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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Философия урбанистики"
Философия урбанистики
Zelenkova V.A. - National symbols in passenger areas of airport terminals pp. 1-16


Abstract: Analysis of airport terminal interior sheds light on the usage of national symbols and their concordance within interior design. The goal of the paper is to examine their design for national culture elements: symbols, traditional elements, and to pinpoint the most frequently-used ones, as well as trace their transformation. Despite the fact that some of the altered signs and symbols can hardly be recognized as elements of a particular culture, late XX and early XXth century is characterized by the rebirth of national style, regardless of growing globalization processes. In relevance with this, the author gives a defined classification of state and political symbols, dividing them into ideological and national. The latter, in turn, are divided into Soviet, national and ethnographic, abstract and figurative, heroic and thematic, household, historical, religious, mythological. Based on historical and comparative analysis of symbols in interiors, the authors have identified the main elements and characteristic traits that allow to distinguish artistic figures. The study of passenger area interiors of airport terminals (300 instances) has revealed that, depending on the region of placement in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, Middle East, or Far East, as well as its availability to broad public, political regime, main religion, national traditions, national symbols of various types are utilized. The author discovers how symbols, international in form, but national in substance, emerge.  
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - "To hear the Future's call": technopolis and ecocity as designs for cities of the future pp. 1-9


Abstract: The task of integrated city space arrangement is a constant in the urban development line of thought. The various solutions for this problem were offered by both, ancient social philosophers and modern town-planners and architects. The XXth century is marked by a pronounced standoff between the industrial-type city and the "garden city". This paper deals with the historical opposition of the two concepts: the technopolis and the ecocity. The authors offer a retrospective analysis of research conducted on this issue, as well as conceptual schemes and examples of their realization in urban development practice. This article adopts a comparative and historical approach, the analogy method and inductive generalization of mass media on the topic at hand. At the present time, the technopolis vs ecocity dichotomy has lost its importance, because it defined the two vectors of urban civilization development in an industrial age. The theorists of architecture strive to avoid the mutual exclusion of environment-friendliness and high technology. The projects for the cities of the future, on one hand, satisfy the standards of biosphere compatibility, and on the other hand, meet the challenges of the high-tech era.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - "The clash of two Capitals" from cultural philosophy perspective pp. 1-13


Abstract: The antinomy of Russian history is a concrete example of the contradictory and paralogic nature of social phenomena as a whole. One such example is the continuous rivalry between the two Russian capitals - Moscow and St. Petersburg. Exploring this topic, the authors suggest taking into account the accomplishments of philosophers, historians and social activists of the Russian Silver century which took place just before the 1917 revolution. It is obvious that the presence of two centers of government and social life reflected a parallel existence of two cultural dominants - the modernist Westernism, that was embodied by the image of "North Palmira", and the conservative traditionalist Slavophilic, represented by the ancient capital of Moskovia. This bipolarity was reflected in the debates among intellectual elites who had different points of view on cultural development. For the methodological basis for their conclusions, the authors utilize the ideas of outstanding Russian logicians and philosophers. Russian culture has long noticed the rift between the capitals. The discourse of Russian revolutionary thinkers of the balance between the Moscow and St. Petersburg cultural paradigms finds itself precisely in the context of the search for national identity in literature and philosophy. The assessments of revolution occurred mostly from the patriotic Slavophile viewpoints, which couldn't have agreed with the opinions of Bolshevik leaders that rained destructive criticism on their accidental fellow's social and historic formations.
Zhabina S.A. - Moscow and St. Petersburg, reflected in Solzhenitsin's work pp. 1-7


Abstract: Forming a cultural image of the two Russian capitals is a recent and important challenge. Historical collisions that resulted in Moscow and St. Petersburg being brought apart were the basis for the forming of two major paradigms in history, which reflected the complexity and ambiguity of Russia's path in history. This is why we see a dichotomy in the image of the two capitals in A.I. Solzhenitsyn’s creative work, as well as its emerging depth and dialectic nature. Nostalgic images of pre-Revolution Moscow, as evident on the pages of the "Red Wheel" are replaced by political metaphor which became the main stylistic technique of works devoted to Stalin-era Russia. The main method of this research is the analysis of text meaning from the perspective of social and cultural context. The author explores an area that few ever touched upon, as far as A.I. Solzhenitsyn’s work is concerned, as he analyzes the cities not as mere historical setting, but rather as full actors on the stage of the great author's books. A city is presented as a collective actor, an animate being which actively impacts the lives of the main characters.
Boltaevskii A.A. - A city for living: the main ingredients pp. 1-9


