Psychologist
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue 04/2016
Contents of Issue 04/2016
Professional psychology
Rysev N. - The Strategies of the Interpersonal Influencing Behavior pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.20107

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the classification of negotiation and behavior strategies used in the process of conflict resolution. The author of the article analyzes R. E. Walton's and R. B. McKerise's classification of integrative bargaining and distributive bargaining, Kenneth Thomas' classification (competing, compromising, collaborating and avoiding), Dean Pruitt's dual concern model, the etiology of conflict cultures offered by Michele J. Gelfand, Lisa M. Leslie and Kirsten Keller, and the five levels of interaction attitudes described by E. V. Dotsenko. After a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the aforesaid concepts, the author of the article offers his own classification of the interpersonal influencing behaviour. According to the author, this classification is of great importance both theoretically and practically. The methods used by the author in his research include analysis of literature, synthesis of existing concepts and practical application of the classification. The scientific novelty is caused by the fact that the author offers his own classification of the interpersonal influencing behavior strategies: co-existing, collaborating, compromising, manipulating, competing, dominating, servicing, accommodating, shifting attention, and avoiding actions. The present classification is based on the two criteria, the attitude to the opponent and satisfaction of interests: 1. whether the opponent is treated as a subject or an object; 2. whether common interests are satisfied; both parties' interests are satisfied; only one party's interests are satisfied; only the opponent's interests are satisfied; none interests are satisfied. The interpersonal influencing behavior strategies can be widely applied in negotiations and conflict resolutions. 
Societal passions
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Reputation. Discourse about Reputation. Reputational Damage pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19631

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to provide definitions of the terms 'reputation', 'discourse about reputation' and 'reputational damage'. In this research Ovrutsky also describes social-psychological, economic, cultural, legal and sociological aspects of reputation. Reputation is viewed as an interdisciplinary term and a specific phenomenon of professional communication practices, public relations being the main practices in this case. The author of the article draws on the statement that reputation is a binary phenomenon. On the one hand, it is a non-material psychological and economic resource allowing reputation objects (enterprise, person, country, particular social groups) to convert emotional patterns of stakeholders influencing the reputation of social groups into economic goods (competitiveness, brand premium, willingness to exchange, loyalty, etc.). On the other hand, stakeholders themselves represent attitudes and views on one's reputation, in this case reputation serves as a social-perceptive phenomenon and oen of the kinds of social attitudes. In other words, as a resource reputation is localized in the objects of reputational management and represented in individual and collective consciousness of stakeholders in the form of social attitudes. In this case social attitudes reflect the part of social reality voluntary constructed through the system of texts. The author has also analyzed the term 'reputational damage' and defined the system of texts designated at causing reputational damage as 'discourse containing damanging information'. The author introduces two concepts of restoring reputation in case of reputational damage, these are the model by William Benoit and the model by Max Weber, Ericsson and Stone. The author also offers his own strategy for anticipating reputational damage illustrated by a relevant media example. The methodological basis of the research includes the concept of social attitudes that view components of individual and collective consciousness as social attitudes with a certain structure which includes the information field, emotional-evaluative and behavioral components. In his analysis the author has used the discourse approach that allowed to combine texts forming and influencing reputation into one system and is characterized with such features as voluntary nature, dialogueness and intentionality. By their structure, social attitudes are isomorphic to the discourse about reputation, therefore its structural and functional analysis allows to speak of reputation itself. Theoretical and practical material presented in the article is aimed at increasing professional communication PR practices. It is concluded that theoretical researches of recent years and accumulation of empiric material on the topic of 'reputation' prove the social need in development of the theory of reputation as well as a certain theoretical interdisciplinary approach to professional media communication practices. 
Philosophy and psychology
Maykov V.V. - Primordial psychotherapy: ancient practices of care of the soul in modern time pp. 19-42

