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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Градостроение
Ordynskaya Y. - Typology of settlements on the borderlands between Russia and China pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28609

Abstract: The object of this research is the localities on the borderlands between Russia and China. The historical and contemporary analysis of the development of borderline urban layouts demonstrated that any city-planning objects strives to expand its territory to achieve its potential. The disruption of localization, closeness of urban localities in the borderlands leads to formation of the phenomenon of condominium territory. The study considers the historical traditions, modern trends and peculiarities in city-forming and resettlement of the borderline territory of two countries. The factor analysis and systemic approach are applied in the course of this work. The scientific novelty consist in the following:  in order to determine the possible vectors of future development of urban layouts of the various hierarchical level, the author conducts their systematization by the characteristic typological groups; this will allow determining the vectors in development of each group.
Проектирование и архитектура
Dorozhkina E. - Constructional features of horizontal urban gardening pp. 10-17

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.27684

Abstract: The goal of this work is the determination of the peculiarities of technical engineering of horizontal urban gardening from the perspective of creating a poly-functional environment. The structural design s is viewed with consideration of the impact of plants upon the building structure. In the course of this research, the author examines the structure of “green” roof covering; the risks emerging in engineering, construction, and exploitation of such structural design. The article also analyzes the constructional-technical principles of the formation of poly-functional environment with horizontal urban gardening; provides the criteria of selecting plants for horizontal urban gardening of the various types of buildings; gives comparative characteristics to the types of horizontal urban gardening. The main research method is the systemic analysis, including the analysis of scientific literature, project materials, and recommendations. The author provides the typological classification of the types of urban gardening; describes the impact of urban gardening upon the building structures considering the used plants; describes the effect of climatic factors of the environment upon urban gardening. The principles of formation of the additional protective structure in engineering buildings and structures with horizontal gardening are presented.
Architecture and Environment
Kazantsev P.A., Marus Y.V., Smelovskaya A.M. - Peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of renovation of Vladivostok’s water system pp. 18-32

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29014

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of rugged terrain and monsoon climate common for the city of Vladivostok, based on restoration of its natural hydrological cycle. The authors provide a brief overview of the current state of research on the topic of restoration and preservation of the natural hydrological cycle in urban environment; analyze the impact of the landscape-climatic factors upon the formation of hydrological cycle in the territory of Vladivostok; assesse the initial state and anthropogenic transformation of the natural carcass and water-collecting fabric of the landscape in the course of urban development of the south of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. The research method contains the systematization of theoretical knowledge and design practices in the field of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of water system renovation the analysis of interaction of the urban planning pattern with the landscape and water system of the territory in accordance with the cartographic data of various years; on-side survey of and experimental design for the Obyasnenie River in Vladivostok. As a result, for the initial natural landscape of Vladivostok, are determine the three types of section of water-collecting fabric based on the seasonal variation of their contribution into the water content of the river system. The authors develop the index map of the water and landscape subsystems of the natural carcass of Vladivostok. Their correlation with the transport carcass and industrial zones allowed identifying the problematic territories and renovation reserves of the water system. In conclusion, the authors formulate the key directions in restoration of the natural hydrological cycle in urban territory as the foundation for formation of the sustainable urban environment within the region.
Проектирование и архитектура
Glatolenkova E. - Architectural and space-planning peculiarities of the city of Manzhouli pp. 33-43

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29145

Abstract: The subject of this article is the peculiarities of architectural and space-planning structure of the city of Manzhouli. One of the many settlements formed in the beginning of the XX century due to construction of the China Far East Railway is of particular research interest, first and foremost, because the development of the city reflects the common in formation of railway settlements of concessional period, while at the same time, demonstrates individual features in architecture and space-planning. The author provides a historical overview of construction of the city and surrounding areas, studies the architecture of residential and public buildings of the early XX century, as well as spatial development of the city. Methodological foundation contains the methods of comparative, functional, and factor analysis for describing the urban development process and determining the distinct characteristics of the settlement and construction objects. Empirical base includes the geographical and archival materials, particularly, maps, blueprints and field research data of railway settlements lengthwise railway line from Manzhouli  to Suifenhe conducted by the author in August 2018. There is a lot of Russian scientific and publicist works dedicated to cultural heritage of the Russian concession in the Northeast of China. The author’s contribution lies in description of the distinctive features s of space-planning structure of historic development of the city of Manzhouli; analysis of the modern state and space-planning arrangement of the extant Russian neighborhoods, and determination of their place and role within structure of the city.
Градостроение
Veretennikova K., Vilenskii M.Y. - The dynamics of spatial development of the airport environs of Russia’s largest cities pp. 44-57

