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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Question at hand"
Question at hand
Elzesser A.S., Kapustina T.V. - Diagnostic Capabilities of Psychological Tests: State-of-the-Art pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.30013

Abstract: The matter under research is diagnostic capabilities of psychological tests. Despite frequent use, this term does not have a clear definition and can be interpreted in a different way in researches. The authors of the article examine such aspects of the topic as the use of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' in Russian empirical reserach, the structure of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' of psychologists tests, problems caused by the use of unreliable tests in psychological practice, reasons and solutions. The researchers have also carried out a practical analysis of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' as it has been used in recent empirical researches and have analyzed objective reasons of why unreliable psychological tests are commonly used. The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1. there is the 'theory-and-practice' dialectics in academic psychology: borders of 'diagnostic capabilities' are defined by the theoretical model of psychic phenomenon which, in its turn, is based on actual empirical data. 2. The definition of 'diagnostic capabilities' should include measurable effects and diagnostic attributes; applicability for particular research objectives and groups of respondents, standard samples or reference patterns that can be used in the process of interpretation, reliability, reasonability and validity. The term 'diagnostic capabilities' is identical to the term 'psychometric properties'. 3. Objective reasons for such common use of unreliable psychologists tests include: the use of out-of-date tests; availability of such tests; the fact that tests are used by other specialists but not psychologists; and use of computer interpretation of tests. 4. The authors describe ways to overcome this problem, i.e. to involve students in psychologists researches carried out by university departments; to develop the mechanism of distribution of psychologists tests; awareness of harmful effect of online diagnostics; increasing availability of online counselling; and encouraging better understanding of methodological bases of particular tests. 
Serikov G.V. - Attractive Appearance as an Instrumental Value and its Importance Among Young People pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27934

Abstract: In his article Serikov underlines the growing importance of researches on the perception of human appearance, raises a question about the importance of attractive appearance as a value, analyzes a number of socio-psychological and sociological researches of values and value orientations of modern young people and emphasizes that this is the value that Russian researchers haven't analyzed yet unlike Western researchers. The article provides the results of empirical research that studies the importance of attractive appearance as an instrumental value to achieve terminal life values of a universal nature. The research involved 140 students of the Southern Federal University (psychologies and philologies) aged 18 - 22 years. The diagnostics include such tests as the Appearance Importance Inventory (modified version of Rokeach Value Service). The Inventory has all terminal values but only one instrumental value which as attractive appearance. The research results demonstrate that as it is perceived by young men and women, attractive appearance may be an important factor that allows to achieve terminal values, however, the importance of this value is different for various values which allows to create the hierarchy. Respondents perceive attractive appearance as what may allow achieve such values as self-confidence, love, interesting job, social acceptance, health, well-being, success and happy family life. Attractive appearance is least important for the achievement of such values as happiness of others, creativity, wisdom and beauty of nature and art. 
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Compulsive Consumption in Psychology and Economics: Differentiation Betweeen Approaches and Their Integration Within the Framework of Economic Psychology pp. 62-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.6.27780

Abstract: In his article Ovrutsky describes and analyses two approaches to compulsive consumption: psychological and economical (marketing-based). The researcher compares these two approaches based on the following parameters: description of the phenomenon, the nature of impulse, determinants, effects, consumption actors, evaluation, consequence, correlation, specific phenomena and corrective measures. The determinants of impulsive consumption within the framework of the psychological approach are as follows: 1. the consumer's personal dispositions, 2. affective patterns and 3. cognitive conditions that promote or inhibit the manifestation of impulsive behavior. The second feature of the psychological approach is the nosological context of the perception of the phenomenon (explicit or latent). Psychological scale of impulsive consumption: impulsive purchases - compulsive purchases - oniomania. The marketing approach is based on three axioms: 1. Compulsive buying is an unplanned purchase; 2. Compulsive consumption is largely determined by external factors and acts as a product of management of the marketing communications system; 3. Compulsive consumption is a positive form of social activity. The specific phenomena of compulsive consumption in marketing concepts are: label switching, lifestyle, and creative consumption. It is shown that the psychological approach focuses on the internal determinants of behavior, while the economical approach is based on the external determinants. In psychology, compulsive consumption is regarded as irrational, in marketing it is interpreted as rational. Thus, the researcher has considered the economical and psychological approach to compulsive consumption as integrative. Such integration should follow the path of disclosing the mechanisms of interaction between psychological and economical factors in describing and explaining compulsive consumption.
Savvina O.V. - The Reasons of Legalizing Abortions in the XXth Century and Modern Debates on the Moral Acceptability of Abortions pp. 221-243

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12657

Abstract: In the article the reasons of legalization of abortions in the XX century in the countries of Europe, Great Britain, the USA and others are considered. The purpose of this consideration is forecasting of further development of discussion about legalization of abortions (mainly – abortions "at a request") in the world countries; definition of current trends in the solution of a question on abortions at the state level; and also identification of defining social groups in the solution of this question. Object of research is discussion about legalization of the abortions, developed in the XX century. In research the method of the philosophical analysis, a cultural and historical method, historical information, the analysis of the legal documents legalizing abortions "at a request" in the West countries (Great Britain, the USA) is used. The author comes to a conclusion that in the XX century priests and the medical personnel - the former social groups which had priority influence on the solution of a question of legalization of abortions lost the force and were compelled to participate in a new bioethical discourse on an equal basis with inhabitants and other experts. Formation of a bioethical discourse in the countries of Europe, Great Britain and the USA allowed to make decisions on abortion to women that on the one hand, released them, and with another – deprived a bioethical discourse of influence on a solution of the problem of legalization of abortions.
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