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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2018
Contents of Issue № 01/2018
Системы управления и планирования
Ivanov O., Ilinskaya Y. - Stages of escalation of city-planning conflicts in modern Russia pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25095

Abstract:  This article examines the phenomenon of city-planning conflicts in modern Russia, as well as determines the objectively existing complicated moments in studying of the topic. The aforementioned phenomenon is viewed through the prism of the necessity of formulating the universal approach towards understanding the dynamics of escalation of the city-planning conflicts, identification, and studying of the stages of its development. Attention is concentrated on the causes that led to changes in urban space in the process of the continuous urbanization and the impact of economic interests upon the character of urban development. From the perspective of system approach alongside consideration of the existing theories, the author analyses the dynamics of city-planning conflicts and stages of their intensification. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to systematically explore the city-planning conflicts as a dynamic phenomenon that goes through several stages; in effort to identify these stages, formulate their qualitative diversities, trace the possibility of escalation of the city-planning conflict in terms of upward and downward directions. The author suggests applying the acquired data for managing the conflicts, particularly as preventative measures, taking into account that they involve large number of participants, attract broad public attention, and thus, are ones of the most complicated from the standpoint of their management and resolution. The article substantiates the need for further research of the phenomenon of city-planning conflicts as a whole and stages of their escalation in particular by the experts in the corresponding fields.  
Культурное наследие
Uzhgerenas M.P. - The last summer residence of the Emperor Nicholas II: role of engineering infrastructure in formation of the “Lower Dacha” in Alexandria Park of Petergof pp. 14-29

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.24891

Abstract: This article examines the question regarding the preservation of the object of cultural heritage “Lower Dacha” in Saint Petersburg (town of Petergof, Alexandria Park). In the course of architectural and archeological explorations, have been discovered the remnants of the underground engineer communications of sewerage through ceramic pipes. Such discovery confirms the assumption that the construction of buildings at the lower terrace of the park in the riverine conditions of shallow water and spring flowage was possible in terms of solving a number of engineering and ecological tasks. The article applies the system-structural method of studying the archival funds that contain geographical materials of engineering and executive documentation, photo images, explanatory notes, as well as bills for construction supplies and executed services. The result of the research lies in determination of the role of engineering infrastructure in establishment and development of the architectural complex “Lower Dacha” – as the basic document to justification of its historical and cultural values and need for its preservation. Despite the fact that it was not the primary residence of the Emperor Nicholas II, but rather the favorite country retreat of the family, signifying the birth of three daughters of the Emperor and the crown prince Alexey, it symbolizes multiple remarkable memories and events in the history of Russia.
City dwellers
Levchenko I.E., Novgorodtseva A.N. - The opinion of Middle Ural residents on health services pp. 30-39

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25290

Abstract: The object of this research is the adult patients of healthcare facilities of the districts of Sverdlovsk Region. Among the respondents are 34 males and 60 females consisted of the following age groups: 18-39 (30 people), 40-59 (38 people), above 60 (26 people). The subject of this research is the quality of health services in medical centers of the towns of Artemovsky, Asbest, Berezovsky, Nizhnyaya Tura, Pervouralks, Rezh, and town settlement of Shalya. The quality evaluation is realized in accordance with a number of criteria: comfort conditions and waiting time of rendering health services; level of satisfaction with the provided services, etc. Methodological base implies the sociology of city, healthcare, and medicine, as well as application of the structured interview involving 94 patients. The scientific novelty consists in the empirical results. It is established that sanitary and hygienic norms vary among the medical centers of the considered towns. The author determine both, the apparent violations of the existing regulations, as well as patients’ positive evaluations of the available conditions. In all assessed city clinics similar problems in the work of the physicians are detected: doubts of the respondents regarding the competency of particular specialists; insufficient amount of time allocated for patient visit; instances of unfriendly treatment of patients; prescriptions written for expensive brands of medications while there are other low-cost alternatives. Based on the acquired data, the respondents have given a relatively high feedback on the work of medical personnel, although the overall quality of health services was assessed as moderate.
Design and Environment
Fomina E.V., Barsukova N.I. - Engineering design and modernization of building-adjacent territories in industrial cities (on the example of Tolyatti) pp. 40-50

