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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 06/2016
Contents of Issue № 06/2016
Professional psychology
Manukyan A.R., Shkhagapsoeva M.Kh. - Violent Extremism and Individual Radicalization Factors pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.20852

Abstract: It is impossible to successfully fight extremism without understanding the causes and reasons of why it is originated. In its turn, in order to deliver preventive measures and qualify extremist acts it is necessary to understand the genesis and nature of violent extremism and determinants of violent extremism. The present article provides an anaylsis of individual radicalization factors. For this purpose the authors of the article consider definitions of violent extremism and radicalization, view various models of radicalization described in literature, and outline the main causes and conditions that influence the process of radicalization. By using the systems approach and the method of comparative analysis for analyzing relevant academic literature, methods of synthesis and logical generalization of obtained results, the authors clarify the definition of violent extremism, describe indicators of violent extremism and define a set of individual and contextual factors of radicalization risks. The results of the research can be used in the process of professional psychological preparation of law-enforcement officers which can contribute to a better understanding of the causes of violent extremism and, as a consequence, improvement of preventive measures. Conclusions made by the authors during their research can be taken into account when preparing programs of professional training of police officers as well as particular courses and lectures. 
Societal passions
Bzezyan A.A. - The Content of the Appearance Stereotypes of Men and Women with Different Types of Look pp. 9-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.20705

Abstract: The subject of the research is the Appearance stereotypes of men and women with different ypes of look. The object of the research is 109 people aged from 18 to 30 (58 women and 51 men) belonging to the 'Russian' ethnic group. Attention is paid to the comparative analysis of the contents of Appearance stereotypes of men and women with Slavic, Caucasian and Asian looks. The research hypothesis is that the content of the Appearance stereotype may be conditioned by ethnic affiliation of a perceived object depending on one's look. to study the content of the Appearance stereotypes of men and women with different types of look, the author has used the bipolar scale 'Diagnostics of the content and positive-negative degree of the 'Appearance' stereotypes' (offered by V. Labyunskaya and A. Bzezyan). The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author of the research views a particular type of ethnic stereotypes, so called 'Appearance' stereotypes, as a simplified and generalized idea of psychological traits and behavior of representatives of a particular ethnic group that are being actualized based on their look (Slavic, Caucasian, Asian types of look). Based on the results of the analysis of Appearance stereotypes, the author concludes that the most positive stereotypes are about men and women with a Slavic look and the least positive stereotypes are about men and women with a Caucasian look. 
Этнос и этничность
Murashchenkova N.V., Brazhnik Yu.V. - Contents and Emotional Predictors of Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Their and Others' Ethnic Groups pp. 20-35

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.20790

Abstract: The article presents results of the empirical social-psychological research. 83 Russian second- and third-year elementary school students of Smolensk (47 girls and 36 boys) aged from 7 to 9 participated in the research. The subject of the research is the contents and emotional predictors of elementary school students' preceptions of their and others' ethnic groups. Ethnic groups they represented included Russian, Belorussian and Ukrainian. Emotional predictors included affective components of ethnic identity of elementary school students as well as their level of satisfaction with different sides of their own life. Empirical data were collected through survey (interviewing) of elementary school students. Each respondent was interviewed individually. The authors of the article analyze data obtained using the modified method of studing racial and ethnic attitudes offered by Doyle and Aboud (adapted by N. Sheskina for Russian elementary school students), modified method of diagnosing the level of social frustration by L. Wasserman and analyzing responses of children to the questions aimed at defining the affective component of their ethnic identity. These data were processed by using Statistica 7.0 program, methods of descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-test, Fisher's angular transformation (φ*-criterion), regression analysis (Forward stepwise method). As a result of the empirical research, the majority of elementary school students demonstrate a positive ethnic affective identification and differentiation and tendency to be more positive about their own ethnic group compared to others. The author registered a high subjective importance of ethnicity for elementary school students disregarding their positive or negative affective attitude towards members of their ethnic group. The authors discover that the emotional predictor of how elementary school students preceive their or others' ethnic groups is their subjective sense of well-being in the spheres related to a child's school life and his or her success. The factor that is especially important in the formation of a positive attitude to their and others' ethnic groups is the level of satisfaction of elementary school students with the relations they have with their classmates. The results of the research underline the important role of the elementary school age in the process of ethnic identity formation and draw our attention to targets of ethnic intolerance prevention and correction of children's ethnic perceptions. The results also prove a close connection between child's subjective sense of well-benig and his or her attitude towards their and others' ethnic groups. 
Person and personality
Berezina T.N. - The Influence of Biological Factors on Life Expectancy in a Twin Couple pp. 36-45

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.21305

Abstract: Biological factors that influence life expectancy (except for heredity) traditionally include: gender and causes of death. Heredity defines genetic determination of a life path, gender represents a biological factor which influence is conditioned by culture, causes of death can be endogenous (death as a result of natural causes) and exogeneous (death caused by environment factors). The impact of both causes of death considerably depends on the social environment. In her research Berezina has used a classical twin method to collect empirical data and analyzed 172 twin couples including 100 monozygotic couples. The novelty is caused by the fact that Berezina uses a one-factor dispersion analysis ANOVA to assess the influence of the aforesaid factors on life expectancy. The method allows not only to compare the roles of heredity and environment (which is quite traditional for psychogenetics) but also to evaluate the effect of other factors on an individual's life expectancy. The results of the research have proved patterns that have been already recorded by demographic studies: death causes have the greater influence on life expectancy and violent deaths reduce one's length of life twice as much as natural cuases. At the present time gender also influences life expectancy and women have a higher life expectancy. The role of heredity is more important than that of the environment, however, heredity is represented only as tendencies. The author suggests to use her method to further evaluate the importance of more complex environmental and personality factors. 
Personal growth
Tulitbaeva G.F. - Socio-Personal Interest as a Professionally Important Quality of a Psychologist pp. 46-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.21484

