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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Psychology and pedagogics"
Psychology and pedagogics
Kholina O.A., Petrova E.G. - Analysis of Students' Beliefs about Interpersonal Conflicts (the Case Study of Russian and Ukranian Students) pp. 1-10


Abstract: In this article the authors provide a content-analysis of psychological literature and definitions of such concepts as 'conflict', 'interpersonal conflict' and 'communication'. The authors analyze various views on interpersonal conflicts and compare their structural elements as well as analyze types of responses. The subject of the research is the beliefs represented by students of different nationalities regarding interpersonal conflicts. The object of the research is the students of different nationalities who study at one University and communicate. The purpose of the research is to discover and compare particularities of what students of different nationalities think of interpersonal conflicts. The main research methods used by the authors include tests (Buss-Durkey Inventory and Thomas Conflict Mode Instrument), interview, content-analysis, and research results statistical processing method. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyze psychological particularities of students' views on interpersonal conflicts in terms of cross-cultural communication in groups of students belonging to different nationalities and studying at one University. The results of this research have demonstrated that students of both nationalities have quite adequate views on interpersonal conflicts and choose the conflict mode in accordance with their personal traits and life experience. As a result of the research, the authors describe quantitative and qualitative differences, however, these differences are statistically insignificant. 
Khrisanova E.V. - Peculiarities of Cognitive and Socio-Psychological Development of Preschoolers with Different Statuses in Kindergarten Senior Groups pp. 1-13


Abstract: The aim of the article is to study individual features of the development of children with high, middle and low status in kindergarten senior groups. To achieve the goals of the research, the author of the article have solved the following tasks: theoretical analysis of associated literature in order to substantiate the theoretical approach to the research; development of the framework of concepts and methods that reveals peculiarities of cognitive development and anxiety level of preschoolers with different statuses within the group; and analysis and interpretation of the results. The research involved eight kindergarten senior groups of the Moscow district. The total number of respondents is 159 children aged 6-7 years. The researcher has applied different groupds of methods: theoretical analysis of social and psychological sources on the matter; experimental methods to define specific features of cognitive development and anxiety level of preschoolers with different status in kindergarten senior groups; and methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of empirical data including mathematical statistics methods. The researcher has discovered the relationshp between the level of a child's cognitive development and their status and role position in an informal intragroup structure of the kindergarten senior group. The results of the empirical research demonstrate that over 50% of children have a high intragroup status. The level of cognitive development of low-status children is considerably lower than that of high-status and mid-status children. The majority of children who attend kindergarten senior groups have a high or increased anxiety level. The researcher also gives an interpretative analysis of the aforesaid phenomenon from the point of view of the psychosocial development theory. 
Klyatis A.E. - Peculiarities of the Education Environment at Orphanages in Different Countries pp. 20-30


Abstract: In his research Klyatis emphasizes the importance of creating safe and developing education environment at orphanages. The researcher demonstrates that external conditions have a direct influence on children's mental and physical development, their main abilities that are essential for maintaining successful interactions with the surrounding world and, consequently, full involvement into the education process. At orphanages the key negative factor of the education environment is the phenomenon of deprivation that influences practically all sides of life and directions of children's development while they stay at orphanages. In order to provide a better insight into the education environment of abondened children, the researcher analyzes experience of foreign states in creating favorable conditions at orphanages. The author of the article emphasizes differences in organizational approaches, public evaluation and legal component of the system of raising orphans in different countries of the world. Based on the example of one Russian boarding school, the author provides a description of typical features of Russian orphanages. The author also analyzes the concept of education environment taking into account international experience. The purpose of the research is to summarize latest data and to make an objective evaluation of orphanages in our country. The author proves the insufficient development of the system of orphans' up-bringing in Russia compared to the practical experience of other countries. At the end of the research the author concludes about the need to inquiry into the possibility of the crucial reformation of the Russian institutional system of raising orphans. 
Chernov D.N. - The Experience in Creating of Quasilanguage Material for Language Training in Middle School pp. 25-38


Abstract: The subject of research was the creation of quasilanguage material allowing to carry out language training based on the zone of proximal development of middle school children. A series of artificial texts consisting of quasiwords was designed. Based on the example of middle school children, the equivalence of the texts was studied by the level of difficulty of their translation into Russian . Strategies for translating of quasitexts and relevant individualized strategies for training children were identified. The text consists of words with root bases that are artificial constructions. These quasiwords have no analogues in the Russian language, but the formation of words is subordinated to any morphological / word-formation models. Quasiwords have a certain grammatical role in sentences. The rules of making sentences from these words are subordinated to the grammar and syntax of the Russian language. So a native speaker can potentially offer an adequate translation of such words to Russian language. It is shown that quasitexts are equivalent by the level of difficulty of their translation for middle school children. The author emphasizes the need to teach a child to develop an adequate strategy of problem solution in the course of training. The tanslation strategy  should focus on recreating the text’s general sense and its awareness with verification of the translation in compliance with the morphological and grammatical context. The author also assumes that in the course of training quasilanguage material may allow to minimize the knowledge that a child has about the Russian language and help a child to appeal to his or her own experience in live communication. This would sharpen the 'intuitive' search for meanings of words and texts in class. 
Alperovich V. - Interpretative Repertoires of Perception of 'Friends' and 'Aliens' in Metaphors of Different Types and Narratives Used by Adults pp. 30-46


