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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Clinical psychology
Poddubnaya T.V. - Particularities of the Body Image Boundaries And Interpersonal Relationships (The Case Study of Patients Suffering from Allergic Skin Diseases) pp. 1-15


Abstract: The article presents the results of a comparative study of the features of the boundaries of body image demonstrated by healthy individuals and individuals suffering from allergic skin diseases. The subject of the research is the particularities of the boundaries of body image and interpersonal relationships of patients suffering from allergic skin diseases compared to healthy persons. The object of the research is the peculiarities of the borders of body image. The objective is to investigate the pattern of interaction of various parameters defining characteristics of the borders of body image demonstrated by patients suffering from allergic skin diseases. Research methods included interview consisting of 5 sections (analysis of the parent-child interaction, tactile ontogenesis, and perception of interpersonal relations); drawing tests such as "draw a human figure" by C. Machover, "body shape" by D. Beskova, "Sack's Sentence Competion Test"; questionnaires such as diagnostics of interpersonal relationships by T. Leary (adapted by L. Sobchik and interpreted by Yu. Kortneva), the test of relationship profile by R. Borstein (adapted by O. Makushina). The statistical analysis allowed to identify the leading markers on the basis of which it is permissible to detect the presence of distortion in the boundaries of one's body image. The obtained results can be used in the development of a general psychological model of the boundaries of body image as well as clinical practice of psychologists and psychotherapists.
Vertex states of the spirit
Andreev A.V. - Historical Change of the Psychologies of Freedom in the Soviet Man's Spirituality Development: Experience of the 1940's - early 1990 of XXth Century pp. 16-34


Abstract: In this article the author tries to explore the psychological changes in the freedom of the soviet man as a part of his spiritual development (1941-1992). The subject of the research is the historical dynamics of the psychology of the soviet man's freedom. The researcher analyzes the relationship between the psychology of freedom and socio-cultural and political phenomena of the Soviet society that influenced the substantial content of the latter. The objective of the research to identify peculiarities of historical evolution of freedom and its impact on soviet spirituality. In order to achieve the aforesaid objective the author of the article has used the following research methods: axiological method, phenomenological method and method of systems analysis. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes historical dynamics psychology of freedom in the spirituality of the Soviet man. Research results: in a difficult war time there was a positive dynamics of the psychology of freedom in the spiritual development of man. In the postwar period there was a decline in the positive dynamics of the psychology of freedom because of government dictatorship. After the 1960s the Soviet society formed a stable model of a free spiritual development of man as an important element of society. That model lived till the mid 1980s, however, it did not have the positive dynamics of the psychology of freedom in the spiritual development of man. The easing of state censorship by the mid – 1980s caused positive dynamics of change in the psychology of freedom in spiritual development. However, since the early 1990s there has been a decrease in positive dynamics due to the loss of correct psychological guidance of free spiritual development. The obtained results can be of interest to psychologists, sociologists and philosophers who study the historical interaction of human freedom and spirituality of society and man in different periods of the world history. 
Crowd psychology
Romanova N.R. - Civic Burn-Out as the Factor of Absenteeism and Indifference Towards Politics Demonstrated by University Students pp. 35-50


Abstract: The subject of the present research is the civil awareness burn-out as a determinant of young people's activity level. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that civic activity of young people is mostly determined by the level of fatigue of mind structures that perform that kind of activity. In her research Romanova analyzes the phenomenon of absenteeism and indifference towards politics demonstrated by today's Russian youth. She also analyzes factors that define the mosaic structure and contradictory nature of young people's attitudes. The author offers her definitions of the terms 'civic  awareness' and 'civic burn-out'. She also examines related phenomena that are closely associated with the burn-out syndrome such as satiation and saturation. The author has used such methods as questionnaries, scaling and tests (modified Boyko's burn-out syndrome test). The author has also tested her own method designed to define the level of civic burn-out. The article presents the results of the empirical research of social and political dispositions of modern Russian students and the level of their civic burn-out. Romanova also analyzed the correlation between burn-out and indicators of civic activity defined in the course of researches that have been conducted since 201 till 2017. She describes and analyzes the relationship between the level of burn-out and such features as trust towards official and Western propaganda, readiness for hardships, service to people, desire to have a large family, tendency to emigrate, etc. The author states a sustainable syndrome of social and political disorientation and apathy of today's young people which is the main subjective determinant of absenteeism demonstrated by the majority of young people in our country. Statistical research methods also prove that indifference towards politics and absenteeism are not typical for students with the low level of civic burn-out. In conclusion, the author gives practical recommendations on how to implement the youth information policy in Russia. 
Этнос и этничность
Chistovskii D.I. - Current Trends of Modern Psychological Studies of Civil (National) Identity pp. 51-62