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28780

Abstract: The subject of this research is the urbanization dynamics of territories around the international airports of Russia’s largest cities over the period from 2000 to 2018. Airports become the centers of urbanization, having a significant influence upon the development of adjacent areas. The authors introduce the concept of the “airport environ”. The goal of this work lies in determination of the groups of airport environs with similar attributes of the ongoing urbanization processes that allow forecasting their future development. The parameters defining the development of airport environs were subdivided into the following factors: city, airport, and airport environ itself. Using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis, the airports and surrounding territories were grouped by the set of parameters that correspond with the three elements of consideration. The authors determine the spatial characteristics of the formation of airport environs and distribution of functions within their limits over the indicated timeframe; as well as suggest classification of the airport environs of Russia’s largest cities in accordance with their urbanization level. The article also examines the trends in evolution of the airport adjacent territories based on the stages of their spatial and functional development.
Социология и демография
Breslavskii A.S. - Urbanization in the republics of Southern Siberia: the dynamics of key parameters (1989-2019) pp. 58-67

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29217

Abstract: This article presents the results of data statistical analysis on the three key parameters of urbanization in the four republics of Southern Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Tuva, and Khakassia) over the period from 1989 to the beginning of 2019. The author demonstrates the influence of socioeconomic and administrative reforms upon the changes in the overall size of urban population, its ratio within the population composition of the republics, as well as the transformation of the structure of urban settlements in the indicated regions over the last 30 years. The research leans on the analysis of the official data of Soviet census of 1989, pan-Russian censuses of 2002 and 2019, and results of the annual statistical observations arranged by Rosstat and its regional divisions in 1990-2018. The materials were acquired and clarified during the author’s scientific expedition to Altai, Buryatia, Tuva, and Khakassia republics in September-October of 2019. In the course of the expedition, the author explored the processes of demographic and territorial growth of the capital cities (Abakan, Gorno-Altaysk, Kyzyl, Ulan-Ude) and their suburban areas. The following conclusions were made: in 1990-2019, urbanization processes in the republics of Southern Siberia captured mostly the capital cities and their suburban areas, while the small cities and urban-type localities for the most part have lost their potential for the sustainable industrial and territorial development.
Architecture and Environment
Berestovskaya D., Petrenko A. - Semiotics of architecture in the urban space of cultural landscapes pp. 68-78

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28999

Abstract: This article examines the problem of symbolic urban space, as well as reveals the essence of a city as cultural text, while the signs and symbols as the information carriers. In the course of this research, the author analyzes the structure and principles of the establishment of architectural space, which is a complex multilevel system, integrated symbolic formation, which remains in constant pursuit of the own architectural image. The study of architectural space leads to contemplation of spatial phenomena related to regional uniqueness. The comprehensive analysis of this problematic implies the use of the variety of sources for studying the specificity of architecture of particular cities, issues regarding the establishment of urban space, its transformation, changes in sociocultural situation, and other aspects. Semiotics as the methodology for studying architectural space serves as foundation for the analysis. For the first time, from the perspective of semiotic approach, the author analyzes the architecture of Crimean cities in the context of the uniqueness of cultural landscape of the Crimean Peninsula, which carries certain information enclosed within sign system. Y. M. Lotman’s theory of semiosphere  alongside V. L. Kagansky’s concept of landscape hermeneutic, viewed in the context of regional specificities, underlie the analysis of the indicated cultural landscape. The research reflects a new approach towards studying the Crimean urban space as the cultural landscape, based on the sociocultural problematic of modern urban studies. City is interpreted as a social phenomenon, characteristic with system symbols, perception of which changes dynamically due to ongoing processes in the Crimean Peninsula.
Burova O.G. - Small architectural form: assessment of load-carrying capacity and selection of optimal module frame based on structural weight pp. 79-87

