Электронный журнал Урбанистика - №2 за 2014 год - Содержание, список статей - ISSN: 2310-8673 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Философия урбанистики
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - "The clash of two Capitals" from cultural philosophy perspective pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.2.13255

Abstract: The antinomy of Russian history is a concrete example of the contradictory and paralogic nature of social phenomena as a whole. One such example is the continuous rivalry between the two Russian capitals - Moscow and St. Petersburg. Exploring this topic, the authors suggest taking into account the accomplishments of philosophers, historians and social activists of the Russian Silver century which took place just before the 1917 revolution. It is obvious that the presence of two centers of government and social life reflected a parallel existence of two cultural dominants - the modernist Westernism, that was embodied by the image of "North Palmira", and the conservative traditionalist Slavophilic, represented by the ancient capital of Moskovia. This bipolarity was reflected in the debates among intellectual elites who had different points of view on cultural development. For the methodological basis for their conclusions, the authors utilize the ideas of outstanding Russian logicians and philosophers. Russian culture has long noticed the rift between the capitals. The discourse of Russian revolutionary thinkers of the balance between the Moscow and St. Petersburg cultural paradigms finds itself precisely in the context of the search for national identity in literature and philosophy. The assessments of revolution occurred mostly from the patriotic Slavophile viewpoints, which couldn't have agreed with the opinions of Bolshevik leaders that rained destructive criticism on their accidental fellow's social and historic formations.
Градостроение
Boltaevskii A.A., . - "To harness the Elements": problems of modern urban planning pp. 14-24

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.2.12926

Abstract: In this article, the conflict of the controlled versus the spontaneous serves as a prism for analyzing modern urban studies trends, such as deindustrialization, deurbanization, environmentalization, comprehensive planning, legal regulation of the economy, conversion of urban industrial sites, migration flow control. The authors direct attention to the contradictory nature of processes that can be observed in the organization of architectural and planning areas of the modern megapolys, the crises that need to be overcome, for the sake of our civilization. Our civilization faces growing global challenges, the overcoming of which is key to preservation of humanity as a species, and thus, harnessing the elements of the city becomes a priority task. Scholars who research this field often miss the existence of two paradigms that emerged in architectonic studies. On one side, there's the "machine-city" paradigm, on the other, there's the "living city" that adheres to objective laws of nature. This article demonstrates contradictory elements in both approaches, as well as potential points of convergence, for mutual enrichment that could result in a general synthesis of urban development models. The result of city-planning processes is ambiguous to this day: problems with the environment, increasing social friction. In the modern world, the process of increasing complexity of urban development, the increase of demands towards housing and social environment give opportunities to professional integrators to unite the various urban segments, the architectonics, into one. The multivectoral nature of modern city development is largely dictated by the gradual replacement of the technocratic model with the biospheric approach. We need a city that can work with the input from all of its dwellers, for it to become comfortable for habitation and friendly to the environment.
Малые города
Zhabina S.A. - Social and economic aspects of creating confortable environment, at the example of minor towns of Moscow region pp. 25-33

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.2.13352

Abstract: The problem of creating a clean, biosphere-compatible urban environment is currently one of the major issues for our society. Its importance is dictated by the multivectoral nature of modern megapolys development, which, in turn, becomes a stimulus for a transition from a technocratic model of urban planning to a biosphere-compatible one. However, the results of the current urban planning process appears ambiguous: by limiting industry development in some cases, the urban planners make other, no less serious problems, even worse. Because of this, the author believes that it is necessary to analyze the current situation in cities, to analyze the dynamics of environmentalist movements that are currently fashionable due to the modern social and political paradigms, to evaluate their potential good and harm. Case study is the main method of analysis in this work. The cases are analyzed for modern ecourban trends, deindustrialization, advertisement business regulations, ecologization, comprehensive planning, legal regulation of nuclear industry, interactions between environment movements and business. This work also employs traditional general scientific methods of inductive generalization of facts and deductive application of the generalizations generated, for the sake of identifying patterns in the dynamics of urban life. The author draws attention to the inconsistency of statements issued in the architecture and environment planning of modern cities, to the crises that we need to overcome for the sake of our civilization. The author points out the dysfunction of modern environmentalist movements - they are too political. And it becomes a reason for conflict situations and interferes with constructive dialog between the civil society and the Federal and municipal authorities (Selyatin and Khimki forest protection movements come to mind).
Транспорт и коммуникации
Rabkin S.V. - Airfield complexes in northern cities: institutionalizing the criteria for modern development pp. 34-49

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.2.13466

Abstract: The development of airfield complexes in northern cities is a necessary condition for forming a universal territorial space of Russian Federation. The strategic tasks of exploring the Russian part of the Arctic region define the high priority of this vector. However, a return to strategic planning principles for regional development demands efficient mechanisms for their implementation, while taking into account the institutional changes in the economy's structure. As this research suggests, among the major problems, the issues of modernization of airfield complexes located within city borders stand out. By the example of the Republic of Komi, the author examines the regional aspects if airline deregulation. Basing on the method of institutional analysis, the author elaborates on the necessity of further examining the concepts of transport accessibility and security, taking into account the trends in their institutionalization at the present time. The use of methodology of institutional systemic synthesis allows to envision the indicators that characterize sectoral security as institutional criteria for defining the national priorities of development. The stated approach may be employed when forming regional polycentric systems of transport infrastructure object placement. Attention is drawn to the role of airfield complexes in ensuring economic security and in ongoing urbanization of the Russian North.
Культурное наследие
Sertakova E.A. - Visualizing the image of the city and its dwellers in the Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel in Krasnoyarsk pp. 50-64

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.2.13271

Abstract: The subject of this study is the urban space of modern Krasnoyarsk, as well as the visualization processes of Krasnoyarsk and its dwellers in the monument of architecture, Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapel. The Chapel is serves as a symbol of Krasnoyarsk, its apeparance condensing various synmolic complexes, linked to the unique identity of Krasnoyarsk and its inhabitants. The article examines the signs, images and symbols that preserve and transmit this unique urban identity. The Chapel's image possesses its particular dynamic of image and symbol. It is possible to identify the main elements of this image, and compare them to pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet eras of Krasnoyarsk history. The chief method of this research is the semiotic- and symbolism analysis, as well as philosophical and art analysis of the Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapel as a paragon representative of Krasnoyarsk's urban environment. The scientific novelty of this work is based on the modelling of national identity dynamics of Krasnoyarsk dwellers, based on semiotics and symbolism analysis, as well as history and arts study of the representing monument. For the first time, the Parakseva Pyatnitsa Chapen is analyzed in the context of modern regional and urban identity. The indication of historic dynamics in the interpretation of the Chapel's image, as well as the analysis of this image from the citizen self-identification point of view, is also a novelty.
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