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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Проектирование и архитектура"
Проектирование и архитектура
Zhzhonykh A.M. - Low-vacuum heat insulating panels based on the byproducts of crystalized silicon pp. 12-20


Abstract: The heat insulating materials that reduce the thermal losses of buildings and constructs will play the key role in their energy performance. The low-vacuum insulation panels are an effective alternative to the non-vacuumed heat insulating materials due to the lower coefficient of thermal conductivity. The goal of this research is to examine the potential application of silica fume, aluminum byproduct as a filler for vacuum insulation panel. The author examines the properties of silicon dioxide powder, develops the composition and technology of production of the vacuum heat insulating panels on its basis. The article explores the silica fume – byproduct of crystalized silicon of Bratsk Ferroalloy Plant, which annual putput is 30,000 tons. The acquired results allow assuming that for manufacturing of the low-vacuum insulating panels can be used not only factory produced powder, but also less expansive powders of silica fume – the byproduct of crystalized silicon. In future, the use of byproducts can become the foundation of production of the high-quality vacuum insulation wilt low cost.
., . - Transportation in cities: organizing accessible and comfortable architecture and planning environment for the mobility-impaired citizens pp. 19-29


Abstract: This article examines the current state of affairs regarding transportation accessibility for the mobility-impaired urban dwellers. The author evaluates the solutions applied by Moscow, Moscow Region's cities and other major Russian cities. Proper ramps and sidewalks are a priority to ensure access by the disabled and parents with baby strollers. The author points out that the absense of a unified strategy in this area results in severe complications for those that need accessible environment. As an example for the authorities, the author points out the "Reminder for architects" paper that was devised by Urban planning authorities of Chita.Issues of transportation for the mobility-impaired citizens, as the focus of this paper, are explored on the basis of media publications, surveys and urban planning documentation, focusing on three main topics: equipping public transport stops, commissioning new means of transportation that would accommodate mobility-impaired citizens, building roads and access points for the disabled. Analyzing the rich factual base and comparing the current state of affairs and project requirements in official documentation, the author concludes that, despite of all state standards of accessible environment planning, social infrastructure is still being built with little regard for the norms at large. It is possible to salvage the situation by implementing the «Tempus Project CENEAST: Reformation of the Curricula on Built Environment in the Eastern Neighbouring Area», developed by the political and social science department of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering into urban planning. The goal of the project is to reform the education of bachelors, specialists and magisters by introducing new modules, including environment modules aimed at the creation of biosphere-friendly space in cities, comfortable environment for the mobility-impaired. 
Suvorov A. - Analytical description of nonlinear work of the normal section at the top of the inclined crack pp. 29-35


Abstract: This article examines the technique of describing the stress-strain state (hereinafter - the SSS) of the normal section at the top of the inclined crack, based on nonlinear deformation model. Normal section's analysis will assess the uniaxial SSS of any concrete element subjected to bending, compression with bending, stretching or stretching with the bend. Parameters of SSS of the normal section are the normal and shear stresses, the relative deformation of compression and tension. Data acquisition of this parameters using the nonlinear deformation calculation, created the prerequisites for describing SSS oblique section. Algorithm is built using modern mathematical apparatus in the computer environment «MathCAD». Used abilities of mathematical analysis allowed foprming a realistic settlement of the normal section diagram at the top of the inclined crack. By implementing real chart of material deformation, the algorithm is allowed to build a more accurate diagrams of normal and shear stresses in the normal section on the basis of steps, iterative and integrated processes. During algorithmization work, section were identified important components of its work: the value of the centers of gravity of plane diagrams of stress and strain, the exact coordinates of the boundaries of the compressed, stretched and destroyed sectional areas. The study was applied and refined new ways to describe the theory of concrete strength.
Dorozhkina E.A. - Constructs in buildings with integrated vegetation pp. 30-37


