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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Философия урбанистики
Boltaevskii A.A., . - "To hear the Future's call": technopolis and ecocity as designs for cities of the future pp. 1-9


Abstract: The task of integrated city space arrangement is a constant in the urban development line of thought. The various solutions for this problem were offered by both, ancient social philosophers and modern town-planners and architects. The XXth century is marked by a pronounced standoff between the industrial-type city and the "garden city". This paper deals with the historical opposition of the two concepts: the technopolis and the ecocity. The authors offer a retrospective analysis of research conducted on this issue, as well as conceptual schemes and examples of their realization in urban development practice. This article adopts a comparative and historical approach, the analogy method and inductive generalization of mass media on the topic at hand. At the present time, the technopolis vs ecocity dichotomy has lost its importance, because it defined the two vectors of urban civilization development in an industrial age. The theorists of architecture strive to avoid the mutual exclusion of environment-friendliness and high technology. The projects for the cities of the future, on one hand, satisfy the standards of biosphere compatibility, and on the other hand, meet the challenges of the high-tech era.
Социология и демография
Boltaevskii A.A. - The fight for morality in urban environment.: Russian Empire and USSR experience pp. 10-18


Abstract: During the Perestroika (late 1980s reforms), a social revolution took place in Russia, resulting in a sharp turn in the system of values for ordinary citizens. Sexual emancipation became an integral part of their lives - both, sex industry workers and outright pornography emerged from the underground, which contributed to moral decline of some Russian citizens. Over the last 25 years, voices emerge that advocate the legalization of prostitution as an integral part of urban environment. To get to the heart of this problem, it is important to explore historical experience of fighting prostitution in Russia. The author uses statistical data, testimonies of contemporaries and publications of domestic and foreign authors.In the modern period, the fight against prostitution mustn't be primarily based on repression and fighting prostitutes themselves, like 100 years ago, and mostly now, but rather on social aid and cultural education. Mass Media must be sex industry advertisement-free. Legalization of prostitution will only lead to its further expansion, as well as sex-tourism, which will undoubtedly have corrupting influence, especially on younger generations. The city must be a place for personal growth, not degradation.
Проектирование и архитектура
., . - Transportation in cities: organizing accessible and comfortable architecture and planning environment for the mobility-impaired citizens pp. 19-29


Abstract: This article examines the current state of affairs regarding transportation accessibility for the mobility-impaired urban dwellers. The author evaluates the solutions applied by Moscow, Moscow Region's cities and other major Russian cities. Proper ramps and sidewalks are a priority to ensure access by the disabled and parents with baby strollers. The author points out that the absense of a unified strategy in this area results in severe complications for those that need accessible environment. As an example for the authorities, the author points out the "Reminder for architects" paper that was devised by Urban planning authorities of Chita.Issues of transportation for the mobility-impaired citizens, as the focus of this paper, are explored on the basis of media publications, surveys and urban planning documentation, focusing on three main topics: equipping public transport stops, commissioning new means of transportation that would accommodate mobility-impaired citizens, building roads and access points for the disabled. Analyzing the rich factual base and comparing the current state of affairs and project requirements in official documentation, the author concludes that, despite of all state standards of accessible environment planning, social infrastructure is still being built with little regard for the norms at large. It is possible to salvage the situation by implementing the «Tempus Project CENEAST: Reformation of the Curricula on Built Environment in the Eastern Neighbouring Area», developed by the political and social science department of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering into urban planning. The goal of the project is to reform the education of bachelors, specialists and magisters by introducing new modules, including environment modules aimed at the creation of biosphere-friendly space in cities, comfortable environment for the mobility-impaired. 
Zakondyrin A.E. - Local self-government as a mechanism for managing large cities with state status pp. 30-38


Abstract: This research examines the experience of Berlin and Paris - major cities that combine both, state and municipal functions. The practice of organizing local government in these cities cannot be fully applied to major Russian cities with Federal status, because foreign countries lack the firm division between state and municipal bodies, which is established by the Russian Constitution. Nonetheless, the experience of management organization in those cities is of great interest and may prove extremely useful for long-term plans for the development of Russia's largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg. Comparative analysis shows that combining the functions of a municipality and a state authority does not have a considerable impact on the management model of a major city, or city agglomeration. It is evident that not all elements of the major city management system, employed in international practice are applicable to the realities of Russia, but the discovered trends, without a doubt, need to be considered when addressing appropriate issues in Moscow and St. Petersburg - like dividing functions between multiple levels of authority and broad practice of voluntary cooperation between municipalities in terms of providing services.
Культурное наследие
Pryadko I.P. - V.G. Shukhov: the architect's portrait before two eras pp. 39-50


Abstract: This paper analyzes several separate aspects of the work of the outstanding Russian engineer and architect, Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov, and evaluates his projects of innovation. As the brightest examples of this, the author chose the main railroad project of the scholar - the débarcadère section of the Kiev railway terminal and the famous radio tower in Shabolovka. Shukhov was a virtuoso who managed to combine functional technological qualities (ease of use, technical simplicity) and aesthetics, the most important of which is the commensurability of the building and the surrounding landscape. The article focuses attention on the similarities in the approach to architecture between Schukhov and modern biotech, which suggests that the Russian architect employed the analogy method. The second part of the article explores the methodology of V.G. Shukhov's work. The biomorphic analogies, created by Shukhov's patents, are on-demand by world architecture's celebrities. Aesthetic tastes that developed with the contribution of the works by the Russian genius, continue to dominate modern engineering practices to this day.Methodological aspects of Shukhov's creativity are a good reason to return to the topic of "Shukhov and the social and cultural dynamic of the XX century", to address the issue of the synthesis of cultures - the technological and science culture, and the humanitarian culture that persisted in this period of time.
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