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19579

Abstract: An object of research are humanitarian sources of psychotherapy. The question is raised what in human culture played a role of psychotherapy before emergence of psychotherapy in the XIX-th century? Genesis of the modern psychotherapy which sources can be tracked in ancient practicians of the care of the soul is considered. The task to find such practices, the most steadiest and developed, and to understand as well as why they work is formulated. The analysis of work of world famous psychotherapists and their statements about essence of psychotherapy was a preliminary basis of research. The method and methodology of research are based on M. Foucault's genealogical approach, ideas of psychotopology by M. K. Mamardashvili, and author's development of "a computer metaphor" and cartography of the heros journey. The main contribution of the author to the subject of research is the preliminary typology of historical subjects to which basic practices of the cares of the soul are correlated. The received results are yielded by new opportunities of understanding of sources and essence of modern psychotherapy from the point of view of the modern humanities, first of all, psychology, anthropology and philosophy. The concept of primordial psychotherapy and 12 ancient practices of the care of the soul is introduced and described, and it is shown how these practices are present in the modern popular directions of spiritually-oriented psychology and psychotherapy.
Mind games
Smolko S. - Strategy management decision-making by the example of group decisions in business simulation pp. 43-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19838

Abstract: The main focus of the article - group decisions in management. A small group is considered in line with the concept of Karl Vick as a carrier of collective intelligence. This position allows you to correlate the results of the group decisions development with the average characteristics of the group members. Decision-making in the group is analyzed in terms of information processing, knowledge sharing in the small group and in the organization as a whole, the impact on the success of the solution of diversity of participants the group, the roles flexibility of group in situations change. One of the forms of organization of solutions problematic tasks in the group are the business games, including management games. In the theoretical review shows the classification of business games and their main characteristics.Empirical research is based on the modeling of management activities with the help of a business game that simulates the operation of business from the top level. Participants (sample 548 middle managers) were combined in small groups of 5-6 people, and make management decisions in partially structured situation, with limited time to make a decision. In total 66 groups were formed. To analyze and test the hypothesis using the results of group decisions that were decorated as the output characteristics of the game companies aimed at meeting the conditional shareholders and potential investors.The hypothesis that for group management decisions associated with doing business in a competitive environment, characterized by the presence of different strategies: focus on the rapid financial results "here and now"; focus on solving current operational problems; orientation in decisions on long-term development of the company, has been confirmed.
Personal motivation and spirituality
Shantyr Y. - Authority of personality of class leader pp. 54-66

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19723

Abstract: Psychological bases of growth of authority of personality of class leader open up in this article. They plug in itself, foremost, forming of new world view to the outward things and, in particular, to position of class leader, whose activity must be carried out taking into account sexual belonging of children and teenagers. Basic sense of this worldview is a choice of new relation to itself and to the concrete school situation with the purpose of development of new personality qualities of student, but not fight against his failings and their removal. Thus activity of class leader, as well as other school specialists, must be built on the base of adequate and short story interpretations of basic concepts and terms which are used in the system of school education: teaching, education, class leader, personality and some other. Exactly unambiguity and brevity, and energiynost', in obedience to Integrativnaya psychology, basic concepts and terms, and create that psychological pre-condition which is needed for the decision of concrete problems of teaching and education of rising generation. Methodology of research of this work plug in itself development of the basic psychological going near growth of authority of personality of class leader. A scientific novelty consists in psychological conception of activity of class leader and interpretation of basic concepts and terms, which are use ding in the system of school education. The article can be interesting the wide circle of specialists in the field of school education and psychological services: to the scientific-pedagogical employees, teachers, practical psychologists and gossluzhaschim of the system of education.
Person and personality
Krasnyanskaya T.M., Tylets V.G. - Opportunities of the Scenario Approach to the Development of Personal Psychological Safety pp. 67-78

