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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 05/2018
Contents of Issue № 05/2018
Clinical psychology
Obukhovskaya V.B., Meshcheryakova E.I. - Resourceful and Deficiency Features of the Internal Picture of the Disease Typical for Patients with Neurological Pathology in Terms of Psychological Well-Being pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27461

Abstract: The subject of the research is the resourceful and deficiency features of the internal picture of the disease in terms of psychological well-being (attitude to the disease, manifestations of anxiety and depression, basic strategies of cognitive regulation, quality of life, basic beliefs, psychological well-being, resilience) typical for patients, in particular, patients, with Parkinson's disease ( G20), multiple sclerosis (G35), spinal osteochondrosis (M42), stroke consequences (I67), dizziness and instability (R42). The rationale of the research is determined by the increase in the frequency and severity of neurological pathology. Thus, the resourceful and deficient features of the internal picture of the disease in terms of psychological security can serve as targets of psychological interventions for specific groups of patients with neurological pathology. In their research the authors have used the following tests and methods: anamnestic survey, Attitude to Disease Inventory, Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Ideas about the Disease Questionnaire, SF-36 Health Survey, World Assumptions Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, Viabiilty Test, and methods of mathematical statistics. It was determined that all groups of patients with neurological pathology have experienced the lack of physical abilities during physical exercise as well as the lack of independence during attempts to make independent decisions. Despite the active avoidance of thoughts about the disease and consequences, anosognosia helps patients to concentrate on the positive aspects of life which leads to adaptation to the situation of the disease. Indifference to fate and results of treatment has negative consequences in terms of successful predictions of interventions. For each group of patients, resourceful and deficiency characteristics are identified that are most significant for the selection of targets for psychological interventions.
Societal passions
Artemeva O.A. - The Shadow of Isolationalism in Russian Psychology of the First Half of the XXth Century: Social and Methodological Concepts pp. 14-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27221

Abstract: The article is devoted to isolationalism as the issue of Russian and Soviet psychology. Artemyeva gives an overview of the main theoretical approaches to solving the issue in Russian and Western psychology. She offers her own socio-psychological approach that implies the analysis of the regulators of the psychological research in relation to the social environment of the science development. The subject of the research is the social and methodological concepts of Russian psychologists in the first half of the XXth century. The main research method used by the author is the historical reconstruction of the psychology development. The qualitative analysis involves official Soviet documents, biographical, bibliographical and archival data about the activity of the leading Russian psychologists. Based on her concept of the socio-psychological determinants of the psychology development, the author defines peculiarities of socialization and academic skills development as the main mechanisms that form the basis of the social and methodological concepts of Russian pre-revolutionary and Soviet psychologists. Artemyeva discovers the causes and patterns of isolationalism concepts in terms of the Russian psychology development. As a result of her research, she concludes that the isolationalism concept was not immanent for Russian psychology but imposed by the country's party leadership. Being an inefficient socio-psychologist phenomenon, it still predetermined the development of the positive attitude to Marx' approach and practice-oriented organisation of objective psychological research activity.
To understand the human being
Kapustina T.V., Kadyrov R.V., Lyukshina D.S. - Coping Behavior Strategies and Psychological Defence Mechanisms of Young Women with Particular Early Maladaptive Schemas pp. 25-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27644

Abstract: The object of the research is the Early Maladaptive Schemas. The subject of the research is the coping behavior strategies and psychological defence mechanisms used by young women with different Early Maladaptive Schemas. The authors of the article analyze Early Maladaptive Schemas as particular behavioral stereotypes that have a negative influence on life activity. The authors underline the importance of the research results for psychological counselling regarding difficult life situations caused by Early Maladaptive Schemas. In the course of their research the authors have used empirical research methods and data processing methods. In particular, they use such tests as the Young Schema Questionnaire YSQ-S3R, Coping Strategy Inventory and Life-Style Index. For statisticall processing of data the authors use Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The results of the empirical research of young women aged from 21 to 30 years with Early Maladaptive Schemas demonstrate that the coping strategies they mostly use are distancing and repression as an ego defence mechanism. The research results can be used for psychological counselling of clients and patients with Early Maladaptive Schemas and increasing efficiency of psychological assistance by transforming or changing habitual inefficient behavioral schemes. The novelty of the research and the authors' contribution are caused by the fact that they extend the empirical basis of Early Maladaptive Schemas and give the results that can be u sed in psychotherapy and psychological counselling. 
Professional psychology
Elzesser A.S. - Corporate Psychological Counselling: Prevention of Anxiety and Depression pp. 34-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27507