Abstract: The research is devoted to the problem of metaphorical and narrative foundations of such phenomena as 'discrimination' and 'hate speech'. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis of 'friend' and 'alien' metaphors and narratives about interaction with them that reflect different interpretative repertoires of perceiving the other person as either a «friend» or an 'alien'. The author has used both qualitative and quantitative research methods such as categorical analysis of metaphors, analysis of characteristics of representations about an Enemy and a Friend, narrative analysis of situations about interaction with 'friends' and 'aliens', methods of mathematical statistics (cluster analysis, quartiles, nonparametric test). The author has discovered that different interpretative repertoires of perception of 'friends' and 'aliens' are connected with various expression levels of adopting the discriminatory practices towards others. The author has analyzed four interpretative repertoires of perception of 'friends' and 'aliens' with various 'friend' and 'alien' metaphors, the particularities of narratives about interaction with 'friends' and 'alien' persons and the characteristics of representations about an Enemy and a Friend. The author has defined two interpretative repertoires with distinctions of 'friends' from 'alien' persons and with stabilized attribution of psychosocial features to them. The author has also discovered two interpretative repertoires with various features of 'friends' and 'alien' persons, non-stabilized in personal perception depending on interaction with them. It is quite evident that communication partners may actually become either friends or alients depending on the social-psychological environment they are in at present. For the first time in the academic literature the author has offered the given empirical model of interpretative repertoires of perception of 'friends' and 'aliens' people expressed in biography narratives related to descriptions of 'aliens' and 'friends' and integrated metaphors of 'friends' and 'alients'. The results of this research can be of use in researches about conflicts and discrimination, in solving the applied tasks in psychology of conflicts, in psychological consulting and tolerance training.
Sennitskaya E.V. - Dependence of the Emotional State of the Reader and Listener on the Amount and Hierarchical Structure of Perceived Information pp. 34-39


Abstract: The object of the research is the emotional state of the reader and the listener while he(she) is percepting the information in different amounts and with different hierarchical structure. The work is devoted to the problem of how the emotional state depends on the structuring and dosing of the information. The main objective is to develop recommendations on how to structure and dose verbal, mathematical and motional information to avoid negative emotions that arise because of lack of information or its redundancy. The study develops information theory of emotions by P.V. Simonov. Theoretical significance of this research is to clarify the terms of «lack of information», «information overload». The findings of research can be used in teaching, advertising, political and clinical psychology. Methods of the research are an empirical study in the form of monitoring of the activities of school and university teachers, as well as a natural experiment with students of 9–11 grades and students of 1–2 college courses. The content of training conducted by the author or another teacher was modeled in the form of object-hierarchical scheme. Further, by observation and interviews changes in emotional state of the subject were indicated. Until now, the emotional state of the person considered by researchers only in connection with the content of the information perceived, whereas in the present study proves the connection between the emotional state and the structure as well as the amount of information, regardless of its content. The result of this study was the conclusion that when the unknown object is revealed less than three well-known ones, readers (and even more listeners) experience negative emotions, which subjects described as a depression or a pulling feeling of uncertainty, and in the case when the unknown object is revealed due to more than five known objects of a linear sequence, subjects experience negative emotions which are characterized as irritation, impatience, a sense of redundancy of the information and uselessness of the further disclosure of the object. In the case where an unknown object is revealed by three to five known objects the subjects define their state as a cheerful and upbeat, the information as inspiring, clarifying, helping them to slice and dice this information.
Savinkov S.N. - The Phenomenon of Paternity and Importance of Paternity in the Process of Family Education pp. 34-40


