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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Eros and Thanatos"
Eros and Thanatos
Spektor D.M. - Doomness and Transgression. Georges Bataille pp. 40-52


Abstract: The subject of the research covers transgression in relation to phenomena traced back primarily in writings of Georges Bataille (limit states of emotional experience and, at the same time, mass practice and actions inducing the "transition state"). The study shows that a) above mentioned practices are rather pragmatic historically; b) the phenomena and phenomenology of transgression are usually understood through introspection which should be completed with historical reenactments reproducing, among other things, the logic of transgression genesis in terms of its necessity; c) it is impossible to get an in-depth comprehension of the nature of 'denial', 'doomness' and other important other-world-states without defining their particular genetic source or outcome which is understood in terms of ontology as being-in-the-world determining the reality of the world on the way of ontology constantly appealing to its sources and being expressed, first of all, in a form of emotional experience (the feelign of self, existence, identity). The research method used by the author relates to the analysis and historical reenactment of being as a category studied from the materialistic and genetic points of view. Transgressinos are viewed in terms of necessary acts of finding roots in life and drawing upon the world-being-ready-for-involvement. The drama of the world apepars to be an initial imputation or channel of transfer alowing to 'feel' the world on the other side of insuperable stimulus-response determinism. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author emphasizes the problems of being-in-the-world that are caused, in the first place, by limits of the natural state (reflex response) which cannot be overcome in any natural way. In this research the author demonstrates that overcoming is connected with the shock-terrifying. Thus, the problem of being-in-the-world cannot be 'solved' and eliminated but still remains important and includes 'being' in the status-of-transition. 
Altafova A. - Presumption Mortido pp. 126-163


Abstract: Today it is no more doubts that human mind has a death drive as Sigmund Freud first stated.  However in scientific and psychological community had a very contradictory attitude to this phenomenon. The reason of disagreement was the question about the nature the death drive that divided philosophers into the two main "camps" – supporters and opponents of the concept of an inclination to death as biological instinct. In the present article the critical analysis of the existing opinions is made and attempt to unite their most essential provisions in the uniform concept is made. Special attention is paid on practical aspects a mertvolyubiya and fight against it. In aspiration to comprehend the nature мортидо the author appeals to dialectics, focusing attention on the following contradiction: if the inclination to death as the prime cause of any evil (aggression, hatred, destruction of all live) is put in biological human nature, therefore, the evil has the equal rights for existence with good, however human experience disproves this statement. Having reached "the last questions" of philosophy, the author uses the hermeneutic method when analyzing the myth about the fall of man testifying that the evil (as the sin involving death) is result of freedom of the person over an instinct. The novelty of this article is caused by the fact that the author opens new – metaphysical – the horizons of the psychophysical phenomenon of an inclination to death which allow to bring harmony in theoretical base, having united in one concept of opinion, being in traditional representation by antagonists: on the one hand, is confirmed that the inclination to death has congenital character (what Freud spoke of), with another, - that it is not a biological instinct, but result of freedom over it (what Erich Fromm declared). In practical aspect a view of neurosis as the result of "personal fall" subjecting reductions many theoretical constructions gives the chance more deeply to get into its essence and to enrich ideas of the principles of work with it.
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