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.20087

Abstract: The subject of the present research article is the application of the scenario approach to the development of personal psychological safety. In the course of the research the authors have extrapolated opportunities of the scenario approach developed on the basis of economic and political issues to the practice of assisting a patient in developing his or her psychological safety. The scenario approach to the development of personal psychological safety is defined by the authors as a methodological means supporting the creation of the necessary future based on determination and special arrangement of events that are important for a patient as well as means and resources needed for their development. The material presented in the article is based on the results of application of the basic theoretical research methods including analysis and synthesis, analogy, transfer, and generalization. The scientific novelty of the materials presented in the article is caused by the fact that the authors offer their own interpretation of the scenario approach in terms of the development of personal psychological safety as well as their own description of stages of the scenario approach application, advantages and limitations of the scenario approach applied in the process of self-development of psychological safety, and analyze opportunities of using a number of the scenario approach methods for this purpose (the two-axis method, two-branch method, and the accuracy conus). At the end of the article the authors make a conclusion that it is beneficial to use the scenario approach to the self-development of personal psychological personality. 
Personal growth
Milova Y.V. - The Role of Lying in Psychological Health and Personality Pathology pp. 79-85

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19919

Abstract: The subject of the research is one's psychological health and personality pathology. In her research Milova analyzes such aspects of psychological health as true needs and motivations including the motivation to acquire (physiological needs, the need of security and protection) and the motivation to give away (the affiliation need and the need of love, the needs to learn, respect and self-respect, aesthetic needs, the need of justice and self-actualization) as well as the purpose of creation. Personal pathology includes such pathological motivations as the needs of power, dependence, vanity and deficiency love, minimization of efforts, consumption and pathological security as well as the purpose of consumption/destruction. The research methods include: theoretical analysis, analysis and summary of literary sources, survey, methods of mathematical statistics such as the correlation analysis and factor analysis. The main conclusion of the research is the proof that there are dependable direct relationships between particular kinds of lies and a number of pathological elements as well as inverse relationships between lies and psychological health. For example, the author has defined the inverse relationship between the need of approval and lying. Milova has also defined such factors of psychological health as 'self-actualization', 'acceptance', 'honesty', 'closeness', and pathological factors such as 'deliberate perversion of the truth', 'deficiency love', 'denial of everything new', 'power', and inbetween factors such as 'undeliberate perversion of the truth' and 'acquisition'. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author concludes that lying is the main factor of personality pathology and is an obstacle for the development of psychological health. It is the defense mechanism that keeps a person from realizing his or her unsatisfied true needs. Within the framework of the author's approach, psychological health is the reflection of reality as it is, recognition of one's true needs and a strive to satisfy these needs. On the contrary, personality pathology is based on the perverted reflection of reality, unrecognized and thus unsatisfied needs and replacement of such satisfaction with pathological motivations. 
The range of emotional experience
Boldyreva T.A., Shcherbinina O.A. - Psychological Determination of Mobbing in Teenager Groups pp. 86-101

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19630

Abstract: The authors examine and analyze modern concepts of mobbing (psychoenergetic concept, social learning theory, frustration concept) from the point of view of their explanatory value and predictive efficiency. The authors describe contradictions in the aforesaid theories and offer their solutions of these contradictions by defining psychological determinants of mobbing as a social and psychological phenomenon which, in its turn, constituted the theoretical basis of the empirical research. The empirical research nvolved 124 teenagers from secondary schools where cases of mobbing have been registered. The authors have used the survey and drawing research methods. The authors have analyzed the comparative analysis of self-conception profiles of teenagers studying in groups where mobbing has occured. The authors have also used the following psychodiagnostic methods, R. Pantileev's The Self-Concept Inventory, and Edward Wagner's The Hand Test. The subject of the research is the relationship between the teenagers' self-conception profiles and their level of aggressivity. By the means of the correlation analysis, the authors have defined the self-conception elements that determined various types of teenager aggression as the behavior model of mobbing and can be viewed as prognostic indicators of both the mobbing initiation and selection of the active or passive positions in the process of mobbing. According to the results of the research, there are four main parameters of self-conception that influence the level and nature of aggression: reservedness, self-guidance, internal propensity towards conflict, self-acceptance. The authors have also described various types of self-conception profiles of teenagers who either participate in mobbing or take a neutral stance. The results of the research allow to clarify the contents of the primary and secondary preventions of mobbing in teenager groups. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Sennitskaya E.V. - Managing the audience attention using object-hierarchical method of modelling and dosing of the information (on the example of a training session) pp. 102-114