Abstract: Every year, people's demands towards urban space grow more and more. However, many megacities represent a concentration of career aspirations and criminal activity on behalf of the population. On one hand, the city offers maximum return on one's labour, on the other - criminal risks are higher, transport and housing problems take away from the comfort of life. A megacity is becoming a foreign object on the planet. At the example of large cities - Moscow in particular, the author demonstrates leading trends in favourable habitat development. This article is written, based on a critical, dialectic and hermeneutic methods. The author analyzes the sources of urban habitat development. In practice, the perfect city is a utopic concept, because the views and opinions vary per individual. At the same time, an organized space should be based on the following elements: aesthetically favourable habitat, connection with the environment, transport accessibility. To achieve those goals, constant cooperation between the citizens and the authorities is necessary.
Rozin V.M. - From Social technologizing a new typology of architectural objects pp. 1-39


Abstract: This article examines the stages of creation of urban environment and architectural object typology in the USSR, as well as explores the necessity to establish a new typology in light of the new social and economic realities of the present time. The author introduces a preposition that the regularities in this area may be explained on the basis of the concept of "social technologization". The author proves that social technologization is the precondition not only for creating typologies of architectural objects, but also new social institutes that ensure the reproduction of new technologies. Defining traits of modern social and cultural environment are being discussed from the standpoint of forming new technologization, new technologies and new social institutes. The methodology of study for this issue includes: problematization, structural analysis, comparative analysis, construction of new concepts, discovery of regularities, cultural and historical reconstruction of the creation of urban environment and architectural object typologies in the USSR. As a result, the author managed to distill an important concept of social technologization, and to demonstrate that its formation leads to the necessity of building new typologies and situating new social institutes. Another important result of this study is the analysis of the USSR's urban environment establishment and development, as well as of modern social and cultural situation that requires new technologization, new technologies and social institutes.     In the article the stages of creation in the USSR of the urban environment and the typology of architectural objects, as well as the need to present in connection with the new socio-economic realities of building a new typology. We introduce the assumption that the laws in this area can be explained on the basis of the concept of "social technologization." It is proved that it is a social technologization leads not only to the creation of typologies of architectural objects, but new social institutions that ensure reproduction formed a new technology. The features of contemporary social and cultural situation, forcing to form new technologization, typology and social institutions. The methodology of the study of these problems include: problematization, situational analysis, comparative analysis, the construction of new concepts, the selection of laws, cultural-historical reconstruction of the stages of creation in the USSR of the urban environment and the typology of architectural objects. As a result, we managed to introduce the important concept of social technologizing, show that it leads to the formation of the necessary construction of new typologies and social institutions, identify patterns of formation and development in the USSR of the urban environment, to analyze the features of contemporary social and cultural situation.
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Urban style in the context of consumption pp. 1-10


Abstract:   The goals of this theoretical work is the analysis of the urban consumption practices that are an intrinsic part of the urban style, as well as other phenomena of urbanization associated with the consumption processes. Thus, the subject of the research is the “consumption” content of the urban style. In general, the urban style is understood  as the combination of external manifestations in the livelihood of a city dweller determined by his affiliation to the urban civilization (territorial, value, communicational, cultural) or affiliation to a specific economic structure, organization of daily life, etc. The author applies the principle of spatial-timely structure of the phenomenon, which suggests the analysis of the urban style in unity of the spatial and timely localization with determination of the functionally different urban spaces, as well as capture of the specific “urban time”. The work gives definition to the urban style and the historical insight regarding the autonomization of the urban style, as well as analyzes the “consumer” reasons of the process of urbanization. The following specific characteristics of the urban style associated with the consumption processes are highlighted: emergence of the overconsumption, variety of the forms of urban existences and its polymotivation, separation from the natural cyclicality, increasing and artificially set tempo-rhythm, unification, preciseness, good manners, individuality, distance, emergence of the new urban socialness, strong structuring of time and space, mediation of the work and communications, high social mobility, spatial transformation of the city (shift of the historical center, assimilation of nearby territories), “privatization” of public space, city as the territorial brand, transformation of the psychological type of a city dweller, and shopping as the specific urban genre of recreation.  
Spektor D.M. - To the ontology of space and architectural shapes pp. 9-23