Abstract: Unlike the phenomenon of maternity, paternity still remains an understudied phenomenon in Russian psychological science. In his research Savinkov analyzes scientific approaches to analyzing the phenomenon of paternity as a topical issue of modern psychology. He analyzes paternity as a dynamic phenomenon that is constantly developing as a result of requirements the modern soceity faces. The researcher carries out comparative analysis of maternity and paternity. He unravels the phenomenon of paternity from the point of view of psychological science as well as describes the role of a father in the process of character education. Savinkov analyzes paternity as a socio-cultural phenomenon fixed in culture. Paternity is the least studied aspect of parenthood and thus is the most important issue for psychological and pedagogical science. As a result of his analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the matter, Savinkov concludes that the role of a father is as important in the process of child's education as that of a mother, however, paternity has a number of specific features which performance is laid upon a man. Today's fathers are able to provide good care of a child as well as to satisfy all the needs of a child. This, of course, has a good impact on the development of family relations and the feeling of paternity. This article will be of interest for researchers who deal with such issues as family education, child-and-parent relationships and practical psychologists who work in the sphere of family counselling.
Tatianchenko N.P. - Personality Determinants of Deviant Behavior Demonstrated by Technical College Students pp. 38-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is the personality determinants of deviant behavior of adolescents. The object of the rsearch is the students of technical college. The author of the article analyzes various types of deviant behavior that have been demonstrated by the students.Referring to the problem of teaching adolescents with deviant behavior in a technical school, the author of the article emphasizes the presence of certain difficulties in the organization of the educational process associated with increased excitability, impulsivity, lack of self-control in the motor and emotional spheres, propensity towards conflict, stubbornness, negativism, aggressiveness of such students. In this regard, special importance is attached to the timely identification of such students and the study of the relationship of deviant behavior with such psychological categories as hopelessness, anxiety,and self-esteem. In the course of the research, the following package of methods and psychodiagnostic tools was used: the questionnaire to determine the level of self-esteem (as offered by S.V. Kovalev), test for multidimensional assessment of child anxiety (MODT) (offered by E. Malkova (Romitsyna), deviant behavior inventory (offered by A. Oryol), Beck depression scale; and methods of mathematical data processing. The novelty of the research is caused by the authors' formulation and solution of the problem of determining personal determinants in the formation of deviant behavior among students at a secondary specialized educational institution. Theoretical and practical conclusions of the study can help a deeper understanding of the specifics of this phenomenon, the role of the technical school in the manifestation of deviations of a destructive orientation. The obtained empirical data to a certain extent expands the scientific understanding of psychological categories that contribute to the realization of deviant behavior and can serve as a basis for the further development of substantive aspects of the indicated problem. 
Anisimova E.A. - Methods of Developing Positive Patterns of Behavior Demonstrated by Teenagers in Conflict Situations pp. 39-59


Abstract: In article the interrelation between the level of aggression and strategy of behavior in a conflict situation at teenagers, and also a question of formation of positive patterns of behavior in the conflict in this age group is investigated. It is known that the teenage age is one of the key moments of formation of the identity of the person, his views, interests, orientations. In this work the research conducted in educational Moscow region institution among pupils of the tenth classes by age from 15 to 17 years, directed on studying of the preferred strategy of behavior in a conflict situation is presented. The assumption of existence of interrelation between the level of aggression and the chosen strategy of behavior was the main hypothesis of research, namely the aggressions studying with high level and domination in group of contemporaries prefer not constructive ways of settlement of the conflict, in particular strategy "rivalry". Formation of positive patterns of behavior is possible by carrying out the correctional developing program with training elements. Studying of a conflictness of pupils of the chosen age group and the data obtained on this matter will help the teachers and psychologists working in educational institution, being guided by individual characteristics of separately taken pupils, to build the most effective programs of training and correction of behavior for persons with high rates of a conflictness. Besides, the developed methods and programs will allow to train pupils in the correct reaction in a conflict situation, and also to application of the gained knowledge in the field of settlement of the conflicts in everyday life at advanced age.As a result of the carried-out work the data allowing to judge interrelation of these two indicators were obtained. The hypothesis was confirmed, that is the assumption of interrelation of level of aggression, domination among contemporaries and the preferred strategy of behavior was true. The aggressions studying with high rates and domination chose such strategy of behavior as "rivalry", respondents with average or low values chose constructive ways of settlement of the conflict. Following the results of research the correctional developing program with training elements for correction of negative patterns of behavior of teenagers as a result of which the positive shifts allowing to judge efficiency of the offered program received was made and approved.
Kiseleva N.V. - Continuing Education as Perceived by Students at Particular Stages of Education pp. 41-50


Abstract: In her article Kiseleva analyzes the perception of the continuing education phenomenon by students at different stages of education, i.e. college, Bachelor Degree studies, Master Degree studies / Doctorate, additional education (retraining programs). Kiseleva analyzes what different groups of students think of a person who studies throughout his or her life. In additino, she also provides the results of her analysis of attributive beliefs of students on continuing education as these are viewed by teachers and other students. The author discovers statistically significant differences in attitudes towards continuing education demonstrated by students who are at different stages of education. The research involved 593 respondents and covered representatives of all stages of continuing education (college students, Bachelor Degree students, Master Degree students or Doctorate Degree students, and those who are undertaking retraining courses). In the course of her research Kiseleva has applied the following methods and tests:  standard questionnaire, Osgood's semantic differential method, and Schartz' Personaly Inventory. As a result of the research, the author has made the following conclusions. At the early stages of education (college and Bachelor Degree studies) students demonstrate mainly positive attitude to continuing education and perceive it as promising, beneficial, responsible, and interesting. At the same time, they are not ready to continue their education all their life, perhaps because they believe continuing education to be difficult and unnecessary. At the later stages of education students are more willing to study all their life and perceive continuing education as interesting, creative, desirable, important and satisfying. Only a group of respondents undergoing additional training (retraining course) relate continuing education to the development of particular professional skills, but even they do not perceive it as profitable.
Letyagina S.K. - pp. 41-48


Pakhalkova A.A. - Emotional Well-Being as a Component of Education Environment Security pp. 44-65


