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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Historical culturology
Kistova A.V., Fil'ko A. - The mansion of Petr Gadalov in Krasnoyarsk as the object of cultural heritage of regional importance pp. 1-26

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.20979

Abstract: Based on the example of typological and art analysis of the mansion of P. I. Gadalov (currently Krasnoyarsk State Art Museum named after V. I. Surikov), the article reveals broad sociocultural opportunities of this architectural work. The modern state documents that determine the strategy of the Russian cultural policy, sets the priority for the development of regional monuments of cultural heritage. The work leans on the typological method of art study, as well as the method of philosophical-art analysis of architectural compositions as the space of interaction between the audience and the versatile world, manifesting in peculiarities of the external and internal arrangement of the construct and specificity of communication between man and the structure. The conclusion is made about the ability of the objects of cultural heritage of the regional level to represent not only the relevant for the tome of its creation artistic and cultural phenomena of the local importance, but also all-Russian and global, including from other historical eras. This research can serve as the instrument for establishment of the program of realization of the determined meanings in urban and sociocultural environments of Krasnoyarsk in creation of the “Museum Quarter” project.
География города
Yashkov I.A., Ivanov A.V., Vinogradova T.N. - The experience of studying the transformation of industrial city at the turn of XX-XXI centuries (by the example of Zhanatas, Kazakhstan) pp. 27-42

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21162

Abstract: The object of research is urban space Kazakh industrial city Zhanatas, appeared on the map of the Soviet Union in the 1960s of the last century and became one of the largest centres of extraction of phosphorite ore and production of the mineral and chemical raw materials.The authors pay special attention to the study of the transformation of the urban space, which is an illustration of the complex of geo-political, socio-economic, geoecological, historical, demographic and migration processes in Kazakhstan abroad XX-XXI centuries.The authors of the report focus on the evolution of the urban landscape that has experienced special aspects of rapid industrial development and the destructive processes of nature and became an arena of new industrialization.The methodological basis of the study is the aggregation of Earth sciences methods - field work route, geoinformation mapping and thematic interpretation with geo-ecology and environmental history methods, which allows you to make the tools of modern urbanity base more effectively.Particular attention is paid to the role of multiple crises of the 1990s in the evolution of cities and urban environmental management that affected the comfort of the population living in an urban environment.In the study, the authors come to conclusions about the complex mechanism of the transformation of urban space, urban system conditions of adaptation to the social and economic reality and the process of searching of effective urban environmental management instruments.
Socioculture
Barmina N.I., Levchenko I.E. - Basilica as a sociocultural phenomenon pp. 43-56

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21355

Abstract: The object of this research is basilica as a sociocultural phenomenon. It represents one of the unique architectural forms, which epitomizes the harmony of beauty and utility. The authors thoroughly examine the evolution of secular basilica that sequentially manifests as a residential, judicial, and financial-economic building. During the process of “Christianization” of basilica, we could observe the adjustment of the archaic symbolic. The technological methods of ancient art, filled with the Biblical content, were implemented in mural paintings and creation of the mosaic floor. Thus, the subject of this research is the transformation process from a secular construct into the Christian temple. The methodological basis of this work consists in the following concepts, which allow revealing the multifacetedness of the phenomenon of basilica: theory of architecture; sociology of space and architecture; sociology of culture, religion; sociology of city. The conducted research determined the pragmatics and symbolic of the transformation of basilica from the secular construct to religious building. The authors make a conclusion on the complex mechanism of sacralization.
Культурное наследие
Griber Yu.A. - Decrees that regulate coloristics of the cities of the Russian Empire pp. 57-72

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21560

Abstract: The object of this research is the complex of documents that set and formulate the principles of urban coloristics. The goal of the article consists in expansion of the established boundaries of traditional analysis of the documentation of urban coloristics, as well as present the history of development of the documents, which defined the color norms in the cities of the Russian Empire. The author thoroughly examines the associated with color terminology of the Imperial decrees, the content of the colors and their optical properties. Special attention is given to the analysis of sociocultural situation in the other European cities of this period. The author carried out the content analysis of the chronological index to the full compilation of laws of the Russian Empire, which allowed determining the complex of Imperial decrees regulating the urban coloristics. The applied during the course of this research traditional analysis of the documents lied in compilation of the dictionary of color terms and clarification of the chromatic features of the used pigments. The author’s main contribution consists in determination and systematization of the decrees that set and formulate the principles of urban coloristics in the Russian Empire. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of the color dictionary of the documents containing the color naming, as well as characteristics of the color combinations and their chromatic properties.
Малые города
Zhigal'tsova T.V. - Sacrificial heterotopias of a provincial town pp. 73-80

