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Ordynskaya Y., Kozyrenko N.E. - City-planning systems of the China-Russia border zone pp. 12-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the city-planning system of the China-Russia border zone, which development marks the two parallel directions associated with the trend and rates of development of the adjacent countries: active city-forming process in China’s territory and depressive state of the urban and rural settlement in Russia. In the Far Easter regions is noticed a decrease in population size across the entire bordering region and “focal” character of settlement along the border with low density of population. On the Chinese side, over a short period of time (policy of rural urbanization), the vast uninhabited territories were simultaneously populated by peasants, which led to emergence of the cities alongside the sparsely populated villages. A distinct Chinese policy of resettlement is reflected in direction of the “urbanization from below” (rural urbanization), due to which the finely-divided structure surpasses the entire territory of the Northeast of China. All of the bordering settlements form the systems of various level of development. For highlighting the peculiarities of formation of the transboundary systems of resettlement, the author apply factor analysis and system method; for determining the dynamics of urbanization and migration flows – the statistical method. The method of cartographic analysis is used for studying the processes of current resettlement on the territories of Far Eastern Region and Northeast of China. This article is first to analyze and determine the typological groups of resettlement systems common to the China-Russia border zone – agglomeration, transborder agglomeration, national systems of resettlement, transboundary systems of resettlement. The crisis state of Russian settlements and active development of the Chinese settlements necessitates the formulation of principles, which allow forecasting their further development. As a result of this research, it is established  that under the influence of certain economic, geopolitical, demographic, and social factors, the existing structure of resettlements in the transboundary zone and range of its impact (south of Far East) will transform.
Boltaevskii A.A., . - "To harness the Elements": problems of modern urban planning pp. 14-24


Abstract: In this article, the conflict of the controlled versus the spontaneous serves as a prism for analyzing modern urban studies trends, such as deindustrialization, deurbanization, environmentalization, comprehensive planning, legal regulation of the economy, conversion of urban industrial sites, migration flow control. The authors direct attention to the contradictory nature of processes that can be observed in the organization of architectural and planning areas of the modern megapolys, the crises that need to be overcome, for the sake of our civilization. Our civilization faces growing global challenges, the overcoming of which is key to preservation of humanity as a species, and thus, harnessing the elements of the city becomes a priority task. Scholars who research this field often miss the existence of two paradigms that emerged in architectonic studies. On one side, there's the "machine-city" paradigm, on the other, there's the "living city" that adheres to objective laws of nature. This article demonstrates contradictory elements in both approaches, as well as potential points of convergence, for mutual enrichment that could result in a general synthesis of urban development models. The result of city-planning processes is ambiguous to this day: problems with the environment, increasing social friction. In the modern world, the process of increasing complexity of urban development, the increase of demands towards housing and social environment give opportunities to professional integrators to unite the various urban segments, the architectonics, into one. The multivectoral nature of modern city development is largely dictated by the gradual replacement of the technocratic model with the biospheric approach. We need a city that can work with the input from all of its dwellers, for it to become comfortable for habitation and friendly to the environment.
Boltaevskii A.A. - Does an ecopolis have a chance: outlook upon the future pp. 44-48


Abstract: Since the ancient times people were trying to adjust the surrounding space for their own comfort and convenience. The initial period of industrialization led to the violation of sanitary norms, overcrowded accommodations, and destruction of the usual environment. The response for this lied in the urban development theories from Ebenezer Howard to Le Corbusier, who attempted to set the city to serve the needs of men. But as a result, of various mistakes, these concepts turned out to be debunked. The future of the cities in many ways is defined by the main trends of development of the entire humanity: strive for comfort and interaction with the nature. The author uses the critical analysis of the existing urban concepts, as well as comparative and situational analysis for demonstrating the evolution in views upon the optimal development of the urban space. In the third millennium the essential task of humanity will consist in creation of the biosphere-compatible space. Under the conditions of megalopolis this task will be extremely difficult to accomplish, thus at the initiate stages the reformations must take place in small cities. The transition to the new energy-saving technologies will improve the urban environment; the sources of pollution will be eliminate, such technologies will be removed underground, and telecommunications will make the transportation of cargo across vast distances unnecessary. The alternative sources of energy will become more popular.
Veretennikova K. - Role of national framework in the process of development of the airport-related zones of largest cities pp. 48-56


Abstract: This article is dedicated to determination of the role of natural framework within the structure of airport-related zones of largest cities.  The object of this research is the natural framework of the airport-related zones, while the subject is the forms of their effective use. The work considers the problems of development of the airport-related zones on the example of St. Petersburg Pulkovo Airport, factors of its dynamic urbanization and consequences of the unregulated construction. The author systematized the approaches towards implementation of the principle of environmental sustainability in foreign strategic documents on development of the territories adjacent to airport. The need is substantiated for creation of the universal developments strategy for the territories adjacent to airport, using the natural framework as an important planning element that allows ensuring sustainable development of the near-airport territory. The article determines the roles of natural framework and recommendations on its formation within the near-airport zones of largest cities. It is established that the natural framework consolidated in the complex strategic document of development of the near-airport territory, as well as the territorial planning documents, can manifest as an instrument for creating the balanced and efficient development of territories adjacent to airport.
Slabukha A.V. - On the methods of organizing planning of settlements in conjunction with the construction of Siberian railroad pp. 66-73


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relationship issues among the members of the planning organization of settlements – central specialized departments, local government and “societies” due to the laying of the transcontinental railroad across Siberia in the late XIX century. The object of this research is one of the methods of organizing the design and development of near-railway settlements – established communication between the aforementioned parties. The article examines the response of local “societies” to the letter (1895) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Empire about the need to present the decisions on characteristics of possible locations for development of cities or large settlements (in conjunction with the laying of railroad) and the need for their advance and efficient planning. Special attention is given to the results of analysis of the situation by the local “societies” with defining importance of the natural and economic conditions in the context of emergence of the new and development of the existing settlements. Author’s special contribution into this research lies in revelation of the question about the joint participation of central government, local government, and local “societies” in discussion the issues and adopting the decisions pertaining to the design of settlements due to realization of the largest nationwide project – the construction of Siberian railroad.
Veretennikova K. - Consideration of the impact of airport in the city development planning of the near-airport zones of the largest cities pp. 66-73


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of the limited consideration of the impact of airport upon the surrounding territories in preparation of city development documentation in Russia. The object of this research is the near-airport territories of the largest cities, while the subject is their city development regulation. The article analyzed the factors and consequences of urbanization of the territories located near airports. Attention is turned to the fact that currently the documentation on regulation of such territories has a strictly technical orientation that neglects the city-forming potential of an airport. It is underlined that in Russia airport is typically considered as transport object and the source of negative effect on the surrounding areas, which is reflected in preparation of documentation. The described issues are viewed on the example of the near-airport territory of Pulkovo International Airport in Saint Petersburg. In the course of this study the author applies the methods of city development analysis, systematization, comparison of the national and foreign experience of development of the near-airport territories. A hypothesis is proposed that the cause of the emerging transport and social issues in the near-airport territory lies in the lack of consonance in the process of planning that leads to the irrational use of territorial resources, transport infrastructure, as well as degradation of natural carcass. The article proves the need for coordinated strategic planning of the near-airport territories, provides a list of instruments that encourage achieving the set goals.
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