Abstract: In her article Pakhalkova describes the problem of developing emotional well-being as a component of education environment secuity. The researcher analyzes different approaches to the definitions of psychological security, emotional security, emotional well-being, emotional ill-being, emotional health, etc. Psychologically safe or secure education environment is viewed as the environment free of any kind of violence that satisfies school student's need in personal open communication and has an important reference to him. Emotionally safe or secure education environment is viewed as the environment full of true positive emotions while negative emotions are minimized there. The purpose of the present research is to conduct a theoretical analysis of the problem of developing emotional well-being at school as a component of psychological security of education environment. The researcher has applied theoretical research methods. Pakhalkova offers her own definition of emotional security of the education environment as an emotionally positive experience of a school student when all the social needs typical for children of his age are satisfied and this emotionally positive experience is stable with time. The researcher also examines the correlation between emotional well-being of students and their health and notes that emotional well-being has a positive influence on children's health. Pakhalkova also offers particular psychological methods allowing to achieve emotional well-being through developing children's ability to control and regulate their emotions. 
Dolganov D.N. - Metaregulation of Learning Activity pp. 45-52


Abstract: The author of the article makes an attempt to apply the concept of the metasystemic organisation of mental processes to research of learning activity. The subject of the research is the metaregulative influence of interpersonal relations of a learning actor on the process and success of learning. The author views learning activity as a system with a metasystemic level consisting of motivational processes. Other components of this system includes: direct academic activity as an individual system; success of learning activity; actor of learning activity; relations of an actor of learning activity. The empirical proof of the hypothesis included two stages. At the first stage the author conducted a general analysis of interpersonal relations, intensity of participation in extra-curricular activity and learning activity and their results, construction of predicative models allowing to predict success of learning. At the second stage the author carried out a teaching experiment allowing to prove the metaregulative influence of interpersonal relations on learning activity. The author has used the following methods: experiment, survey, semantic differential of interpersonal relations, inventory to assess one's ability to have a dialogue in interpersonal relations, and V. Leontiev's psychographic test. Statistical processing of the results was made by using the Statistica application. The main conclusions of the research are as follows: 1) application of the concept of metasystemic organization of mental process to studying learning activity significantly expands opportunities of understanding how learning activity is performed and what means regulate it; 2) the author has also discovered the metaregulative influence of interpersonal relations on one's learning activity; 3) the author has empirically proved the positive influence of interpersonal relations on one's learning activity and academic success. 
Reprintseva G.A. - Intracorporate Qualification Increasement of Awareness About Preschool Play Activity at Child Care Centers pp. 48-55


Abstract: In her article Reprintseva underlines the importance of improving psychological and pedagigical competences and skills of preschool educators, especially in what concerns play activity of children. As a possible solution, the researcher offers to organize intracorporate qualification increasement sessions for educators. In this research Reprintseva sees non-formal intracorporate qualification increasement as an element of the author's model of integral development of preschool play activity (Reprintseva, 2018). The subject under research is psychological and pedagogical conditions of teaching and educating preschool educators as part of intracorporate qualification increasement sessions about preschool play activity. The main research method is the theoretical analysis of the aforesaid problem based on the results of previous empirical research. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes psychological and pedagogical principles of educating and teaching preschool play activity to educators as part of intracorporate qualification increasement sessions, clarifies functions of the management, teachers and psychologists in the process of supporting incorporate qualification increasement of child care educators. 
Novgorodova E.F. - Personality Determinants of Subjective Well-Being Specific for Students with Secondary and Higher Professional Education pp. 51-65


Abstract: In her research Novgorodova analyzes psychological problems that may be encountered by young people (particularly students) and relate to the subjective well-being and personality factors. The researcher presents the results of her empirical research of correlational and causal connections between satisfaction with life, self-attitude and perfectionism based on the analysis of secondary and higher education students. The research involved 443 respondents. As a result of her research, Novgorodova has discovered statistically significant dependencies between such parameters as self-attitude and perfectionism on the one part and satisfaction with life on the other part. She differentiates predictors of subjective well-being depending on the kin dof education and builds the models of determinants of satisfaction with life that demonstrate the role of personality traits in the regulation of the cognitive component of the subjective well-being as it is felt by students from different organisational institutions. The author has used step-by-step causal analysis that allows not only to explain the areas and changes of the subjective satisfaction with life but also outline the promising areas and targets of psychological counselling for secondary and higher education students. The patterns discovered by the author would be of interest for practical psychologists and researchers who want to find out the cause of the low level of one's satisfaction with life. The author also discovered the interpersonal potential for optimisation and regulation of the quality of life of today's youth which creates the grounds for future experimental research. 
Alperovich V. - pp. 52-63


Teryushkova Y.Y. - Communicative Competence as a Factor of Successful Adaptation of Students with Disabilities pp. 54-64