Abstract: The article provides an overview of foreign and domestic socio-psychological studies of the civil (national) identity in the period from 2007 to 2016. To do this, the author selected Web of Science and RISC cited publications on the subject which allowed to see the most relevant aspects thereof. Researches were grouped according to the main issues raised in these issues: the concept of civic identity as one of the social identities, factors affecting the national identity, relationship of civic identity and a variety of plants, intra-identification and national prejudices, loss of national identity, nationalism and patriotism (in-group identity and attitude to the outgroup). Such selection of articles and their analysis have provided an understanding of how to represent the civil identity of contemporary researchers and how this phenomenon is studied.
Personal motivation and spirituality
Gavrilova O.Ya. - The Success of Solving Convergent Tasks by Junior Schoolchildren in Terms of Various Motivational Attitudes pp. 63-71


Abstract: The purpose of the research presented in the article is to determine the possibility of changing the success of solving tasks of a convergent type by junior schoolchildren through varying the external motivational attitude. Within the framework of the research convergent tasks mean the tasks that have only one correct decision. In her research Gavrilova has used two types of tasks: tasks aimed at abstract-logical thinking and tasks aimed at spatial thinking. The author of the article discusses the results of an empirical study of the success of solving convergent tasks by junior schoolchildren depending on three different motivational attitudes: neutral, competitive and negative, held in 2016-2017 on the basis of one of Moscow's educational establishments. The main method of the study was an experiment. All in all, 126 second-grade students participated in the study. During the analysis of the results obtained, statistically significant differences were found both for the tasks of the abstract-logical block and for the spatial block. In particular, the author has revealed tendencies to decrease the success of solving logical tasks under competitive attitudes. In addition, significant differences in the success of solving the tasks of the two blocks mentioned were found - as the study showed, contemporary second-grade school students are much less successful in solving spatial thinking tasks. At the same time, these are the tasks of the spatial type that are more susceptible to the change of the attitude.
Тело и телесность
Berezina T.N. - Heath as the Factor of Individual Life Expectancy of Russians in the 20th Century pp. 72-87


Abstract: The purpose of this research is to conduct a psychogenetic research of factors influencing individual life expectancy of Russians in the 20th century. The object of the research is individual life expectancy and the subject of the research is the influence of such factors as health and healthy lifestyle on individual life expectancy. The author of the article examines the role of heredity and environment in the genesis of dangerous diseases (cardiovascular disseases and cancer) as well as dangerous habits (drug and alcohol addiction, smoking and compulsive eating). The author pays special attention to the role of personality traits and environmental factors in how one arranges his or her life path. The research is based on the twin method and involved 100 pairs of monozygous twins who have already completed their life path. Through surveying their relatives, the author makes indicators of health and healthy lifestyle for each pair. There is a significant reduction in individual life span of those twins whose lives were influenced by such factors as 'drug addiction' and 'total sum of dangerous habits' in relation to average indicators within the group. The factors 'alcohol addiction' and 'cardiovascular diseases and cancer' evidently decreased the life span of a twin but not in relation to average indicators within the group. The influence of variables 'smoking' and 'compulsive eating' is levelled off by the influence of other negative factors, however, with the growth of the average life expectancy in Russia elimination of these factors can actually increase the life span and life productivity. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Al'perovich V.D. - Metaphors of 'Friends' and of 'Aliens' with Different Ethnocultural External Appearance in Connection with Stratificational Characteristics of Adult Persons pp. 88-104


