Urban Studies - rubric Системы управления и планирования
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Системы управления и планирования"
Системы управления и планирования
Maslanov D.V. - New information and communication technologies for municipal governance: crowdsourcing is a tool for improving citizen-City interaction pp. 1-13


Abstract: This article discusses communication and information technologies, crowdsourcing in particular, which has been used successfully in some regions to improve the interaction between citizens and the local government, resulting in more efficient improvement of the "urban environment". In addition, an inflation of democratic values, or recession of democracy is a modern reality around the globe , therefore the demand for a solidification of legitimacy of municipal power. The city government is better at responding to the needs of the society through crowdsourcing. The credibility of the authorities is increased, thereby increasing its legitimacy in the eyes of the population. The article discusses the experience of Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod in the creation of crowdsourcing platforms aimed at improving the "urban environment". The author comes to the conclusion that the use of crowdsourcing platforms can be very popular to improve "the urban environment" both by society and the government. The use of the resource of active citizens in crowdsourcing projects and e-referendums as they do in Moscow besides the obvious reputational benefits that brings city government to the economic and management benefits.
Ivanov O., Ilinskaya Y. - Stages of escalation of city-planning conflicts in modern Russia pp. 1-13


Abstract:  This article examines the phenomenon of city-planning conflicts in modern Russia, as well as determines the objectively existing complicated moments in studying of the topic. The aforementioned phenomenon is viewed through the prism of the necessity of formulating the universal approach towards understanding the dynamics of escalation of the city-planning conflicts, identification, and studying of the stages of its development. Attention is concentrated on the causes that led to changes in urban space in the process of the continuous urbanization and the impact of economic interests upon the character of urban development. From the perspective of system approach alongside consideration of the existing theories, the author analyses the dynamics of city-planning conflicts and stages of their intensification. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to systematically explore the city-planning conflicts as a dynamic phenomenon that goes through several stages; in effort to identify these stages, formulate their qualitative diversities, trace the possibility of escalation of the city-planning conflict in terms of upward and downward directions. The author suggests applying the acquired data for managing the conflicts, particularly as preventative measures, taking into account that they involve large number of participants, attract broad public attention, and thus, are ones of the most complicated from the standpoint of their management and resolution. The article substantiates the need for further research of the phenomenon of city-planning conflicts as a whole and stages of their escalation in particular by the experts in the corresponding fields.  
Nemtsev I.A. - Green construction: eco-settlements as part of the steady development concept. pp. 8-25


Abstract: The author analyzes the social problems of Eurasian Union member countries, and, as part of the solution, suggests reorganization of towns (or construction of new settlements, fully or in part), based on the Steady Regional Development Principles, which is a structural part of the global steady development concept. The author examines various concepts that may become the basis of the social component of steady development, such as "new urbanism", "garden city", "Project Venus", etc. The author describes steady development of regions from the urban standpoint (concepts of ecosettlements, noosphere settlements), green construction ("smart" homes, passive and active home, 3-d construction). The methodological basis of this study includes the social and philosophical methods and principles of scientific study. The author also employs general scientific methods, such as comparison, abstraction, idealization, modeling, analysis, synthesis and others. The goal of the study is reached via the perception of humanity as a global interconnected, self-improving system (global evolutionism), and via the principles of general connections between phenomena, development principles, etc. The analysis and solution of the problems at hand is based on general science research approaches. Those problems were solved, based on the concepts and conclusions within the field of study, introduced by modern Russian and foreign authors, researchers and thinkers. The author offers a solution for organizing towns, based on steady development principles (as a synthesis of the most socially and environmentally rational concepts, such as new urbanism, project Venus, "smart" home, etc.). The author substantiates a connection between the natural and the social parts of steady development. Steady development of regions is offered as a basis for the social component of Eurasian Union's steady development.
Sidorov A., Sapron D. - Models of management of public spaces pp. 29-43