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of projecting of constructs-foundations for vegetation integrated into the structure of a building. The object of this research is the building constructs that can serve as an artificial foundation for vegetation. The boundaries of the research are defined by integration of vegetation on roofs, terraces, facades (balconies and patios), and interiors. The article explores such aspects of the topic as additional strain on the buildings from vegetation. The additional constant weight of the vegetation system is being viewed as the sum of two types of loads: stationary and weighed average. The article substantiates the need to account for the change in the volume of lumber due to vegetation. However, to simplify the calculation in absence of data on the size of growth of separate types of vegetation in the catalogue, the author offers recommended average indexes of the weight for various vegetation elements.
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S. - Energy efficient translucent building envelope (the modern historiography) pp. 49-60


Abstract: The article provides an overview and analysis of research in the field of energy-efficient translucent walling, which results were published in the Russian literature over the last decade. The authors determine the relevant issues and promising directions of the research in this field. There is a significant amount of publications in the area of heat transfer and energy efficiency of the translucent constructs. This work reviews the articles published not earlier than 2008 and included into the database of the Russian index of scientific citations, as well as list of the journals recommended Higher Attestation Commission. The conducted overview of the literature allowed determining that the most attention is given to the translucent constructs with solar screens, as well as insulated glazing with low-emissivity glass. This direction is the most promising and relevant at the present stage. The analysis of the existing publications demonstrated that the articles do not examine the questions about the longevity of insulated glazing filled with inert gas, as well as there is lack of research in optimization of insulated glazing from the perspective of energy efficiency and economic purposefulness.
Rozin V.M. - The defining aspects and development of architectural design - the fundamental technology of urban development and architecture pp. 65-108


Abstract: The article studies the development and defining characteristics of architectural design. The author bases his study on the proposition of the fundamental division of design into two main types – “traditional” design – architectural and engineering design, and “non-traditional” – urbanistic and custom design. The author examines the genesis of design, especially its influence on the formation of engineering design and offers a typology of design knowledge and schematics (sketches and principal schemes) set around the three main stages of design – conception,  envisioning, implementation. The author offers a thorough description of the two types of design – engineering and designer. To conclude the study, the author examines the crisis of project ideology, stating that design has its limitations and that design consciousness is influenced by a particular “design fetishism” regarding what can or cannot be designed, and the attempts to design social and cultural entities are often turned against culture. This article  uses the methods of cultural-historical reconstruction, comparative and typological analysis, semiotic and epistemological approaches.. The author offers two cases for empirical material. As a result, the author managed to outline the logic of the genesis of design, and to offer a thorough typology of design knowledge (functional, individual-based, creative, relay-based, prototypical, schematic), and to demonstrate the role in designing of schematics, to characterize engineering and designer models. Overall, this study has brought a better understanding and modern design, its genesis and functioning.
Suvorov A. - An overview of the possibilities of nonlinear deformation model in analyzing the formation and development of the nagel effect pp. 70-75


Abstract: This article reviews the possibility of application of nonlinear deformation model in studying the nagel effect. The nagel effect is the ability of armature to transmit the force perpendicular to its axis. This effect occurs in terms of the phenomenon of slip of the two edges of an inclined crack. And this slip is impeded, along with the force of engagement along theadges of the crack, by the intersected by this crack longitudinal reinforcement. And as a result, nagel’s deformation can be defined as the difference in deformations of two blocks separated by an inclined crack. The phenomenon of nagel effect is quite complicated and requires the introduction in the algorithm of its description of the nonlinear parameters of the environment of its formation and development. The nonlinear deformation model is optimally suited for determining the nature of the distribution of forces in the zone of transverse bending of the reinforced concrete element. The stress-strain state (SSS) of the oblique section requires more computational dependencies due to the complexity of describing the biaxial stress state in this zone. Modern regulatory techniques for the calculation of sloping sections have in their composition many empirical and semi-empirical dependences, which do not allow to fully estimate the SSS of the oblique section. The provisions proposed in this article represent a new perspective of the development of nonlinear deformation model and will allow making a contribution to the development of normative algorithms for calculating the cross sections in the zone of transverse bending.
Pospelova K.A. - Imperial Academy of Arts building in Saint Petersburg: Vallin de la Mothe and Kokorinov pp. 73-99


