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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 02/2019
Contents of Issue № 02/2019
Градостроение
Ordynskaya Y. - Main vectors of Russia’s and China’s border area development pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29248

Abstract: The subject of this research is the border territories between the two countries – Russia and China. Currently, in southern region of the Far East and on the territory of Northeast of China in the border zone, structurally are determined several promising directions. In terms of the various strategic goals of implementation of the state programs, they mutually complement each other. These directions have a high likelihood of realization and can provide conjoint development of the border settlement systems. This is because in all of them can be clearly traced the particular historical patterns, which are substantiated mostly by a special development mode of the border area. The author applies the factor analysis for determination of the main priority vectors in development of border territories, considering not only current, but also historical trends and peculiarities of urban development and populating of the border territory of two countries. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to systemically consider the China’s and Russia’s programs of territorial development (“Open city”, “Russian districts”, law on “Far Eastern Hectare”, law on “Territories of Advanced Socio-economic Development” (Russia)), which implementation leads to another functional and structural transformation of urban layouts in the border area.
Проектирование и архитектура
Veretennikov D., Vilenskii M.Y. - Practice of project competitions in Saint Petersburg pp. 11-25

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29006

Abstract: The object of this research is the project competitions held in Saint Petersburg since the foundation of the city until the present day. The creative professional competitions in the sphere of architecture, urban planning, monumental art and landscape-environmental design pursuing the best solution of a specific project task are referred to the area of project competitions. The authors examine the evolution of the practice of implementation of competitive method in Saint Petersburg; and determine the most distinctive types of project tasks solved using the competitive method at various stages of city’s development. The competitions are analyzed in accordance with the following aspects: type of design object, format of its social affiliation (individual, collective, public), location within the city-planning pattern (central, peripheral, suburban zones) and relatively to water objects. The main conclusions consist in the evolution trends of the relevant city-planning objectives, determined on the basis of changes of the prevailing themes ad locations of the objects of competitive designing. The analysis of evolution of competitive practice is conducted in accordance with the five historical stages of spatial development of Saint Petersburg, characterizes by the diverse sociopolitical circumstances, peculiarities of urban development policy, and level if institutialization of the practice of holding the project competitions.
Озеленение и парковое хозяйство
Miryugina T.A., Sadykova E.F. - City parks of Tobolsk: past and present pp. 26-35

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29632

Abstract: This article explores the insufficiently studied aspects of centuries-old history of the parks and gardens of Tobolsk – the spiritual center of Siberia. The author determines the key moments in their past, as well as current situation and future development prospects. The first gardens in Tobolsk and its surroundings have appeared in the early XIX century – Yermak Garden, Apothecary Garden, and Alexandrovsky Garden. The history of a number of city gardens is associated with the visits of Imperial Romanov family. For example, in 1837 the crown prince Alexander II of Russia visited Tobolsk, and after his assassination in 1881, the Tobolsk dwellers decided to erect a Chapel and lay out a garden around it, which received a name of “Alexandrovsky Garden”. The established in August 1839 “Yermak Garden” was visited by Nicholas II of Russia in 1891; “Apothecary Garden” is the first city garden, its history is traced since February 1810, when merchant Malkov acquired it form the Grand Duke Meshchersky. Currently, there has been developed the project for its reconstruction, with preservation of the historical image and selection of plants in accordance with their mentioning in the archival materials. For the first time in history, on the territory of West Siberian Plain (within the limits of Tyumen Oblast) is created a Central Siberian Botanical Garden; the botanical gardens in Tyumen and Surgut are also in progress.
Historical culturology
Ukraintceva A.V. - Church construction in Yeniseian Siberia during the XVII – XXI centuries: the dynamics in metamorphoses of historical development pp. 36-48