Abstract: In this research Alperovich focuses on the problem of distinctions between representations about 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance reflected in metaphors and narratives. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis of metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance of persons with different stratificational characteristics (gender, age, level of education). The subject of the research is the metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' developed by men and women with incomplete and complete higher education at their early and middle ages. The author has used the followign methods: content analysis of metaphors, methods of mathematical statistics (cluster analysis, quartiles, nonparametric tests such as Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis H test). Based on the cognitive concept of metaphors, the author elaborated methods for studying metaphors of 'friends' and of 'aliens' presented by people with different ethnocultural external appearance. For the first time in the academic literature the author has discovered, that, towards early and middle ages, the tendency to attribute positive psychosocial features to 'aliens' with Slavic ethnocultural external appearance and to 'friends' and 'aliens' with 'Caucasian' ethnocultural external appearance intensifies. We start to perceive others in a more differentiated way. Respondents with incompleted higher education attribute negative psychosocial features to 'friends' and 'aliens' with Caucasian and Asian ethnocultural external appearance, evaluate negatively their roles in communication more than respondents with complete higher education. Male respondents emphasize differences from 'aliens', particularly from members of other ethnocultural groups, more than female respondents. The author describes four interpretative repertoires of perception of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance. These repertoires differ in whether people attribute positive or negative social and psychological characteristics to 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearances as well as whether they view such interlocutors as competitive or cooperative. The author develops the empirical model of interconnections between metaphors of 'friends' and 'aliens' with different ethnocultural external appearance and personal stratificational characteristics. The results can be used in researches about conflicts and discrimination.
Psychology of religious experience
Klimkov O.S. - Religion in the Phychoanalytical Mirror pp. 105-129


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of studying religion by depth psychology in the 20th century. The author describes the main stages, methodology and scientific achievements thereby. The subject of the analysis is the leading psychoanalytical concepts that created the framework for the studies of religious phenomena. The research is based on the principle of historical chronology  combined with the phenomenologically analytical method and interdisciplinary approach which made it possible to review the conceptual dynamics of religious studies in the researches of famous representatives of dynamic psychology: Freud, Jung and Fromm. Their contribution to religious studies, in particular, psychological aspects of religion, has become one of the most important achievements of modern humanities and culture in general. Moreover, religion itself has acquired better methods for understanding psychological mechanisms and better distinction between the Divine and human in a life of a religious person. Psychoanalysts' interest to the phenomenon of religion has been accompanied with the origin and further reinforcement of traditional confessions representatives' interest in psychoanalysis. 
Gorbov E.A. - Psychological Conditions for Improving the Function of Control in Management Activity pp. 130-146


Abstract: The subject of the research is the control in management activity. At organisations psychological conditions necessary to perform the function of control are very important because the place of control in the overall structure of a chief's activity and his or her selection of particular parameters of control and forms of control are conditioned by a wide range of individual psychological and personality traits as well as specific features of social and psychological climate at an organisation. The purpose of the research is to analyze particularities of the process of performing control at an organisation and to develop preventive measures aimed at improving it. The author of the article has developed a set of diagnostic tools to analyze one's attitude to control and particularities of performing control functions. Preventive measures offered by the author including seminars, individual sessions, preparation and distribution of information resources proved to be efficient. The results of the final testing prove that empoloyees have become more aware of the essence of control at an organisation, have changed their attitude to control and started to understand that it is necessary. Their anxiety levels have been reduced, too, while the level of a chief's competence has been raised. He has become more aware of the function performed by control, forms of control, goals and psychological conditions that contribute to improving the function of control. Putting their knowledge to life, chiefs have noticed that their employees start to behave less anxiously. Combined with the general results of tests, this may demonstrate that chiefs have started to avoid the system of total control which has reduced their employees' anxiety. 
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