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25292

Abstract: The subject of this research is the urban space of Tolyatti – a large industrial center built during Soviet times. The article analyzes the Soviet and post-Soviet ideas of designing the urban environment. The object of this research is the building-adjacent territories of the most problem, standard residential areas that in a lesser extent correspond with the modern perception of human comfort in urban environment. The need for modernization and harmonization of courtyard spaces for increasing the quality of life of the urban population is demonstrated through the complex environmental approach, namely the engineering design. The authors conduct a correlational analysis of the contemporary design projects of creating the comfortable environment along with the idea resources laid in the project of an “ideal” Soviet industrial city. In the course of this research were determined the positive city-planning ideas of “city of the future” that allow efficiently develop the building-adjacent territories. The authors examine the problematic of the standard residential construction of Tolyatti and transformation of the functions of urban environment, as well as substantiate the role of courtyard as an important territory for increasing the quality of life in the modern industrial city. The concept of a contemporary courtyard space is presented.
Мегаполисы
Kuzmina N.V. - Cultural landscapes of Russian metropolises: symbolic-semiotic aspect pp. 51-58

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25394

Abstract: This article gives special attention to the question of formation of the cultural landscape as a constant process of semiosis, which instrument in the Russian metropolises is the symbolic-semiotic engineering. The traditional component of cultural landscapes penetrates all sociocultural systems and procures their existence. It forms the “collective memory” of urban community and separate social groups, thus ensuring the succession in their development that manifests as an essential condition in preserving social order. The innovative component, in turn, expresses the ability of metropolitan society to adjust to the rapidly transforming surrounding world, which allows solving the most relevant for the society and human issues. Methodological foundation of uncovering the imagery of Russian metropolises contains the theory of micro-urbanism of O. Berdnikova and O. Zaporozhets; visual sociology (visual anthropology) of R. Flaherty, J. Rouchm, R. Gardner, M. Mead; as well as the theory of spatial representation of culture of Setha M. Low. The author comes to a conclusion that in the process of symbolic-semiotic engineering of the Russian metropolises,  the key centers of which are the cultural landscape, it is necessary to reproduce the familiar to city residents symbols and signs, structure the images of metropolis that are capable to encourage the social creativity as an essential mechanism of the dynamics of urban culture.
Socioculture
Zakharova E.E. - Social spaces as a new vector of sociocultural development of the territory pp. 59-65

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25727

Abstract: In modern metropolises, there is an entire spectrum of open spaces, which includes city squares, parks, river walks, naturally formed landscapes, curtilage in residential developments, and others. Often their appearance contributes not only to sociocultural, but economic development of the territory as well. Social space is an incubator of urban development, assigned with an important role in establishment of the holistic sociocultural structure of the city that ensures relevance of the selected topic, which subject is the public territories. The author examines the link between the sociocultural development of the territory and social space as a new vector of its development, using the methods of theoretical analysis of the scientific-methodological literature and open Internet sources for the extensive coverage of the question at hand, as well as the methods of comparison, analogy, and generalization. The scientific novelty consists in introducing characteristics to the concepts of social and cultural spaces, as well as analyzing the project practices of formation of the social spaces, implemented within the framework of national project of the Strategic Initiatives Agency “Far from the Capitals”. The presented in the article analysis of formation of the experimental open platforms allows concluding that the social spaces are capable of making changes in life of the city, which requires the search for the new ways and methods for their creation, preservation, and modernization.
Градостроение
Veretennikova K. - Consideration of the impact of airport in the city development planning of the near-airport zones of the largest cities pp. 66-73