Abstract: The object of the research is the adaptation of freshmen, the subject of the reserch is their communicative competence as a factor of successful adaptation to studying at a University. The author of the article views such aspects of the topic as the process of adaptation to studying at a University, factors that have a good impact on adaptation of freshmen, and peculiarities of adaptation of students with health disabilities. The author defines a factor of successful adaptation to University studies, i.e. communicative competence, as the factor that can be influenced, thus increasing adaptation abilities of freshmen. The research consisted of three stages. The first one was the initial diagnostics, the second stage was a communicative competence training and the third stage was the final diagnostics. The research methods included: analysis of social and psychological adaptation offered by C. Rogers and R. Daymond, overall communicability evaluation by V. Ryakhovsky, communicative social competence inventory by N. Fetiskina, V. Kozlov and G. Manuylov, communicative skills test by L. Michelssohnen (adapted by Yu. Gilbukh), and questionnaire to assess the level of satisfaction with University studies. The main conclusion of the research is that an important factor of successful adaptation of students with disabilities is their communicative skills. Students with a high level of communicative competence or students who get an opportunity to take communication trainings at the first stage of their University studies overcome the adaptation period faster and better an ddemonstrate a higher level of  being ready to continue education in their major. The main contribution of the author to the topic is the development and testing of a series of trainings aimed at developing communicative skills of freshmen with disaiblities and freshment without disabilities. 
Karaseva S.N. - On the Necessary Conditions of the Development of the Strong Will of Teenagers Through Teaching Activities pp. 65-75


Abstract: From the ancient Greeks to the present day the psychological phenomenon of the will has been repeatedly subjected to philosophical reflection and research. As a rule, psychology views the term 'will' in terms of the activity environment, being defined as a regulator of the processes of activity. Having chosen the object of study volitional development of adolescents in educational activities, the author focused on the spiritual and moral conditions of such development. Special attention is also paid to the study of the structure and content, psychological mechanisms and external conditions of the volitional development of a teenager. The following methods were used: theoretical and methodological analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, observation (diary), conversation, content analysis, analysis of the products of activities; Diagnostic methods “What is good, what is bad”, “How to act” (G. M. Freeman), questionnaire of value orientations (E. B. Fontalova), test questionnaire of developmental levels of personal will (I. I. Kuptsov, Yu. A. Eryomkin), expert assessment, self-assessment, psychological experiment on the volitional development of adolescents designed by the author; To analyze the data, mathematical-statistical methods were used (G-sign test and Fisher's angular transform method). A special contribution to the study of the problem posed by the author is that theoretically studied and concretized the meaning of the terms “volitional development”, “spiritual and moral conditions of volitional development”, “psychological and pedagogical conditions of volitional development”, and also developed the author’s methodology of volitional development in educational activities for teenagers and successfully tested.
Chernov D.N. - Actual Problems of Language Training in the "Zone of Proximal Development" of Schoolchildren pp. 67-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the language training in the "zone of proximal development" at school age. The aim of this work is analyze the possibility of using quasilanguage tools to create the training programs to Russian rules in terms of establishing of a subject-subject interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild. The origins of the use of artificial language construction for the purpose of updating the creative potential of the recipient in literature (based on the example of writings by Lewis Carroll, 'mind-bending' language of futurists, modern children's story writers) and demonstration of the significant potential of grammar to convey meaning of sentences (L. Scherba, N. Khomsky) were analyzed. It was shown that experimentation with the language rules is a natural stage of child language development (in particular, during the period of children's word creation). The analysis of the current diagnostic and training techniques that use artificial language material with the purpose of updating the language of creativity of the child was performed. In his research Chernov has come to the following conclusions. Language learning at school must actualize the creative potential of language acquisition. Effective teaching technique is the use of artificial words, rules of inflection which are similar to the Russian rules, and use of artificial sentences and texts in which the combination of quasiwords is similar to the rules of Russian grammar. The balance between spontaneous and reactive training in the use of such language material is possible when the interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild is like the cooperation in the "zone of proximal development" of the child.
Siromakha O. - Concerning Unefficiency of Punishment as a Method of Up-Bringing pp. 80-101


Abstract: The level of tension and aggression have been growing lately. The government is trying to fight against aggression by stiffening penalties. Parents and mentors often do the same when they try to make children obey them. There is a belief that punishment is an essential part of up-bringing and we need to use punishment in order to bring up a healthy personality. The author of the article views punishment in terms of its efficiency and after-effect. The author also views consequences of such a method of up-bringing as competitiveness. Based on the analysis and review of literature, researches, articles and theses created by Russian and foreign authors, the author compares opinions of different researchers on the matter. The author describes other researchers' evidence that spanking and other kinds of cruel punishment applied to a child increase his aggression and cognitive decline while softer kinds of punishment develop infantile behavior, low self-esteem and psychological defense. The author gives examples on how we can make prohibition and enforcement less traumatic for a child. It is concluded that all kinds of punishment cause the result which is absolutely opposite to the results the parents are aimed at. On the other hand, friendly relations between parents and children help to develop the altruistic personality and communication skills. 
Vershinkina E.V. - Suicidal Behavior and Defense Mechanisms at Early Adulthood pp. 84-93


