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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Contents of Issue № 04/2018
Культурное наследие
Lemytskaya D. - The questions of determining and preserving national identity in Siberian architecture (on the example of the Republic of Khakassia pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the manifestation of national policy in Siberian architecture. The objects is the urban architecture of the Republic of Khakassia (on the example of the city of Abakan). Chronological boundaries of the research include the moment of establishing the Soviet regime until 1950’s. Based on studying the national policy conducted by Soviet government in the regions, the author sets the goal to determine the architectural objects with manifestation of national specificity, which are important as the objects of cultural heritage. The article meticulously reviews such aspects of the topic as the policy of indigenization in all spheres of cultural life of the Soviet society, development of national self-expression in architecture in compliance with the national policy conducted by the government. The author applies the historiographical analysis and field studies of urban development of one of the national autonomies of Russia; historical-evolutionary and comparative-typological method for analyzing the national policy pursued in USSR; interaction between national distinctness and architecture in the context of the history of architecture of the country; as well as methods of discovering the historical-cultural value of the objects. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the methods and means of reflecting national specificity of architectural objects of the national territories of USSR. It is established that the policy of indigenization was expressed in creating the objects with national specificity, using the methods of stylization and morphogenesis. The residential building in Abakan with national features is considered the most attractive and unique architectural object in the territory of Khakassia. The results of this work can be used in studying architecture of the national territories.
Проектирование и архитектура
Taletskaia I. - Main factors affecting the modern projects of children leisure and entertainment centers pp. 9-21


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the main factors that affect the creation of modern projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers. The object of this research is the children leisure and entertainment centers, while the subject is specificities of its designing. The author provides an overview of the most common examples of the existing projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers, built over the period from 2006 to 2017; as well as presents a systemic analysis of the city-planning, functional and architectural-artistic characteristics of each object. The acquired results allow determining the key factors that affect the designing of the children leisure and entertainment centers, among which are the city-planning, socio-functional and psychological. Each of these factors must be considered in designing the children leisure and entertainment centers. The author underlines that the world practice of designing the children leisure and entertainment centers knows the cases of applying studies in the area of children and adolescent psychology, sociological survey data, as well as the city-planning peculiarities; however it carries an occasional and irregular character. The scientific novelty lies in systematization of the determined factors for the purpose of aligning and improving the designing of the children leisure and entertainment centers.
Социология и демография
Neustroeva A.B., Semenova L.A. - The peculiarities of displacement of the indigenous minorities of the North in the territories of natural resource management of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 22-35


Abstract: In the conditions of industrial development of the Arctic and the North, the questions of preservation of the traditional natural resource management of the indigenous minorities of the North, their legal and socioeconomic situation, protection of rights and interests gain particular relevance. This article considers the problem and specifics of creating the territories of the traditional natural resource management in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The authors meticulously analyze the population dynamics and displacement pattern of the five indigenous peoples of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in the territories of traditional natural resource management. The study contains the data from the national censuses and statistical indexes; the geoinformation approach allowed visualizing the assessment results in form of the thematic maps. The use of geoinformation approach an important tool from the perspective of realization of the regional socioeconomic monitoring. The acquired data demonstrate that currently the majority of territories of the traditional natural resource management in the republic are established within the agricultural communities (“nasleg”) and occupy over 50% of the region’s territory. The research illustrated that the portion of the indigenous minorities of the North residing only within the territories of traditional natural resource management comprised 59% of the total number, and the rest 41% resided either in the urban areas or localities where the territories of the traditional natural resource management have not been created.
Design and Environment
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A., Dvoinev V.V. - Color preferences of senior citizens in various stages of house design pp. 36-49


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective, expressed in a certain arrangement of basic colors and their shades. The goal of this study lies in the empirical determination of quantitative and qualitative structure of color images that are most popular in the house interior (hallway, dining room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom) among senior citizens, as well as in the analysis of the acquired data with regards color perception that changes over time. The research method is an experiment, involving 50 senior citizens, in the age between 60 and 82 (average age of 67.54; 8 males and 42 females). The scientific novelty consists in description of the specificity of color coding attained by various functional zones in house design of the senior citizens. The most distinct color margin is between the intimate and personal spaces and those that carry out a representative functions. The noted opposition of the internal and external, shielded and open in color preferences of the senior people is realized through the parameters of lightness: in arrangement of bedroom and bathroom prevail the light shades; for hallway and dining room most often are selected the saturated and dark tones. All types of living spaces mark natural colors and shades. The determined color preferences are specific for designing certain types of house interiors. They significantly differ from the preferences associated with other types of objects (for example, the façade color) and do not match with the abstract favorite colors.  
Ordynskaya Y. - The principles of development of settlement zones in Russia-China border zone pp. 50-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the forms of settlement located in border zone, as well as their emergence and development in the region under consideration. They serve as the foundation for the establishment of systems with particular spatial structure – agglomerations (China – Manchuria, Suifenhe, Heihe, Hunchun; Russia – Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk); transagglomerations (Heihe – Blagoveshchensk, Manchuria – Zabaykalsk, Fuyuan – Khabarovsk, Dongning – Pokrovka); national settlement systems Manchuria – Hailar, Dongning – Hunchun, transboundary settlement systems. This is an evident beginning of the new stage of structural transformations, on a scale of large localities, as well as forms of settlement. Therefore, elaboration of the forecasting principles of their emergence and development is relevant. In terms of such elaboration, the author considered the historical traditions, modern trends, and peculiarities in city-forming and settlement. The scientific novelty lies formulating the principles that view the effect as a result of targeted actions upon the process of the formation of city-planning systems. This will allow determining the optimal development trajectory for the new city-planning objects, as well as exclude obtaining the null or negative effect as a result. 
Social systems
Zhuravleva I.A. - “Safe City” program in the modern municipal administration pp. 55-62