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29172

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of engineering of structural frames for small architectural forms. The object of this research is the bearing frame of multifunctional module of the small architectural forms, intended for increasing comfort level of stay, recreation and awareness of population in urban and suburban environment. For comparative assessment and search of minimal weight construct, the author analyzes the options of frame manufacturing from steel, aluminum, and fiberglass. The module frame represents a framed structure consisting of rectangular cross-section tubular elements. The modelling of stress-stain state and evaluation of load-carrying capacity of the frame for various combinations of loading were conducted using the finite element method. The results of multi-variable calculations demonstrate that in ensuring the requirements of durability and rigidity the construct made out of composite material is lighter that the steel and aluminum alternative by about 71 and 7% respectively. The author formulates the factors limiting the reduction of material intensity of the constructs made out of composite materials and offset their advantages if compared to metallic materials.
Design and Environment
Pryadko I.P. - Biosphere and social processes in the aspect of strategic design of urban environment pp. 88-101

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.23227

Abstract: This article discusses the problem of social meaning and the role of urban development and architect. The author brings up the key concern for the modern architectonics and design of urbanized territories regarding consideration of the requirements of preservation of nature, adjacent landscape for the harmonious coexistence of biosphere and urban communities. The research juxtaposes the principles of the arrangements of anthropogenic space in the context of Eastern (China and Japan) and Western cultures, as well as traces the application of such principles in modern architecture with biotech vector. Leaning on the results of document analysis, sociological survey, and comparative-historical method, the author gives recommendation to architects and city planners with regards to studying social and environmental needs of the residents of urbanized territories. The scientific novelty is defined by the perspective upon the functions of design and architecture, viewed as the components of unified system of measures on the arrangement of biosphere-compatible space in large metropolitan cities. The conclusion is made on the prospects of using the principles of architecture and landscape biotech design in creating urban environment convenient for people. The author criticizes the idea of “super comfort”, which manifested as an objective of industrial and landscapes designs of the industrial era. The concept of “strategic” design is being introduced.  
Системы управления и планирования
Rogach O.V. - Analysis of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations pp. 102-110

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29257

Abstract: The subject of this research is the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations. The author shifts from the traditional perspective of economic theory towards the value-rational, psycho-emotional and aesthetic factors of the development of perpetual attractiveness of the territories. The article examines the key components of the development of tourist attractiveness of a municipal formation, and the role of tourists’ experiences in this process. Special attention is given to the processes of emotional engagement of a tourist, “value of impression”, which help to identify the territory in person’s mind and form a positive image. The main conclusions lie in determination of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations (value-rational, psycho-emotional, and aesthetic) from the standpoint of tourists’ subjective perception of characteristic features of the territory, which convey positive impressions, according to the selected consumption models, lifestyle, recreation and leisure. The author’s special contribution into the research consists in the new interpretation of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations as a set of characteristic features of the territory, which comprise its immanent uniqueness, as well as form a special psycho-emotional attitude and aesthetic satisfaction from the trip. The scientific novelty lies in the original approach to analysis of the factors of development of tourist attractiveness of municipal formations, shift of the currently dominant focus from economic approach towards the customization of experiences.
Проектирование и архитектура
Taletskaia I. - Implementation of the system of functional modular unites in modern projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers pp. 111-119

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28821

Abstract: This article examines the functionality of the children leisure and entertainment centers, demonstrates their functional circuit comprised on the basis of Rosstat statistical data on the number of students of the various disciplines of the advanced educational programs. The author determines the system of functional modular units as the most viable principle of the design of children leisure and entertainment centers that meets all the requirements imposed on the buildings of such type. The research defines the types of modular units intended for engineering of the children leisure and entertainment centers, as well as the variations of their configuration for the centers of different contemporaneous occupation. The research methods contain the systemic analysis of theoretical works in the field of design of public buildings of cultural and leisure purpose and construction of the modular prefabricated buildings, as well as the method of theoretical modelling of functional zoning of the children leisure and entertainment centers  in the context of implementation of modular technology. As a result, the author establishes that it is reasonable to divide the functionality of children leisure and entertainment centers into the three functional directions: sport, science, and art. Each of them has a diverse set of leisure and entertainment activities that are allocated to the separate rooms or sectors. Therefore, it is concluded that the construction technology of modular prefabricated buildings meets the most demands placed on the children leisure and entertainment centers. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the types of modular units and variations of their configuration.
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