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29826

Abstract: Since the end of the XX century, there has been observed a vigorous activity of the Russian Orthodox Church related to the revival of church construction traditions in Russia. Determination of the level of construction activity among Orthodox population is one of the most relevant questions in studying Orthodoxy overall. The author examines the dynamics of quantitative changes of churches across the territory of Yeniseian Siberia (modern Krasnoyarsk Krai) as one of the criteria for assessing the church construction activity of Orthodox population of the region. The goal of this research lies in describing the general picture of emergence and development of church construction in the territory of Yeniseian Siberia during the XVII-XXI centuries. The importance of this study is defined by the need to obtain an accurate picture of the prerequisites and modern church construction processes taking place within the boundaries of one of the largest Russian provinces. The author analyzes the history of construction of the church objects in accordance with the following characteristics: pace and volume of construction within the chronological framework of research; areas of allocation of the objects across the territory of Yeniseian Siberia; types of objects; construction materials; number of altars; affiliation to the objects of cultural heritage. The article reflects the overall picture of the dynamics of church construction in Yeniseian Siberia during the XVII-XXI centuries.  
Социология и демография
Semenova O.V., Butovskaya M.L. - Birth rate in the modern Russian society: the role of economic and cultural factors in the conditions of increasing globalization pp. 49-63

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.28966

Abstract: Understanding the nature of birth rate decline in the postindustrial world is a crucial task for a broad range of experts. It remains unclear what became the major motive for the switch of reproductive models in the highly urbanized world: the growing role of economic expenditure in a competitive urban environment or the result of manifestation of the new cultural norms of reproductive behavior via diffusion changing the modern demographic landscape. The theoretical part of the work familiarizes the audience with the main conclusions of the two competing hypotheses: the impact of economic versus of cultural factors upon the current birth rate. The practical part represents a quantitative study. As a result of application of the statistical methods of analysis in interviewing the Russian citizens, the author assesses the impact of economic and cultural factors upon birth rate, considering the factor of increasing urbanization. The article applies an interdisciplinary approach, as well as introduces into the scientific discourse the new materials of evolutionary ecology as one of the bases of human reproductive behavior. The analytical part focuses on the questions of population density (urbanization), its influence on birth rate in the observed cultures, taking into account the economic parameters.
Проектирование и архитектура
Kolesnikov A.G. - Modernization of design of the extruder for construction 3D printer and selection of its components pp. 64-70

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29597

Abstract: This article explores the improvement of characteristic of the construction 3D printer through changing its design, mixing ratio, and selection of necessary additives. The object of this research is the influence of additives and methods of their use in cement-sand grout in accordance with its characteristics. Special attention is given to monitoring of the effective doping of additives in cement-sand grout for the construction 3D printer based on the experimental and theoretical studies, and possibility of a prompt change of the mixture ratio in erecting various building structures. For determining the effect of different additives upon the mixture properties for the construction 3D printer, the author conducts experimental research following the method recommended by the All-Union State Standard. For the convenient usage of mixtures in the construction 3D printer is designed a regime imitating the process of extruding the mixture. The article suggests recommendations on the selection of mixture ratio for the construction 3D printer in various buildings and constructs (load-bearing walls, cross-connections, partitions). The article provides the results of experimental study for durability of mixture and placeability of mixtures with the use of additives. The author presents the design of extruder for construction 3D printer that would ensure variability of doping additives in mixture.
Системы безопасности
Kirichkov I. - Adjustment of the modern architectural object to the people with limited mobility pp. 71-81

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29735

Abstract: Despite the existence of multiple regulatory requirements, technical standards, legislative bills pertinent to ensuring the need of the people with limited mobility, the problem of accessibility of the modern architectural objects remains unresolved. Usually, the untimely or inexpedient implementation of accessible facilities for the people with limited mobility negatively reflects on the aesthetic image of the building or urban environment overall. Besides the installation of such facilities into the architecture, it is important to consider the formation of the entire architectural image, including convenience, functionality, compliance with a certain style, etc. The research method contains the analysis of foreign experience of implementation of such facilities for the people with limited mobility within the existing urban environment. The author reviews the examples of Guangzhou Opera House, Soho Galaxy Shopping Mall, Phoenix International Media Center, and aboveground pedestrian walkway in Chaoyang district of Beijing. The boundaries of this research is the chronological framework, capturing the recent decades, as well as the modern style buildings. The author concludes that the due standard for designing the facilities for the people with limited mobility can positively affect the formation of image of the existing urban environment.
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