Abstract: The article examines the issue of authorship of the Imperial Academy of Arts building in St. Petersburg. The author performs a comparative analysis of buildings and structures erected by the designs of Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander Kokorinov. Analyzing the Moscow Academy of Arts building plans by J.F. Blondel. He focuses his attention on style, composition and layout. As a result, we see that the general features of the Academy of Arts building largely replicates the Moscow plans, while the details resemble those of buildings by Vallin de la Mothe. Despite the mentions in literature as the sole author, Kokorinov's contribution is not evident. It is likely that his role was limited to managing the construction process. The author concludes that the Academy of Arts building plans were created by Vallin de la Mothe's hand, basing his assumptions on the Moscow Academy building project. During the construction and renovation process, some features were changed, but, overall, it can be said that Vallin de la Mothe was the author. The article offers previously unpublished information on the issue.
Veretennikov D. - Competitive method in architecture and city-planning and the assessment of its effectiveness on the example of Saint Petersburg competitions of 1991-2017 pp. 76-86


Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural city-planning competitions held in Saint Petersburg in the time after 1991. The indicated competitions are viewed as a part of a broader concept of competitive practices; seven of the most significant areas of their application are described. Based on the analysis of feasibility of the results of studied competitions, the author conducts an assessment of the effectiveness of competitive method as a way of adopting decisions in the field of architecture and city-planning. A need is substantiated for creating the normative-legal mechanism for regulation of holding the competitive procedures for increasing the efficiency of the competitive method. The assessment of efficiency of competitive method is carries out on the basis of specially compiled database that includes over sixty design contests. The main conclusion consists in the proof of the extremely low effectiveness of competitive method of adoption of the architectural and city-planning decisions in post-Soviet Saint Petersburg, as well as a list of the probable causes of the established situation. For the first time is submitted the systematization of various field of application of the competitive methods: the author determines the “strategic”, “developer”, “advertising” contests, as well as the competitions of ideas and foresights, nonpublic design contests (tenders), review and educational contests.
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S., Nazirov R.A. - Peculiarities of engineering of buildings and structures in the northern latitudes from the perspective of structural physics pp. 78-85


Abstract:   This article provides the basic principles that must be adhered to for establishing the comfortable indoor microclimate and ensuring the longevity of building structures in designing the residential and public buildings in the northern latitudes. The authors analyse the issues associated with the inappropriate account of physical processes within the building envelopes and structures in the severe natural and climatic conditions, such as low temperatures the whole year, long polar night and polar day, reduces air humidity in the central part of the Far North, strong winds and snowstorms. The article describes the consequences of the negative impact of inadmissible parameters of indoor microclimate upon the human health, named the “sick building syndrome”. The work presents the review of the literature on building engineering in the northern latitudes, which demonstrated that the majority of the articles are dedicated to the use of effective construction supplies, as well as peculiarities of engineering of buildings from the standpoint of architecture and structural engineering. The questions of consideration of the physics of environment and building envelopes are covered insufficiently.   
Rozin V.M. - To structuring the concept of design pp. 116-122


Abstract: This article reviews a relevant situation that compels to discuss and introduce the concept of design. The author confers the relation of some researchers to the indicated genesis of design, as well as distinction between the main types of design – traditional and nontraditional. The principles based on which V. Rozin reconstructs the formation of design and discusses its nature (functioning and development) are formulated. The author attempt to characterize design considering its evolution, suggesting the dynamic definitions of design instead of statistical. As a result of this work, the author was able to structure a dynamic definition of design and characterize the established within methodology of design situation that compel to form such concept. The article also analyzes the scheme of prerequisites of the establishment and development of design, as well as the difference between the two main types of design – traditional and nontraditional.
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