Abstract: In article the problem of suicide behavior at the advanced teenage age and its communication with protective mechanisms of mentality is investigated. The teenage age is characterized by formation of feeling of a maturity, critical for the individual psychological and physiological changes. There are considerable changes in Self-concept structure, tendency to the introspection amplifies, some personal qualities are exposed to essential revaluation. The main psychological sense of teenage suicides consists in desire to draw attention to itself, to the problem and to emotions in relation to current situation. Because of infantile ideas of death, the majority of teenagers has no real desire to die. Because of it the teenager such means of commission of the suicide act which are estimated by adults as not dangerous, but as in a condition of crisis it is difficult to teenager to predict the actions can get out, the way chosen by it can do serious harm physical a state or lead to death. In this article an inspection of a hypothesis of interrelation of the general intensity of protective mechanisms and tendency to manifestation of suicide reactions was carried out. For check of a hypothesis results the researches conducted among pupils of 10-11 classes at the age of 15-17 years were used. Still there is not resolved a question of what protective mechanisms are shown at various forms of suicide behavior. It is considered that at individuals with the raised tendency to suicide risk the general intensity of protective mechanisms is significantly higher, than at people with smaller suicide manifestations. For the persons inclined to suicide manifestations, mechanisms of a projection, intellectualization, denial and regression are most characteristic. In this research the hypothesis of interrelation of the general intensity of protective mechanisms and tendency to manifestation of suicide reactions was made and confirmed.
Alperovich V. - Metaphors of 'Friends' and of 'Aliens' with Different Ethnocultural External Appearance in Connection with Stratificational Characteristics of Adult Persons pp. 88-104


Abstract: In this research Alperovich focuses on the problem of distinctions between representations about 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance reflected in metaphors and narratives. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis of metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance of persons with different stratificational characteristics (gender, age, level of education). The subject of the research is the metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' developed by men and women with incomplete and complete higher education at their early and middle ages. The author has used the followign methods: content analysis of metaphors, methods of mathematical statistics (cluster analysis, quartiles, nonparametric tests such as MannWhitney U test and KruskalWallis H test). Based on the cognitive concept of metaphors, the author elaborated methods for studying metaphors of 'friends' and of 'aliens' presented by people with different ethnocultural external appearance. For the first time in the academic literature the author has discovered, that, towards early and middle ages, the tendency to attribute positive psychosocial features to 'aliens' with Slavic ethnocultural external appearance and to 'friends' and 'aliens' with 'Caucasian' ethnocultural external appearance intensifies. We start to perceive others in a more differentiated way. Respondents with incompleted higher education attribute negative psychosocial features to 'friends' and 'aliens' with Caucasian and Asian ethnocultural external appearance, evaluate negatively their roles in communication more than respondents with complete higher education. Male respondents emphasize differences from 'aliens', particularly from members of other ethnocultural groups, more than female respondents. The author describes four interpretative repertoires of perception of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance. These repertoires differ in whether people attribute positive or negative social and psychological characteristics to 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearances as well as whether they view such interlocutors as competitive or cooperative. The author develops the empirical model of interconnections between metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance and personal stratificational characteristics. The results can be used in researches about conflicts and discrimination.
Alperovich V., Kolod'ko V.A. - The Relationship Between the Level of Marriage Contentment, the Images of 'Friend' and 'Allien' and Marriage Partner at the Stage of Early Maturity pp. 88-101


Abstract: The research presented in this article is devoted to the problem of the influence of the ideas of a person about other people on satisfaction with marriage. The purpose of the pilot empirical research was to establish the relationship between the images of "friendly" and "alien-lie" communication partners, marriage partner and satisfaction with marriage. The subject of the pilot empirical research: the level of satisfaction with marriage, the image of the marriage partner, the image of "his" person, the image of "alien" person. The results of the study can be applied in family psychology, family counseling. The following methods were used: testing, scaling, methods of mathematical data processing (Kruskal-Wallis criterion, Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis). For the first time, relationships of satisfaction with marriage, images of "friendly" person, "alien" person and marriage partner have been established. For the first time it has been shown that the image of a marriage partner as “friendly” person endowed with positive social and psychological properties is associated with high satisfaction with marriage. The image of an “alien” person is endowed with respondents who are satisfied with marriage, negative external, personal and socio-psychological properties. It was concluded that the image of "friendly" person is idealized, and the image of the marriage partner is realistic.
Kirakosyan A. - Improving Psychological Readiness of Primary School Students for Reading Correction pp. 94-134


Abstract: High-quality research of ways of increase of psychological readiness for correction of informative actions through use of the reception of the including activity developed in the activity theory is presented. Research is executed on reading material. Work includes implementation of correction of negative attitude the slabochitayushchikh of pupils of the 4th class to reading by means of carrying out within academic year of a circle on record of audiobooks. In article stages of change of the relation of pupils to reading and, respectively, stages of the organization of the course of a circle are in detail described. Research is executed with use of qualitative methods of collecting and the analysis of data – natural experiment, supervision, interview, the content analysis, interpretation, and also statistical methods of data processing. By results of research it is shown that increase of psychological readiness for occupations is connected with changes of sense of reading for pupils. Research is interesting as disclosure of reception of the including activity on correction material, and also has practical value as a way of increase of psychological readiness for occupation by reading.
Makarova M.V. - Coping Behavior of Students Depending on Their Level of Satisfaction With the Psychological Education Environment (The Case Study of the Moscow State University of Humanities and Economics) pp. 102-125