Abstract: The subject of the research is the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders by the means of corporate psychological counselling. The researcher set the following objectives for his research: 1) to find the most efficient psychotherapeutical approach to prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders at organisations; 2) to review humanistic concepts to psychological counselling of organization's staff that would be oriented at preservation of mental health. In order to achieve the first objective, the author outlines the main challenges a corporate psychological may face when counselling staff who demonstrate anxiety or depression symptoms. In accordance with the challenges described, the author proposes the following requirements for corporate psychological assistance: psychological assistance should mainly consist of short-term group therapy because such environment does not require too much openness from a client, the therapy should have distinct goals and targets and measerable efficient results. In order to achieve the second objective, the researcher compares the humanistic person-centered approach to organization and so called 'turguoise organizations'. As a conclusion, the author notes that these two models are similar in terms of their methodology. The fact that such models are created and implemented proves the growing role of psychology in corporate mangement and sets forth the task of psychological adaptation of staff to a new form of organization. The author also analyzes the most efficient approaches to prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders and names such approaches as interpersonal therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The author cmopares these two approaches as applicable to the situation of corporate psychological cousnelling. Based on the results of the analysis, cognitive behavioral therapy proves to be more efficient for prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders as part of corporate psychological counselling. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Kiseleva N.V. - Continuing Education as Perceived by Students at Particular Stages of Education pp. 41-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27652

Abstract: In her article Kiseleva analyzes the perception of the continuing education phenomenon by students at different stages of education, i.e. college, Bachelor Degree studies, Master Degree studies / Doctorate, additional education (retraining programs). Kiseleva analyzes what different groups of students think of a person who studies throughout his or her life. In additino, she also provides the results of her analysis of attributive beliefs of students on continuing education as these are viewed by teachers and other students. The author discovers statistically significant differences in attitudes towards continuing education demonstrated by students who are at different stages of education. The research involved 593 respondents and covered representatives of all stages of continuing education (college students, Bachelor Degree students, Master Degree students or Doctorate Degree students, and those who are undertaking retraining courses). In the course of her research Kiseleva has applied the following methods and tests:  standard questionnaire, Osgood's semantic differential method, and Schartz' Personaly Inventory. As a result of the research, the author has made the following conclusions. At the early stages of education (college and Bachelor Degree studies) students demonstrate mainly positive attitude to continuing education and perceive it as promising, beneficial, responsible, and interesting. At the same time, they are not ready to continue their education all their life, perhaps because they believe continuing education to be difficult and unnecessary. At the later stages of education students are more willing to study all their life and perceive continuing education as interesting, creative, desirable, important and satisfying. Only a group of respondents undergoing additional training (retraining course) relate continuing education to the development of particular professional skills, but even they do not perceive it as profitable.
Novgorodova E.F. - Personality Determinants of Subjective Well-Being Specific for Students with Secondary and Higher Professional Education pp. 51-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27688

Abstract: In her research Novgorodova analyzes psychological problems that may be encountered by young people (particularly students) and relate to the subjective well-being and personality factors. The researcher presents the results of her empirical research of correlational and causal connections between satisfaction with life, self-attitude and perfectionism based on the analysis of secondary and higher education students. The research involved 443 respondents. As a result of her research, Novgorodova has discovered statistically significant dependencies between such parameters as self-attitude and perfectionism on the one part and satisfaction with life on the other part. She differentiates predictors of subjective well-being depending on the kin dof education and builds the models of determinants of satisfaction with life that demonstrate the role of personality traits in the regulation of the cognitive component of the subjective well-being as it is felt by students from different organisational institutions. The author has used step-by-step causal analysis that allows not only to explain the areas and changes of the subjective satisfaction with life but also outline the promising areas and targets of psychological counselling for secondary and higher education students. The patterns discovered by the author would be of interest for practical psychologists and researchers who want to find out the cause of the low level of one's satisfaction with life. The author also discovered the interpersonal potential for optimisation and regulation of the quality of life of today's youth which creates the grounds for future experimental research. 
Clinical psychology
Mordas E.S., Mikhaleva N.V. - Psychoanalytical Analysis of the Mental Development of Autistic Chldren: Historical Aspect pp. 66-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8701.2018.5.27416

Abstract: The subject of the research is the menal development of autistic children from the historical and medical points of view. Even though there is a great variety of theoretical and experimental concepts regarding autistic children, psychoanalytical aspect of the problem still needs to be clarified. In this research the authors give an overview of psychoanalytical concepts on the nature and development of autism offered by M. Maler, F. Taslin, L. Eisenberg (these are the concepts that have never been introduced in the Russian language before). The authors also provide an insight into L. Kanner's, E. Bleuler's, B. Bend's, C. Goldstein's, L. Bender's, B. Bettelheim's, M. Meltzer's, M. Klein's, D. Rosenfeld's, D. Winnicott's ideas. The research methods used by the authors are systematization, analysis and generalisation. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors provide an in-depth analysis of autism from the point of view of psychoanalysis. The conclusions are the following. 1. Autism as an inhereted genetic disease (L. Kanner and L. Eisenberg). 2. Autism as a life conditions when sensitivity and poor emotional contacts dominate; emegency response to the illusive trauma of the physical split experience (M. Maler and F. Taslin). 3. Autism as the terrible experience of the loss of an object; psychotic depression state (D. Winnicott). 4. Autistic disorders as a result of extreme situation when an individual was unable to influence the environment (B. Bettelheim). 5. Prerequisites for psychogenic autism may be acute affective disorders related to the child-parent relationship starting from the child's fetal life and caused by the mother's hostile reactions. 
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