferences of the respondents from various social groups on basic components that form the level of content of the Russian citizens with tourist trips through the Russian cities. In the course of this research, the authors established the dependence between the level of accomplished trips through the Russian cities and the level of satisfaction of the Russian citizens with the quality of tourism services of the domestic segment of tourism industry. The article presents the analysis of issued faced by the tourists during travelling, among which are the insufficient level of infrastructure development in Russian cities, discontent with the variety of entertainment programs, lack of services offered in a tour package. At the same time, the authors note that more Russians value the historical and cultural heritage of the Russian cities, give high evaluation to organization of public festivities and possibility to adhere to national folk traditions, as well as enjoy the quality of folk crafts.  
Sertakova E.A., Gerasimova A.A. - The image of the city of Krasnoyarsk in xylography, and the regional identity problem pp. 89-99


Abstract: This article devotes attention to the relevant issue of loss of identity by Russian citizens, and Krasnoyarsk region citizens, in particular. The unique Siberian character, the local environment and the Siberian way of life is perceived in a different way in modern times. The influence of foreign cultural influence of Western countries alter the perceptions of tradition, norms and values among the society. Like never before, the regional culture of Krasnoyarsk region needs cultural models which are capable of demonstrating Siberian identity, of awakening people's self-consciousness as Siberians, of invoking the feeling of pride for their smaller Motherland. Such models may come i the form of art that translates deep ideas and meanings through its presence and senses.The methodology of this study includes theoretical concepts of the modern theory of visual arts, as well as the theory of art criticism.The author provides an example that proves this hypotheses - a visual art of graphic, and xylography as its subtype. Of the graphic pieces that help form Siberian identity, the author chose the works of the Artisans of the German Pashtov Siberian Xylography school. The goal of the analysis is to discover the mental characteristics of Siberia, Krasnoyarsk, and Siberians who may be considered the audience of the art. As a result, the author discovered that in the works of the Artisans of the German Pashtov Siberian Xylography school the images of Siberia in its various manifestations (the city, nature, people, relations, etc.) truly demonstrate ideas that contribute towards the formation of Siberian identity. 
Kuryleva L.A. - Artificial lighting: aspects of development within the historical urban environment on the example of Saratov pp. 94-101


Abstract: This article reviews the evolution of aspects of the beautification strategy of the evening environment of Saratov as the example of development of the provincial approach towards establishment of the artificial lighting in the historical center of the city, which plays the leading role in intellectual, commercial, and social aspects of the city life. The improvement of city’s historical center that holds the major functions of the city, is necessary for its efficient functionality. Projecting of the artificial lighting system in the historical downtown as the aspect of beautification strategy, requires meticulous examination of the historically established illumination system. Fixation of the geographical and chronological results of the research on the map of Saratov determines the established lighting frame, footings and connections between them, level of intensity of the lighting, as well as serves as the foundation for formulation of the comprehensively substantiated concept of establishment of the favorable evening lighting environment in the historical downtown of the city.
Volkov V.A. - Abbatis in Moscow. South lines. pp. 100-116


Abstract: The paper examines the emergence and history of construction of the Moscow state's south border fortifications. It shows the organization of guard and garrison duty, the steps taken to ensure border security against outside attacks, the significance of the abbatis to the government.During the Moscow state's existence, the security of southern borders against Tatar attacks was one of the main concerns. The defense of the border-of-the-field of the country was multi-layered. Villages, guardsmen and centurias constituted the first line of defense.Securing the perimeter was one of the main principles of constructing frontline defense fortifications, the "Lines". To fully understand the significance of abbatis lines for Russia, we should take a closer look at its neighbour, the Rzhechzpospolita, which also came under attack by Tatar raids. To save their wealth, the Polish preferred to meet the enemy under the cover of fortress cities, eagerly sacrificing the population of the Dnepr region, whose only defense were the Cossacks who shared their beliefs. In contrast with the indifference of the Szlachta republic to the suffering of Rusyn population, Moscow was not willing to sacrifice its people to the Crimean predators, and was forced to spend vast resources to construct a massive fortification line (the term doesn't do it justice). It should be recognized that the manpower and resources was not wasted. In the XVII century, the "Wild Fields", became the Russian most fertile region that fed the entire country.
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