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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 03/2019
Contents of Issue № 03/2019
Question at hand
Elzesser A.S., Kapustina T.V. - Diagnostic Capabilities of Psychological Tests: State-of-the-Art pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.30013

Abstract: The matter under research is diagnostic capabilities of psychological tests. Despite frequent use, this term does not have a clear definition and can be interpreted in a different way in researches. The authors of the article examine such aspects of the topic as the use of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' in Russian empirical reserach, the structure of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' of psychologists tests, problems caused by the use of unreliable tests in psychological practice, reasons and solutions. The researchers have also carried out a practical analysis of the term 'diagnostic capabilities' as it has been used in recent empirical researches and have analyzed objective reasons of why unreliable psychological tests are commonly used. The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1. there is the 'theory-and-practice' dialectics in academic psychology: borders of 'diagnostic capabilities' are defined by the theoretical model of psychic phenomenon which, in its turn, is based on actual empirical data. 2. The definition of 'diagnostic capabilities' should include measurable effects and diagnostic attributes; applicability for particular research objectives and groups of respondents, standard samples or reference patterns that can be used in the process of interpretation, reliability, reasonability and validity. The term 'diagnostic capabilities' is identical to the term 'psychometric properties'. 3. Objective reasons for such common use of unreliable psychologists tests include: the use of out-of-date tests; availability of such tests; the fact that tests are used by other specialists but not psychologists; and use of computer interpretation of tests. 4. The authors describe ways to overcome this problem, i.e. to involve students in psychologists researches carried out by university departments; to develop the mechanism of distribution of psychologists tests; awareness of harmful effect of online diagnostics; increasing availability of online counselling; and encouraging better understanding of methodological bases of particular tests. 
Personal motivation and spirituality
Shmoilova N.A., Kashirskii D.V. - Psyhological Features of the Value of Health Demonstrated by Personalities with Different Level of Self-Actualization pp. 10-20

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.28632

Abstract: The aim of this research is to describe special features of the value of health demonstrated by an individual with a particular level of self-actualization. The subject of the research is psychological features of the value of health demonstrated by personalities with different level of self-actualization. The rationale of the research is that there is a contradiction between the need to analyze the dependence between one's attitude to health and his or her level of self-actualization and immaturity of this problem in psychology. The authors offer a new term 'values-based attitude to health' and analyze the structure of one's value of health. The diagnostic set includes KVS-3 Value Test, SAT Self-Actualization Inventory, questionnaires 'Your Life Style', 'Self-Assessment of Health', and 'Health Awareness'. Statistical methods and models of data analysis include Spearman's correlation analysis, Fisher's variance analysis, Cronbach reliability test, and Pearson's χ2-criterion. The results of the research demonstrate that health is one of the priorities of a self-actualizing personality. People with a high level of self-actualization relate health to such phrases as physical well-being and external signs of good health (activity and sense of purpose). The researchers have also demonstrated that one's personal idea of health correlates to self-actualization level as a temporal characteristic. The results show that personalities who have achieved a high level of self-actualization have such features as a high level of activity aimed at preservation and improvement of health in actual life activity and commitment to healthy life-style. Self-actualizing personalities also have an coherent attitude to health as a value. Personalities with a low level of self-actualization more often view health as a source of intra-personal conflict. 
Person and personality
Gryaznova E.V., Goncharuk A., Khlap A.A., Afanas'ev S.V. - Personification in Information Socialization of Personality: Problems and Reasons Therefore pp. 21-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.29964

Abstract: Under the conditions of developing information society both social system and essential (generic) personality features undergo transformation. These transformations have both positive and negative consequences. Today there are a lot of researches which authors try to find and analyze what causes such transformations. Having analyzed researches devoted to this issue, the authors of the present article discover that researchers ignore one of the main reasons of negative personality transformations which is transformation of socialization process. In the course of their research the authors have studied and analyzed results of both Russian and foreign researches on the matter. The research methodology includes the theory of activity and theory of socialization developed by Nizhi Novgorod Club 'Universum' headed by L. Zelenov as well as the concept of information socialization offered by E. Gryaznova. The results of the research demonstrate that the main reason for personality transformation in the process of information socialization is the replacement of an actual actor of socialization with an informative quasi-actor. At the personalization stage generic features of personality are subject to transformation as a result of changes in structural elements of three main subsystems of culture (informative, praxiological and axiological subsystems). To adjust to rapidly changing conditions created by information culture, human has to change at the level of human essence. The language, activity and communication methods are transformed, too. 
Тело и телесность
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Psychological Risks of Socially Significant Diseases at Retirement Age pp. 32-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.29985

Abstract: The aim of the research is to analyze psychological and behavioral risks of cardiovascular diseases at retirement age and to compare these risks to other risks of socially significant diseases. The research involved retired men and women. The subject of the research is personality traits of retired people that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, endocrinological and respiratory diseases. The authors examine the influence of such factors as addicitions (alcoholism, smoking, compulsive eating), typological behavioral features (A, B and D types of behavior), emotional sphere and communication peculiarities. The research involved 525 pensioners who came to the city out-patient clinic, 496 of them had a record of a significantly important disease. The researchers have applied such methods as questionnairies, self-assessment and medical analysis data. To process data, the authors have used one-factor analysis of variance and regression analysis. The results of the research demonstrate that many psychological risks are common for different socially important diseases (in particular, bad habits and aggression) and career advancement is the general cause. However, there are personality traits that influence the development of a particular disease, for example, creative hobby and attribution to the Human - Sign kind of profession reduce the risk of heart diseases. Attribution to the Human - Nature kind of profession decreases the risk of diabetes, and intellectual hobbies reduce the risk of lung diseases. Conclusions: it is necessary to take into account personality traits and personality type when assessing the risk of diseases. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Reprintseva G.A. - Intracorporate Qualification Increasement of Awareness About Preschool Play Activity at Child Care Centers pp. 48-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2019.3.30026

Abstract: In her article Reprintseva underlines the importance of improving psychological and pedagigical competences and skills of preschool educators, especially in what concerns play activity of children. As a possible solution, the researcher offers to organize intracorporate qualification increasement sessions for educators. In this research Reprintseva sees non-formal intracorporate qualification increasement as an element of the author's model of integral development of preschool play activity (Reprintseva, 2018). The subject under research is psychological and pedagogical conditions of teaching and educating preschool educators as part of intracorporate qualification increasement sessions about preschool play activity. The main research method is the theoretical analysis of the aforesaid problem based on the results of previous empirical research. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes psychological and pedagogical principles of educating and teaching preschool play activity to educators as part of intracorporate qualification increasement sessions, clarifies functions of the management, teachers and psychologists in the process of supporting incorporate qualification increasement of child care educators. 
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