Abstract: This article criticizes the tendencies of interlinking ontology (of the XX century) predominantly with “time” and procedurality. The work demonstrates that outside the concept of boundary (form) the realization of being is impossible not only with regards to reality (history), but also towards its idea (concept). The essence takes its roots from the architecture of the continuum as the original instrument of transformation of unity of being into combination of spatial likenesses (bodies). The perception of continuum is reduced to the primal forms of co-being, which justifies the form of being of one or another origin and at the same time, the architecture of the form of realization. The method of research is associated with the apologia of “form” and “body” (form of the body), which were interlinked with space and time. The “body” in this case is being reconstructed, examined in regards to the “image” and geometric shape. The scientific novelty consists in endowing “space” with ontological significance. The “history of body” is connected with the history of space and time from both, the humanistic line of the genesis of game and art, as well as the natural science genesis of physical transferences.
Gushchin A.N., Divakova M.N. - Smart landscape for a "smart city" pp. 38-53


Abstract: The purpose of this work is to study the consequences of the introduction of the smart city concept on the example of the urban landscape. There are two main approaches to the interpretation of the concept of "smart city". The first of them is technocratic. Representatives of this approach consider a "smart city" as a sum of components: urban management, smart transport, etc. Representatives of the second direction consider "smart cities" as systems integrating various directions within a single urban space. The authors adhere to the second approach and choose the landscape as an object of study. The object is studied within the framework of the cybernetic paradigm, when a smart city is considered as a managed system. Identifying and describing the overall architecture of the control system and its capabilities, the authors then identify and study the functional characteristics of the control object - the "smart landscape". The description and functions of the control system are based on the "bottom-up" principle. To build the lower level of the management system, the authors identify multifunctional elements of the urban landscape that primarily need management. The lower-level systems will be combined based on the concept of the Internet of Things. Higher hierarchical levels of the management system will be limited in the diversity of their reactions, which is required by the law of necessary diversity. According to the authors, the possibilities of coordinating the preferences of citizens will limit the variety of reactions of the upper level of the system. As a result, the authors conclude that the smart landscape will be adaptive, dynamic and multi-scale. The adaptability of the landscape is understood in two ways. Adaptability to external influences and, thereby, the possibility of maintaining stable internal conditions (microclimate). Adaptability of the landscape as an adjustment to the individual needs of citizens and the formation of individual improvement zones. The dynamism of the landscape lies in the ability to change quickly to maintain a comfortable microclimate or adapt to the individual preferences of citizens. The multi-scale landscape is determined by the hierarchical structure of the management system.
Kirpo A., Kim A. - The influence of Japanese culture and the aesthetic worldview of Wabi-sabi on modern architecture pp. 38-45



Abstract: The object of the study is the influence of the national culture of Japan on the formation of modern architecture. The subject of the study is the manifestation of the interpretation of the motives of the national Japanese worldview of Wabi-Sabi in the work of modern architects. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as the analysis of Japanese worldview culture, in which the concepts of aesthetic beauty of wabi and sabi, which have become inseparable over time, stand out. This multifaceted concept implies the identity of beauty and naturalness. Particular attention is paid to the perception, in some cases unconsciously, of this ideological trend by modern European and Japanese architects, who often perceived it through the interpretation of the motives and principles of Japanese architecture. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is the analysis of the creativity of architects within the framework of not only the interpretation of the motives of Japanese architecture, but also the influence of one of its fundamental components — the Wabi-Sabi principle. The novelty of the research is the generalization of the creativity of both Japanese and European architects and designers, in which the influence of this trend can be traced. The main conclusions of the study are that architects and designers in their works tried to convey the close connection between nature and architecture, using natural materials in both structures and decor. That is why the Japanese Wabi-sabi worldview has brought a lot to modern architecture and design.
Koptseva N.P., Sertakova E.A. - The sum of methods of modern urban anthropology pp. 40-53


Abstract: The subject of this article are the capabilities of urbanistic anthropology in terms of modern cultural studies. This article considers the problem of effective methodology of contemporary urban studies. Currently, to obtain reliable results in scientific research, it is not enough to use just one method or follow the principles of only one scientific discipline. The most reliable results in urban studies can be obtained by using specific methodological strategies. Methodological strategy of urban anthropology is the specific combination of theoretical and applied research methods. Based on the concepts of city A. Lefebvre the authors developed an integrative methodological strategy for the study of urban space. The modern city is a complex space of social communication. Various objects of city are representative of complex symbolic structures. The content of the symbols of the city can be analyzed through the analysis of representatives, including architectural monuments.
Spektor D.M. - To the architecture of space. Outline of theory. Part I pp. 61-82