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25894

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of the limited consideration of the impact of airport upon the surrounding territories in preparation of city development documentation in Russia. The object of this research is the near-airport territories of the largest cities, while the subject is their city development regulation. The article analyzed the factors and consequences of urbanization of the territories located near airports. Attention is turned to the fact that currently the documentation on regulation of such territories has a strictly technical orientation that neglects the city-forming potential of an airport. It is underlined that in Russia airport is typically considered as transport object and the source of negative effect on the surrounding areas, which is reflected in preparation of documentation. The described issues are viewed on the example of the near-airport territory of Pulkovo International Airport in Saint Petersburg. In the course of this study the author applies the methods of city development analysis, systematization, comparison of the national and foreign experience of development of the near-airport territories. A hypothesis is proposed that the cause of the emerging transport and social issues in the near-airport territory lies in the lack of consonance in the process of planning that leads to the irrational use of territorial resources, transport infrastructure, as well as degradation of natural carcass. The article proves the need for coordinated strategic planning of the near-airport territories, provides a list of instruments that encourage achieving the set goals.
Architecture and Environment
Gorelova Y.R. - City as a concept and a visual artistic image pp. 74-89

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.24086

Abstract: This article portrays city as a certain mental construct, cluster of ideas, as well as analyses the essential features of a city, which allow identifying the distinctness of such fragment of reality in people's perception. The author analyzes the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", considering their interaction at the level of essence and structure. Particular attention is paid to the specificity of artistic image as a special type of imagery, along with the images of everyday perception, official images, and others. At the same time, prioritized attention is given to the specificity of artistic imagery of the city captured in the visual arts. The author reveals the dynamics of the key trends in reflecting a city as a concept in the works of artists of various eras. Peculiar for this study became the imposition of subject areas of a city as a concept (as a term, mental construct) and methods of working with visual sources, namely the analysis of visual "texts" in form of the urban landscapes (the author compiled 843 city landscapes). A link is established between the term of "city" and the spectrum of qualities, characteristics and associations that stand behind it and form the perception of such fragment of reality. Analyzing the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", the author concludes that the image and the concept have a similar structure (centered core, following by concentric layers in proportion to weakening of characteristic and decrease of its importance and awareness in the consciousness of recipients). However, the term of "image" is broader, filled with visual and emotional components. The concept is more focused on the category of essential and typical features, as well as familiar meanings. Describing the specificity of artistic image, the author notes that it is related to specificity of the sphere of art, which  distinctness manifests in subjectivity and emotionality of perception and presentation. The author determines the range of basic characteristics included in the concept of "city" that allow singling out the specific perception of this fragment within the framework of artistic imagery reproduced in works of art.
Философия урбанистики
Spektor D.M. - To the architecture of space. Essay on theory. Part II pp. 90-115

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.22971

Abstract: The second part of the study pursues the earlier planned reconstruction of space in its connection with reality. The previously explicated space-time and game relationship continues to be considered in its genesis, which from now on is complemented by an analytics of mutual development of the game and real space. Their direct comparison is preceded by analysis of the category of "real", in the process of which it is revealed as a phenomenon of the New Time and correlated with its conditioning categories: body and process. Such are examined in terms of the growing over recent centuries cohesion of ideology, politics and economics; as a result, "reality" is revealed as the space of their game, which allows explicating its main categories – real space and space of the real (in their dialectics). Accordingly, the method of research consists in the historical and logical reconstruction of the concepts of "reality" and space, their connection and (dialectical) difference; genesis of the method of spatial establishment is associated with "conditioning-realistic" (perception-action). The scientific novelty lies in formulation of the notion of "stich", which seams/unseams the "edges" of  reality; It is demonstrated that architecture proceeds from the necessity of exogenous containment of "human nature"; at the same time, its structure (the category of space/time) is related to the game and conditioned by it; furthermore, with evolution of realism, the space/time of the game (archaics) and the reality diverge even to the full glassiness; the real space yields to space of the reality, while total symbolism gives way to signification.
Проектирование и архитектура
Rozin V.M. - To structuring the concept of design pp. 116-122

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25153

Abstract: This article reviews a relevant situation that compels to discuss and introduce the concept of design. The author confers the relation of some researchers to the indicated genesis of design, as well as distinction between the main types of design – traditional and nontraditional. The principles based on which V. Rozin reconstructs the formation of design and discusses its nature (functioning and development) are formulated. The author attempt to characterize design considering its evolution, suggesting the dynamic definitions of design instead of statistical. As a result of this work, the author was able to structure a dynamic definition of design and characterize the established within methodology of design situation that compel to form such concept. The article also analyzes the scheme of prerequisites of the establishment and development of design, as well as the difference between the two main types of design – traditional and nontraditional.
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