Abstract: This article is devoted to personality patterns of psychologists. The article contains a definition of the socio-personal interest of a psychologist which involves not just expressions of interest in the experiences of clients, their wishes and needs, and providing them with effective assistance as actors of socially and personally meaningful activities. Social and personal interest of the psychologist is defined as the integral quality of a psychologist's personality reflected in the cognitive orientation of the personality of other people and active-active attitude towards them, consisting in the creation of the psychological conditions for their development and self-realization in their activities. As a methodological base was made by the subject-activity approach in psychology (B. G. Ananiev, L. S. Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinstein, A. N. Leontiev, etc.). Conducted correlation and factor analysis identified four components of social and personal interest to students of psychology: emotional regulatory, cognitive, motivational-valuable, communicative-behavioral, which served as the basis for the purposeful formation of social and personal interest to students of psychologists at the stage of University studies and diagnostics of their dynamics.
Psychology and pedagogics
Teryushkova Yu.Yu. - Communicative Competence as a Factor of Successful Adaptation of Students with Disabilities pp. 54-64

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.19806

Abstract: The object of the research is the adaptation of freshmen, the subject of the reserch is their communicative competence as a factor of successful adaptation to studying at a University. The author of the article views such aspects of the topic as the process of adaptation to studying at a University, factors that have a good impact on adaptation of freshmen, and peculiarities of adaptation of students with health disabilities. The author defines a factor of successful adaptation to University studies, i.e. communicative competence, as the factor that can be influenced, thus increasing adaptation abilities of freshmen. The research consisted of three stages. The first one was the initial diagnostics, the second stage was a communicative competence training and the third stage was the final diagnostics. The research methods included: analysis of social and psychological adaptation offered by C. Rogers and R. Daymond, overall communicability evaluation by V. Ryakhovsky, communicative social competence inventory by N. Fetiskina, V. Kozlov and G. Manuylov, communicative skills test by L. Michelssohnen (adapted by Yu. Gilbukh), and questionnaire to assess the level of satisfaction with University studies. The main conclusion of the research is that an important factor of successful adaptation of students with disabilities is their communicative skills. Students with a high level of communicative competence or students who get an opportunity to take communication trainings at the first stage of their University studies overcome the adaptation period faster and better an ddemonstrate a higher level of  being ready to continue education in their major. The main contribution of the author to the topic is the development and testing of a series of trainings aimed at developing communicative skills of freshmen with disaiblities and freshment without disabilities. 
Keys to creativity
Iglitskaya I.M. - A Piece of Art from the Point of View of Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory of Dreams. On the Question about the Analysis Method pp. 65-88

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.20892

Abstract: The subject of the research is the search and provision of grounds of the psychoanalytical approach to art. The main idea of the aforesaid approach is based on Freud's theory and proves similarity between artist's fantasy, night dreams and fulfilment of an artist's desire in his or her artwork. The above mentioned approach implies discovery of contradictions and search for what causes contradictory elements, symbolic interpretation of incompatible elements as well as commonness of characters of a work of fiction and depiction of the internal as the external as a result of working with night dreams. Opportunities offered by the practical implementation of the aforesaid approach is demonstrated based on the analysis of Bryullov's painting. Results of the research are proved by documents about the artist's life. The author establishes the connection between life and creative work of the artist. To create the method of artistic analysis, the author uses an adapted version of Freud's theory of dreams. According to that theory, a piece of art reflects an artist's desire and has a latent and manifest content. The same method that is used by Freud to analyze dreams can be used to analyze a painting. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author develops methodic principles of the psychoanalytical approach to art, describes the method and particular techniques of analyzing a piece of art and testing their practical applicability. The method offered by the author to analyze literature and art allows to define deep personality grounds for creating a particular artwork and creates a new, non-standard understanding of an artistic image. 
Developmental psychology
Nurmukhamedov T.F. - On the Question of the Cognitive Component of Self-Identity in Adolescence pp. 89-95

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.6.20704

Abstract: The subject of research is the cognitive component of self-identity in adolescence. The author examines such topics as the concept of "self-identity", the structure of self-identity, the age range of adolescence, the factors that influence the formation of the cognitive component of self-identity in adolescence (relations with the reference groups, mental development, various types of activity). Particular attention is paid to the content of the cognitive component of the self-identity in adolescence, the author points to the correlation of cognitive self-identity component with cognitive sphere of personality. Methods of research are theoretical analysis and synthesis of literature on self-identity (cognitive component), the peculiarities of adolescence. The main conclusions of this research are the positions under which the period of adolescence is described by the sensitive to the cognitive component of self-identity. Causes of the sensitivity are peculiarities of the personality development and the external conditions. Personal and professional self-determination is expressed in changing self-understanding (the cognitive component of self-identity).
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