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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Национальный менталитет"
Национальный менталитет
Artemeva O.A., Sineva O.V. - Social Determination of Practical Psychological Currents Development in Russia in the First Half of the XX Century: Results of the Research pp. 11-20


Abstract: The authors of the present research defines the problem of social determination of the historical development of Russian practical psychology. Based on the material of the history of main currents of Russian practical psychology's development in the first half of the XX century the author proposes the historical-scientific solution of the aforesaid problem. The authors also give a brief description of the main modern approaches to defining conditions, prerequisites, factors and results of the social determination of the pedagogical, psychoanalytical and psychotechnical movements of the 1920's - early 1930's. The authors present the results of the empirical research of what has determined the development and crisis of those movements in the first half of the XXth century using such methods of historical and psychological research as the analysis of research findings, biographical and bibliographical analysis, historical and psychological reconstruction and development of the classification of historical stages. The authors describe the main social conditions for developing research and practical movements: 1) Soviet science policy; 2) public demand for practice-oriented researches in industrial, ideological, social and administrative spheres. For the first time in he academic literature the authors describe the main mechanism of the social determination of the development of research and practical movements of the Soviet psychology, institutionalization. The authors define specific features of the Soviet research policy towards practical psychology, its ambivalent nature and role for de-institutionalization processes (elimination of research centers, specific print media, etc.). The authors also offer their own classification of stages of research and practical movements in the Russian psychology of the first half of the XXth century taking into account the social environment.  
Shazhinbatyn A. - The Main Personal Qualities of a Japanese pp. 95-164


Abstract: The author of the article makes an attempt to create the social and historical image of a Japanese. The author emphasises the main qualities of a representative of this culture: status, social functions, values and role behavior. A typical Japanese is compared to a typical European. Unlike Western people, Japanese people have such qualities as irrationality and illogical perception. Another group of qualities analyzed by the author is the conformity and discipline. General features of this type of personality are associated with the peculiarities of the culture, cultural and historical traditions. The author also describes the dominating features of Japanese personality. In his research the author uses the comarative method of research and provides a detailed analytical review of literature including writings by Western European, American and Japanese researchers. The novelty of the topic is conditioned by the overall attempt of modern humanities to compare Western and Eastern personalities and to create images of the two cultural worlds. Individualism is viewed as the value system that caused the 'Western civilization disease'. The author also shows the feautures of the Japanese model of development that is based on the group orientation. 
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