Abstract: The public spaces represent an important element of the physical and social territory of any city. Multiple parameters that assist in describing the quality of life of the residents, including their satisfaction with the environment and place of living, depend on the format of organization of the public spaces. Such circumstance defines the necessity to find the ways of efficient management of the aforementioned objects. Thus article focuses attention on the various models of organization of the work of local self-governance aimed at the development of public spaces. The research is based on the general scientific methodology and examination of the normative legal acts that manifest as certain from the contextual perspective limitations upon the development of possible versions. As the scientific results, the author highlights the public, mixed, and private models of management of the public space. It is noted that due to the specificities of the object, the private model that is present in theory cannot be implemented in practice. The public and mixed models have modifications based on the establishment of the centers of responsibility and centralization/decentralization of administration on one hand, and various organizational-legal forms of public-private partnership – on the other. The formulated conclusions can be used by the self-government authorities in establishment and implementation of municipal policy in the area of development of public spaces.
Balueva I.V. - The institute of "Condomnium Elders" and Condominium Councils as a form of self-government in light of inovative reforms of local self-government on the modern stage of development (Nizhnoy Novgorod experience) pp. 43-64


Abstract: The formation of the institute of "condominium elders@ in Nizhniy Novgorod began in May, 24th, 2006, when Nizhniy Novgorod Duma adopted Bylaw #41 "On territorial public self-government in Nizhniy Novgorod". "Elder committees" were formed on the basis of previously-formed House committees. The next step was the creation of Condominium Councils for apartment blocks. Previously, home-owners were obligated to form those councils according to Federal Law #123 "On Amendments to the Housing Code of Russian Federation", as the state believed that such Councils were a suitable form of control and management for residents, while deliberately limiting their legal powers, viewing them solely as an organizational body, thus undermining its usefulness. The author draws special attention to the necessity of creating favourable conditions for the Council's development. It is important to support and nurture local self-government from grassroots level. The Councils provide such support. The methodological basis of this research consists of a multitude of general and specific scientific methods: dialectic, systemic-functional, comparative, system analysis and genarization, functional-structural analysis, problem analysis, logical method. The Condominium Councils may be viewed as a form of local self-government that is created both, from "below" and from "above, under the influence of municipal authorities, being the beginning stage for uniting the home0owners of apartment blocks for solving the issues of housing and communal services in the general system of local self-government. The creation of Condominium Councils is a positive step towards the development of local self-government, representing the creation of a collective body constituted of elected active home-owners who are interested in improving the quality of services.
Erokhina L.D., Zhang H. - The impact of historic zoning of the Chinese and Western European cities upon social differentiation in the conditions of urbanization pp. 48-56


Abstract: The object of this article is the cities of China. The rapid growth and impact of Chinese cities upon the economy, politics and social life of the country and South Eastern part of the world sparks persistent interest of the researchers. Urbanization processes in China has a range of specific features that distinguish them from urbanization in the countries of Western Europe. Their identification is the goal of this article. The subject of this research became the differentiation of the modern Chinese cities and intraurban social stratification. Based on the accepted in Chinese sociology methodology of classification of cities, the author determines the differences between the urban structures of Western European and Chinese cities. The acquired results detect that the urban social and spatial structures in Western Europe have established under the influence of general economic processes that destroyed the traditional urban structure; while the Chinese cities, despite their rapid development, retain historical and cultural continuity of the principles of creation of spatial structure as a result of planned economy and political control. Examination of the peculiarities of urban structure and agglomerations allows forecasting the development of China’s social structure in the context of global transformations.
Gushchin A.N., Sanok S.I. - Forms of the permitted use of land lots as an element of urban development management pp. 59-69


Abstract: The subject of this research is the processes of transformation of  forms of permitted use of land plots. The Town-Planning Code of Russia set a goal to “create circumstances for attracting the investments, including through providing the options for the most effective forms of permitted use of land lots”. The article examines the economic aspect of the set task. The authors provide the results of annual monitoring of the replacement of forms of permitted use of land lots in the city of Yekaterinburg. Monitoring was conducted in accordance with the results of public hearing. The most in-demand types of activity that require land lots are determined. The preferential ways for coordination of the replacement of types of permitted use of various types of owners are revealed. The risks of receiving an unfavorable decision are assessed. It is demonstrated that the data of similar monitoring can be viewed as an element of the urban development management system. The monitoring materials can be valuable for the information support system of city-development activity and establishment of the investment policy of a municipal formation. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the economic (investment) and management aspects of the process of coordination and replacement of the forms of permitted use of land lots.
Engel'gardt A.E., Lipovka A.Y., Fedchenko I.G. - International experience of indexation of the quality of urban environment pp. 77-87