Abstract: The actual area of studying coping behavior is the research of features of the identity of school students in their relationship with the coping strategy in the course of educational activity.The object of the present research is the coping behavior of students.The subject of the research is the coping behavior of students depending on their level of satisfaction with the psychological educational environment at an university. The research objective to study the coping behavior of students depending on their satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the educational environment at a university.The hypothesis  is the supposition that a more constructive coping strategy is usually used by the students who are more satisfied with the educational environment of a university. The following methods have been used: 1. The modified technique of determination of satisfaction with significant characteristics of the educational environment offered by I. A. Bayeva.2. The Coping Behavior Inventory developed by Richard Lazarus. 3. The Coping Strategy Indicator Inventory. The main conclusions of the conducted research are:The analysis of results of group with the low level of psychological safety of the educational environment shows that the following components entered the first factor: planning of a solution, positive revaluation, self-checking, acceptance of responsibility, floor, cognitive component. The distancing, flight avoiding, search of social support entered the second factor. The third factor included age, solution of problems and avoiding of problems.3 major factors peculiar to group which are highly appreciating the safety at university are revealed. The first factor included the following koping-strategy: positive revaluation, acceptance of responsibility, self-checking, search of social support, planning of a solution, distancing, flight avoiding. Entered the second factor confrontation (that is aspiration to behave aggressively and to answer actions respectively), a cognitive component, that is ideas of students of university, knowledge of it (it is expressed more at male respondents) and a behavioural component (consists in satisfaction with the specialty, future profession, the group, etc.). The third factor included the search for social support and the emotional component.
Sennitskaya E.V. - Managing the audience attention using object-hierarchical method of modelling and dosing of the information (on the example of a training session) pp. 102-114


Abstract: The object of the research is the attention of school and college students while they are percepting the information in different amounts and with different hierarchical structure. The work is devoted to the problem of how the attention of listener depends on the structuring and dosing of the information. The main objective is to develop recommendations on how to structure and dose verbal, mathematical and motional information to avoid the attention wandering and discipline breaching that arise because of lack of information or its redundancy. The additional objective is the development of the easy-to-use method of calculating of the amount of verbal information that can be used as a instrument of modelling of the training session. Methods of research are an empirical study in the form of monitoring of the activities of school and university teachers, as well as a natural experiment with students of 1, 3, 5 and 6 grades and students of 12 college courses. The content of training conducted by the author or another teacher was modeled in the form of object-hierarchical scheme. Further, by observation and audio recording changes in attention of subjects were indicated.The result of this study was the conclusion that when the abstract objects are revealed by less than 3 or more than 5 concrete ones, listeners experience the attention wandering and the discipline breaching. In case when the abstract objects are revealed by 35 concrete ones the teacher can easily maintain discipline during all the lesson at condition that the lesson is formed as a hierarchical structure with 45 branches, each of them with depth of 35 hierarchy levels. The findings of research can be used in teaching, advertising, political and clinical psychology.
Frantskevich E.T. - Psychological Problems as the Risk Factor for the Safety of the Educational Environment pp. 125-174


Abstract: The concept of "psychological safety" persons in the educational environment and its relevance is considered. Risk factors, in particular concept of psychological trouble, as one of the main threats of safety of the educational environment are analyzed. Various risk factors and threats of psychological safety of the educational environment, its components are considered. Emotional safety as making part of all-psychological safety of the educational environment, its emotional component. Communication of emotional safety of the educational environment and health of the person, first, mental, and secondly, physical is traced. The concept of psychological trouble, as risk factor of safety of the educational environment is entered. As prerequisites of emergence of psychological trouble various factors act in different degree: biological (genetic or hereditary) or social and psychological, educational. At an assessment of level and expressiveness of psychological trouble of the personality it is necessary to take into account personal (individual) features, such as character aktsentuation. The solution of problems of psychological safety in the educational environment, in particular psychological trouble of teenagers, has to be carried out through programs and techniques of diagnostics of the personality and forming of individual correctional and scheduled maintenance according to personal features and character aktsentuation, also the psychologist needs to conduct work on improvement of interpersonal interaction and training in social skills of all participants of educational process. The assumption is made that sources and variety of manifestations of psychological trouble, and also exit options from a difficult life or extreme situation, in big degree are defined by psychotype of the personality and are covered in a character aktsentuation. At an adverse psychological situation there is a fixing of some pathological traits of character that prevents the teenager to adapt for environment and can become one of the reasons of his deviant behavior. Not incidentally aktsentuation of character are considered as prerequisites of abnormal (deviant) behavior of teenagers. In any case, it is possible to tell with confidence what these are the accentuation of personality traits that make the teenager's age and adulthood period 'difficult'. 
Deulin D.V. - Psychological Safety of Educational Environment at Law-Enforcement Universities pp. 128-140