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21603

Abstract: Within the framework of emotional geography, this article reveals and examines the “unfavorable places” among the children of provincial town, as well as determines the types of “unfavorable places” – “open” and “closed”. The concept of “heterotopia” along with its classification introduced into the scientific discourse in 1966 by the French philosopher Michel Foucault is in the center of this work. The author introduced the notion of “sacrificial heterotopia” – a place ignored by the community, and thus, sacrificed by it for the sake of social tranquility and sense of rootedness in urban space. The data for this article is acquired through anonymous questionnaire that includes the drawings of the children (11-12 y.o.) of Velsk of Arkhangelsk Oblast. The author draws a conclusion on publicity of the “unfavorable places”, emotional segregation in the provincial town, and defined negative meaning of the neglected buildings in children’s emotional space. Out of the entire range of “unfavorable places”, the author highlights the universal heterotopias of the closed type: school, hospital, cemetery, the drawings of which are characterized by the presence of multiple repeating elements – window openings, school desks, tomb stone, and others.   
Culture and cultures
Griber Yu.A. - Space in the Japanese urban coloristics pp. 81-85

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21144

Abstract: The goal of this article consists in the demonstration of the distinctness of the principles of distribution of color in space that are contained in the Japanese norms of urban design. The author thoroughly examines the mechanism of formation and perception of the urban coloristics. Special attention is given to the analysis of the link between the norms of urban coloristics and characteristic to the Japanese art culture principles of spatial composition, to which pertains the absence of linearity and symmetry, special attitude to the integral regardless the independent existences of the separate, the idea of cyclic movement, emphasized attention to the opposition between the top and bottom. For solution of the set task, the author uses the method of informal analysis of the documents aimed at interpretation of the actual content, purposes of creation, and context of the Japanese laws that regulate the urban coloristics. The scientific novelty lies in reconstruction of the key principles of mental model, which comprises the foundation of the Japanese urban coloristics. The author’s special contribution is the explanation of the establishment of Japanese norms of urban coloristics towards “closeness” of the space, its “framed” perception, two-dimensionality, as well as temporalization of the color images.
Social systems
Muftakhova A.N. - Social inequality in housing sphere and issues of the current housing policy pp. 86-93

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.20916

Abstract: The subject of this article is the existing system of inequality in housing sphere, which can cause serious social issues that can be prevented or mitigated with the help of the balanced and efficient housing policy. Examination of the problems of housing stratification become more relevant under the conditions of instable socioeconomic situation and decrease in financially solvent demand. The goal of this work consists in sociological analysis of the issues of current housing policy, which emerge based on social inequality in housing sphere, and originated by it housing stratification. The object of the analysis is housing stratification of metropolis of St. Petersburg. The research leans on the interdisciplinary scientific discourse that established on the basis of examination of housing stratification of the metropolis, as well as place and role of its residents in resolution of housing issues. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of the thesis on cyclicity of the housing stratification. Particularly, the dynamics of stratification in St. Petersburg is demonstrated. The author analyzes the results and problems of implementation of the government project of ensuring the affordable and comfortable housing to the Russian citizens, as well as compares the approaches of the reals estate developers towards further advancement of housing policy.
Культурное наследие
Kuryleva L.A. - Artificial lighting: aspects of development within the historical urban environment on the example of Saratov pp. 94-101

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.4.21028

Abstract: This article reviews the evolution of aspects of the beautification strategy of the evening environment of Saratov as the example of development of the provincial approach towards establishment of the artificial lighting in the historical center of the city, which plays the leading role in intellectual, commercial, and social aspects of the city life. The improvement of city’s historical center that holds the major functions of the city, is necessary for its efficient functionality. Projecting of the artificial lighting system in the historical downtown as the aspect of beautification strategy, requires meticulous examination of the historically established illumination system. Fixation of the geographical and chronological results of the research on the map of Saratov determines the established lighting frame, footings and connections between them, level of intensity of the lighting, as well as serves as the foundation for formulation of the comprehensively substantiated concept of establishment of the favorable evening lighting environment in the historical downtown of the city.
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