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of international experience of indexation of the quality of urban environment base on rating. The analysis is conducted on the models of assessment of quality of life, which present methods for transferring the “quality” criteria into digital values. The integral method of indexation is carefully examined. The article employs materials from the leading practiced of indexation of quality in urban environment. The authors analyze the definition of criteria of objective quality assessment in urban environment to form city ratings. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the signing of decree by the Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of the Russian Federation of October 31, 2017 No. 1494/pr “On Approval of the Methodology for Determining the Quality Index of the Urban Environment of Municipalities of the Russian Federation”. Additionally, the categories of “quality of life” and “living standards” comprise an extensive and multi-aspect definition in interdisciplinary research, which should be reflected in definition of the indicators of quality indexation in urban environment of municipal formations. Among the key conclusion of this study is the determination of generalized criteria for indexation of quality of urban environment. A conclusion is made that the indexation system allows seeing the overall picture of the condition of quality of the environment of large and small cities, and carries generalized character in formation of city ratings, while systemic monitoring of the quality of urban environment of planning uniting within municipal formations is absent.
Rogach O.V. - Analysis of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations pp. 102-110


Abstract: The subject of this research is the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations. The author shifts from the traditional perspective of economic theory towards the value-rational, psycho-emotional and aesthetic factors of the development of perpetual attractiveness of the territories. The article examines the key components of the development of tourist attractiveness of a municipal formation, and the role of tourists’ experiences in this process. Special attention is given to the processes of emotional engagement of a tourist, “value of impression”, which help to identify the territory in person’s mind and form a positive image. The main conclusions lie in determination of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations (value-rational, psycho-emotional, and aesthetic) from the standpoint of tourists’ subjective perception of characteristic features of the territory, which convey positive impressions, according to the selected consumption models, lifestyle, recreation and leisure. The author’s special contribution into the research consists in the new interpretation of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations as a set of characteristic features of the territory, which comprise its immanent uniqueness, as well as form a special psycho-emotional attitude and aesthetic satisfaction from the trip. The scientific novelty lies in the original approach to analysis of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations, shift of the currently dominant focus from economic approach towards the customization of experiences.
Gataullin R.F., Ataeva A.G., Ulyaeva A.G. - The prospects of formation of transboundary agglomeration (On the example of Almetyevsk – Oktyabrsky agglomeration) pp. 111-126


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in assessment of possibility of existence of transregional agglomeration between the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Bashkortostan based on evaluation of the criteria of composition of agglomeration. The subject of this research is the composition of the oilfield service polycentric small urban agglomeration Oktyabrsky – Tuymazy located on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the composition of the Almetyevsk polycentric agglomeration located on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, which provisionally includes both indicated agglomerations along with other potential zoned of influence of the largest cities of agglomeration – Almetyevsk and Oktyabrsky. The criteria for delimitation contained economic, integration and geographical. The object of this research is the municipal formation of city district level and municipal districts (8 municipal formations on the part of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and 12 municipal formations on the part of the Republic of Tatarstan). The research covers the period from 2014 to 2018. The conclusion is made that the oilfield service polycentric small urban agglomeration Oktyabrsky – Tuymazy and Almetyevsk polycentric agglomeration, which are formalized  to one or another degree, do not correspond with the classical approaches towards assessment of agglomerativity, as they do not have a balance between functional roles of the core and the periphery of agglomeration. At the same time the strength of economic gravitation of the municipal formations between the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Bashkortostan leads to the establishment of Almetyevsk – Oktyabrsky polycentric transregional agglomeration, which provisionally includes both of the  indicated agglomerations, and which in accordance with the classical parameters for assessing delimitation and agglomeration level can be considered a more developed agglomeration than the initial ones.
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