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of implementation of the program “Safe City”. The author analyzes the conditions and objectives of introduction and development of this program in the various cities of Russia. Special attention is given to the analysis of implementation of the “Safe City” sub-programs in Irkutsk. “Safe City” is one of the strategic programs of municipal administration and can become the foundation for strategic planning of the future in the cities of Russia. Therefore, an important factor is the account of positive and negative effects of realization of this program for adjustment and modeling of future development. The research methodology is structured on the systemic analysis, use of SWOT-analysis of the apparatus and program complex “Safe City” that allows comprehensively determining the merits and flaws of the program. The main conclusion of implementation of the program consists in the development of the investment climate and attractiveness of cities for manufacturers and tourism, as well as the arrangement of information environment for the residents. Therefor, “Safe City” is the foundation for sustainable development of the cities as a complex component of the unified information-resource space of cities of the future.
Architecture and Environment
Ivanova A.S. - Approaches to formation of “virtual reality” in the works of Maurits Cornelis Escher for designing the architectural space pp. 63-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the origins of the phenomenon of virtual reality in architecture, which advances the thought on the ambiguous impact of the works of the Dutch artist M. K. Escher upon the theoretical aspects of emergence of the new paradigm of the XXI century in architecture. The object of this research is the base effects of illusory perception, generated by the artist in his compositions. Special attention is given to determination and substantiation of the conceptual-theoretical phenomenon of the emergence of virtual reality paradigm in the practical artistic works that reflects the varieties of time and space paradoxes. The article applies the method of analysis of historiographical base of the studies of foreign authors for the formation of theoretical foundation of the modern scientific explanation in manifestations of the virtual reality of architectural environment. The conclusions are based on the conceptual systematization of “visual effects” in the works of M. K. Escher, examples of their interpretations in architecture by his successors, which became the means of a modern architect and designer, and increasingly predetermine the quality of visual perception of the architectural space.
Системы управления и планирования
Engel'gardt A.E., Lipovka A.Y., Fedchenko I.G. - International experience of indexation of the quality of urban environment pp. 77-87


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of international experience of indexation of the quality of urban environment base on rating. The analysis is conducted on the models of assessment of quality of life, which present methods for transferring the “quality” criteria into digital values. The integral method of indexation is carefully examined. The article employs materials from the leading practiced of indexation of quality in urban environment. The authors analyze the definition of criteria of objective quality assessment in urban environment to form city ratings. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the signing of decree by the Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of the Russian Federation of October 31, 2017 No. 1494/pr “On Approval of the Methodology for Determining the Quality Index of the Urban Environment of Municipalities of the Russian Federation”. Additionally, the categories of “quality of life” and “living standards” comprise an extensive and multi-aspect definition in interdisciplinary research, which should be reflected in definition of the indicators of quality indexation in urban environment of municipal formations. Among the key conclusion of this study is the determination of generalized criteria for indexation of quality of urban environment. A conclusion is made that the indexation system allows seeing the overall picture of the condition of quality of the environment of large and small cities, and carries generalized character in formation of city ratings, while systemic monitoring of the quality of urban environment of planning uniting within municipal formations is absent.
Транспорт и коммуникации
Boltaevskii A.A. - Transport as the foundation of a modern city pp. 88-95


Abstract: Transport is the foundation of modern society; especially its role is noticeable in the conditions of megalopolis. Namely the development of communication means allowed expanding the urban limits, avoiding the population overcrowding, and as an aftermath, unsanitary conditions, shifting towards the era of suburbanization. However, the advancement of continuous-flow production led to the rapid increase in the number of personal vehicles. The collapse in megalopolises is a result of explosive vehicle-to-population ratio, reducing the public transport park, particularly tramways. In fact, human movement on the roads became independent from their objectives, but rather relates to a significant element of chance. The author compares the various conceptual schemes and options of their implementation in terms of establishment of the city transportation systems. The author leans on theory of postmodernism of Jean Baudrillard. The future of urban transport can carry only social character. The priority vector is the toughening of requirements to the vehicles, including the reduction of the entrance areas and development of subways, dual-mode buses, and express tramways. The positive example of Copenhagen and Curitiba, as well as the actions of the Moscow authorities testify to the fact that making a city comfortable, accessible to all social groups, is realistic in the foreseeable future.
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