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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Agriculture" > Contents of Issue 02/2017
Contents of Issue 02/2017
Economy of agriculture
Nikolaichuk O.A. - Agricultural sector of Russias economy: to be or not to be? pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.22808

Abstract: The research subject is the agricultural policy of the Soviet Union, Russia and foreign countries. The purpose of the research is to develop recommendations for the resolution of the crisis of the agricultural sphere of the economy. The research object is the types, methods and directions of agricultural policy in different periods of Soviet and contemporary Russia. The author elaborates on the peculiarities, drawbacks and mistakes of the agricultural policy of the state. Special attention is given to reindustrialization of the agricultural sphere. The author uses the method of moving from abstract to concrete and the system approach to analyze the types of agricultural policy of Russian for several years, reveals its shortcomings and mistakes and their impact on the agricultural sector of the economy. It helps formulate the solution to the current system crisis of the sector. The author reveals the reasons of distinguishing the agrarian sector as an independent direction, proves the impropriety of the chosen agricultural policy and offers the ways to improve the situation in the sector by means of reindustrialization. The results of the research can be used for the development of the directions of practical improvement of the agricultural policy of contemporary Russia and for teaching. A scientific novel as the analysis of the experience of the so-called mobilization policy and the policy of gentle regulation in the past of Russia and foreign countries. A practical novel is the analysis of the negative role of import of cheap and low-quality products and the urgent need for reindustrialization of the agricultural sphere. 
Shed'ko Yu.N. - Sustainable use of land in the interests of counternarcotics pp. 11-17

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.22798

Abstract: The research subject is sustainable use of land in the Russian Federation. The author enumerates the components of sustainable use of land and analyzes use of land in the Russian Federation in the interests of counternarcotics. The author finds out that the narco-situation is affected by the availability of plant materials for drugs production, particularly, wild hemp. The author notes that the increase of wild cannabis distribution area is caused by the mistakes of use of land, primarily, non-exploitation of farmland. The author shows that most registered offences are caused by the breach of the established requirements and compulsory measures for land improvement and protection. The research methods include the monographic method, descriptive analysis, analysis and synthesis, moving from abstract to concrete, the logical method and statistical analysis. The author concludes that defining the essence of sustainable use of land can help solve the problems of environmental degradation, the improvement of the ecological condition of land. Sustainable use of land is an important factor affecting drug addiction as a socially and criminally dangerous phenomenon, which has become a global threat. The narco-situation is affected by the availability of raw materials for drug production, therefore, in order to reduce drug supply, it is necessary to increase the area of the used land. 
Agricultural complex
Syromyatnikov Yu.N. - Justification of the shape of a plowshare with steering disks of a cultivating separating ripper pp. 18-29

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.23150

Abstract: The research object is the process of functioning of the excavating parts of a cultivating separating ripper, which transforms the structure and the density of a soil layer in accordance with the requirements of agronomical science for the cultivated crop. This result is achieved using the coordinated interaction of passive and active excavating parts. The machine also combs out the weed. The author considers the plowshare with steering disks, which spends less energy when moving through soil and directs soil to the separator. Theoretical researches are based on mechanical and mathematical modeling of interaction of the moving parts with soil. Experimental researches are based on the sectoral methods using strain-gage instruments and the methods of multifactor experiments planning. In the result, the process of soil cultivation using disk cultivating parts has been improved, the theory of justification of the parameters of active-passive cultivating parts for the separation and pulverization of soil and been developed; the mathematic model of interaction of cultivating parts with soil with account of energy intensity rates of technological processes has been composed. The use of methods of direct variational calculation for the justification of shapes of cultivating parts of a cultivating separating ripper helps reduce energy consumption by 10-30%. 
Regional agricultural peculiarities
Ivanova E.V. - Formation and development of agrarian consulting in the Northern region pp. 30-43

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.22675

Abstract: The research subject is socio-economic relations characterizing the process of formation and functioning of the agrarian consulting system. The research object is agrarian consulting in the Republic of Komi. The author elaborates on such aspects of the topic as the essence, specific features and directions of activity of agrarian consulting. Special attention is given to the necessity to realize agrarian consulting in the Northern region and to study regional peculiarities of its formation. The author analyzes the current state of the consulting service and detects the factors hampering its development. To extend the consulting coverage of agricultural producers and promote innovations among small and medium businesses in agricultural sector, the author offers the directions of agricultural consulting development. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research contains the works of the leading Russian and foreign scholars, dealing with the organization of agrarian consulting, and legislative and normative documents defining agrarian and rural development. The author concludes that the formation and functioning of consulting services in the agricultural sector in the territories with severe environmental conditions and agricultural peculiarities is specific; it is determined by the underdevelopment of agricultural sector, current types of agrarian structures, availability of human and educational resources, innovation activities of agricultural organizations and farms. The analysis of the agrarian consulting service’s activities helps detect the reasons hindering its development: underdevelopment of the agrarian consulting system on the municipal level; unavailability of qualified consulting specialists; insufficient financial support; the absence of legislative base regulating their activities; weak links of the regional consulting service with scientific and educational institutions. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the clarification of the essence, specificity of formation and functioning of the agrarian consulting system in the northern conditions; the detection of its shortcomings and the development of the model of agrarian consulting for the Republic of Komi. 
Biological Resources
Lavrent'ev B.F. - Bee-keeping development in the Republic of Marij El pp. 44-51

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.22687

Abstract: The main task of this project is the creation of a reliable, highly effective, affordable high performance system of bee venom collection in order to provide the Russian pharmaceutical industry with raw products for the purposes of import substitution. Another its goal is to develop methodological documents for the comprehensive study of the process of bee venom collection during the season of 2017. The research task of the project is to find out the dependency of the amount of the collected venom on the method of bees disturbing, season, time of day, weather conditions, modes of a bee venom collector, duration of collection, state of a bee colony and other factors. The research is performed using the instruments, which have been designed in Volga State University of Technology and received 8 patents of the Russian Federation.Within the project, significant attention will be given to the improvement of the quality of bee venom and to its certification in order to organize the production of venom-based medicines at Yoshkar-Ola pharmaceutical plant. The research is based on the methods of observation, comparison and experimental research at bee yards of the Republic of Marij El. Biological researches are conducted in the field and in the laboratory. All the acquired results are subject to qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is planned to perform comprehensive research in order to define the vitality and productivity of bee colonies in terms of the method of bees disturbing, season, time of day, weather conditions, modes of a bee venom collector, duration of venom collection, state of a bee colony and other factors. A significant feature of the bee venom collector is the automatic program change mode depending on the parameters of the environment. This mode helps avoid bees’ adaptation to the disturbing factors and to raise the effectiveness of venom collection. The output buses of the device are protected from short-circuits in wire lines and venom receivers; it guarantees their reliability and improves their effectiveness. Using the system of bee venom collection, it is possible to cover the expenses for the development and production of devices and the expenditures of regional producers on venom collection, including the groups of venom collectors. The last-mentioned factor is very important, because it can reduce the price for honey by 35-40% and improve the competitive performance of bee-keeping on the global market. Besides, it could create the basis, which would provide the Russian pharmaceutical industry with raw materials for import substitution. 
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