Abstract: In the article the problem of psychological safety of the educational environment of a higher educational institution of law-enforcement system is considered. In work such phenomena as psychological safety, the educational environment, threats of psychological safety are investigated. Manifestation of psychological threats in educational space of higher education institution of law-enforcement system is investigated. Theoretically the classification from three groups of psychological risks allowing to carry out an assessment of levels of psychological safety of the educational environment locates. The first group of risks is formed by risks of psychological violence. The second group of risks includes the system of relationship with participants of educational process interfering satisfaction of basic needs in personal and confidential communication. The third group is formed by the system of the interpersonal relations with participants of educational process interfering recognition of the reference importance of the educational environment. For detection of specific features of psychological safety of the educational environment of higher education institution of law-enforcement system we used as unformalized methods (supervision, conversation) and unformalized methods of research (the modified Bayeva I.A. questionnaire. for cadets). Attraction of scientific attention to problems of rather closed educational environment of law-enforcement higher education institutions is the key moment in the course of preparation and education of highly professional experts. Process of improvement of mechanisms of ensuring psychological safety of educational space promotes decrease in level of psychosomatic frustration among trained, better assimilation of knowledge and skills and as a result – formation of the highly professional employee of law-enforcement system armed with all necessary competences. Unfortunately, psychological threats are actual and for the educational environment of higher education institutions of law-enforcement system. The major direction is development of the mechanism of decrease in the considered threats.
Grishchenkova A.E. - Age and Gender Features of School Students' Hostility pp. 139-316


Abstract: In this article gender and age features of manifestation of attribution of hostility by school students after viewing of violent plots in animated films are discussed. One of the most important factors of formation of aggressive behavior are cognitive abilities of the individual and the strategy of processing of information acquired by it. In a case when the person considers that negative intentions are the reason of provocative actions of another, it, most likely will behave same aggressive images in relation to the offender. While in a situation when he realizes that these actions are caused absolutely by other motives, aggressive reaction can not arise. Proceeding from it empirical research which purpose was to establish gender and age distinctions in manifestation of attribution of hostility (attribution of deliberate / accident actions, behavior models, punishment and forgiveness) school students after viewing of plots of the violent and nonviolent contents in animated films was conducted. Results of the conducted research are stated in the offered article. The obtained data were interpreted on the basis of the following methodological approaches:1. The theory of attribution of hostility of K. Dodge in which the attribution of hostility is considered as a tendency to attribute hostile intentions to other people, even then, when these intentions actually doesn't exist. 2. Information and procedural models of aggression of L. Hyusman according to which emergence of aggression is caused by existence of aggressive scenarios of behavior which represent the schemes of aggressive behavior supported with positive experience in different situations.3. Affective and dynamic approach of I. A. Furmanov according to which, in a situation of frustration or a deprivation three types of reaction are possible: in depression - aggressive type of behavior, passive and aggressive type of behavior and active and aggressive type of behavior. For achievement of a goal, in research the technique "Attribution of hostility" was used. This technique is developed by J. Hébert on the basis of model of processing of the social information of K. Dodge measuring children's attribution of hostility or peaceful intentions in hypothetically provocative situations and modified on the basis of the affective and dynamic theory of the aggression of I.A. Furmanov assuming variability of behavioural reactions to aggression provocation. Selection was made by 450 school students (225 girls, 225 boys) of three age groups: 6–7 years, 8–9 years and 10-12 years. As a result of the conducted research it was established that irrespective of a floor and age the school student after viewing of plots of the violent contents, at an atributirovaniye of actions of other person in a provocation situation, shows attribution of hostility, attribution of a namerennost and active aggression as behavior model, moreover he doesn't intend to forgive the offender, and to seek to punish him.
Anufriev A.F. - Description Pattern for Cases of Psychological and Educational Diagnostics pp. 141-174


Abstract: Object of research: Diagnostic activity of the psychologist in a consultation situation. The description of cases from advisory diagnostic practice as the important section of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics. Development of the scheme of the description of cases from diagnostic practice of the psychologist meeting the requirements of need and sufficiency of the characteristic of diagnostic process. Substantial components of the scheme. Its functions (registration of own experience of diagnostic activity, for the purpose of transfer to his other people, acquaintance with diagnostic experience of other psychologists, empirical verification of provisions of the theory). Empirical check of opportunities of the scheme for the necessary and sufficient description of diagnostic process. Methodology or research technique. Methodology: general scientific approach to studying of diagnostic process, the concept of the solution of psychodiagnostic tasks. Method: theoretical analysis, synthesis of psychodiagnostic practice Novelty and conclusions. Scientifically reasonable scheme of the description of cases from diagnostic practice of the psychologist, constructed on the basis of the stages of diagnostic process allocated in the general theory of the diagnosis and the concept of the decision psikhodiagno is developedsticheskikh of tasks. It is shown that the specified scheme contains as the general, i.e. not depending on specifics of diagnostic area, and special components and that it meets the requirements of completeness of the characteristic of diagnostic process. The conclusion that the specified scheme promotes increase of efficiency of diagnostic activity of the psychologist in an education system is drawn.
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