Abstract: This research is aimed at the analytics of space, and its "secondary goal" is the understanding of principles of its architecture. In the introduction, it is demonstrated that the direct access to such is impossible, and therefore, the future theory of architecture is forced to proceed to the matter, clearing the place of construction, in particular, specifying the ontology of the problem. In addition to the direct reference to the philosophical classics (M. Heidegger, J. Baudrillard, etc.), the initiator of such undertaking is had to keep in the field of view a significant number of other sources: philosophers have dealt with the problem of time for too long, associating it with the existence; throughout the XX century, primarily the culturologists, anthropologists, sociologists, and others were involved into the research of space. Due to this fact, the consolidation of the results of all the "perspectives" is one of the extremely relevant tasks of the architecture of space. Thus, the method of examination is evolves out of the formulation of the problem, and consists in the critical reviews of the ontology of space (time), as well as integration of the achievements of culturology, anthropology, and sociology of space. The scientific novelty of the research consists in formulation of foundations of the new ontology, which aligns the architecture of "place and time" with the new to phenomenology category of reference, and the derived from it (transcendental) principles of the spatial structure. "Space" is being reconstructed with regards to such (game) prototypes, in the historical form of which it had emerged and transformed (over the millennia) into the common reality (real space).
Spektor D.M. - To the architecture of space. Essay on theory. Part II pp. 90-115


Abstract: The second part of the study pursues the earlier planned reconstruction of space in its connection with reality. The previously explicated space-time and game relationship continues to be considered in its genesis, which from now on is complemented by an analytics of mutual development of the game and real space. Their direct comparison is preceded by analysis of the category of "real", in the process of which it is revealed as a phenomenon of the New Time and correlated with its conditioning categories: body and process. Such are examined in terms of the growing over recent centuries cohesion of ideology, politics and economics; as a result, "reality" is revealed as the space of their game, which allows explicating its main categories – real space and space of the real (in their dialectics). Accordingly, the method of research consists in the historical and logical reconstruction of the concepts of "reality" and space, their connection and (dialectical) difference; genesis of the method of spatial establishment is associated with "conditioning-realistic" (perception-action). The scientific novelty lies in formulation of the notion of "stich", which seams/unseams the "edges" of  reality; It is demonstrated that architecture proceeds from the necessity of exogenous containment of "human nature"; at the same time, its structure (the category of space/time) is related to the game and conditioned by it; furthermore, with evolution of realism, the space/time of the game (archaics) and the reality diverge even to the full glassiness; the real space yields to space of the reality, while total symbolism gives way to signification.
Safina A.M., Gaynullina L.F., Leontieva L.S. - Urban geography: parallax vision pp. 106-116


Abstract: The subject of this article is the status of urban geography as a theoretical discourse and management practice of the spatial development. The authors rely upon the synergetic ideology that the modern world is a complex self-organizing and self-developing system, the realm that intertwines the actions of man, technology, and nature. The article attempts to delineate the subject field of Russian urban geography, as well as specify its methodological grounds in accordance with the following parameters: 1) understanding of city as an object of study and management; 2) identification of the source of development of urban agglomerations and basic principles of development management; 3) disciplinary status of urban geography. Methodological foundation of this research lies in comparative and typological analysis, with the use of technique of the parallax gap with urban planning. The following conclusions were made during the course of this work: the national urban theory currently exists in the form of a project, mostly in a negative aspect, in other words, as a parallax gap with the theory of urban planning; situation has formed within the national urban geography, when the theoretical discourse and even self-reflection are the outrunning with regards to the corresponding practical transformations of reality, and at times directly provoke the latter.
Moskaleva S.M. - Post-Socialist city in the mirror of global governance transformation pp. 108-122



Abstract: In the last thirty years, questions about the future of urban development have been discussed in the world. Global agents and organizations (the World Bank, the UN) set the vectors of planning policy and set goals for the development of cities around the world. The role of the state in the management of urban development is changing. There is a transition from state regulation to "management", which includes new subjects in the management process: investors, businesses, citizens. The transformation of management models is explained by economic globalization, the emergence of a global economic sector. Cities are starting to compete with each other and focus on attracting investment. Governments of different countries are looking for suitable ways to manage cities. In this context, post-socialist cities that are facing the consequences of the transition from socialism to the market are of particular interest. The object of this research is the transformation in the management of a post-socialist city in the context of global changes. The subject is the ways of conceptualizing transformation in the management of a post–socialist city.   Tasks include: 1) identification of the main approaches to the analysis of transformations in the management of a post-socialist city under the influence of global changes; 2) description of the conceptual discussion around the concept of "post-socialist city" and the theoretical possibilities of its application; 3) discussion of these approaches in relation to the study of post-Soviet cities. The article presents an overview of theoretical and methodological concepts describing global transformations in city management. The scientific novelty consists in the expansion of the categorical apparatus for describing and conceptualizing the transformation in the management of post-socialist cities in the context of globalization, the ways for describing the transformation in the management of post-Soviet cities are outlined.
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