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19908

Abstract: The object of the research is the attention of school and college students while they are percepting the information in different amounts and with different hierarchical structure. The work is devoted to the problem of how the attention of listener depends on the structuring and dosing of the information. The main objective is to develop recommendations on how to structure and dose verbal, mathematical and motional information to avoid the attention wandering and discipline breaching that arise because of lack of information or its redundancy. The additional objective is the development of the easy-to-use method of calculating of the amount of verbal information that can be used as a instrument of modelling of the training session. Methods of research are an empirical study in the form of monitoring of the activities of school and university teachers, as well as a natural experiment with students of 1, 3, 5 and 6 grades and students of 12 college courses. The content of training conducted by the author or another teacher was modeled in the form of object-hierarchical scheme. Further, by observation and audio recording changes in attention of subjects were indicated.The result of this study was the conclusion that when the abstract objects are revealed by less than 3 or more than 5 concrete ones, listeners experience the attention wandering and the discipline breaching. In case when the abstract objects are revealed by 35 concrete ones the teacher can easily maintain discipline during all the lesson at condition that the lesson is formed as a hierarchical structure with 45 branches, each of them with depth of 35 hierarchy levels. The findings of research can be used in teaching, advertising, political and clinical psychology.
Developmental psychology
Shcherbinina O.A., Ignatova T.N. - The Role of Mother's Treatment of a Teenager in Teenager's Experience of Loneliness pp. 115-125

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19898

Abstract: Based on the review of the latest empirical researches, the authors of the present article examine and specify the role and importance of the parents' treatment of teenagers in the development of teenager's basic mental formations and solution of the most important psychological goals of their age. When describing substantial features of the aforesaid stage of human ontogenesis, special attention is paid to the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager. The emphasis is made on contradictory interpretations of this phenomenon in modern academic literature. The authors provide a theoretical basis of their empirical research. The research involves 56 school students (teenagers). The authors analyze the relationship between their subjective experience of loneliness, their mother's and father's treatment and the quality of their social-psychological adjustment. The authors have used such methods of psychological diagnostics as: The Subjective Loneliness Scale by S. V. Dukhnovsky, Teenagers about Parents of E. Shafer as adapted by L. I. Vasserman, I. A. Gorkovsky and E. E. Romitsyn, and The Test of Social-Psychological Adjustment by C. Rogers-R. Diamond adapted by T.V. Snegireva. The main conclusions of the research: the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager within the average values is normal and caused by teenager's reflection processes and age; the mother's treatment of a teenager conditions the relationship between a teenager's subjective experience of loneliness and the quality of his or her social-psychological adjustment; the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager correlates to his or her mother's Hostility and Inconsistency; and the quality of social-psychological adjustment of a teenager correlates to his or her mother's Directivity and Positive Interest. The research results allow to define goals for further research in order to find out whether it is possible to use the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager as an indicator of his or her psychological problems and risks of deviant behavior providing that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of his or her feeling of loneliness have been clarified in terms of their relationship with the social situation where a teenager grows. 
Psychopathology of the mundane
Kireeva O.V., Diomin A.N. - Cognitive and emotional components of attitude of man toward credits pp. 126-139

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.20092

Abstract: The article discusses the cognitive and emotional components of the attitude toward credits. The cognitive component of the attitude toward credits is considered as a representation of the risks and resources that a person expects from crediting, and the emotional component is analyzed through the basic emotions experienced by a person at different stages of credits. Crediting considered as a sequence of the following borrowers: the decision to take a bank credit, the bank selection and credit conditions, obtaining approval for crediting, debt and interest payments on a credit agreement. Particular importance is attached to the study cases of non-repayment of debt and interest on the credit, that is, stage of personal default. Research presentation of crediting and the range of experiences of potential and actual borrowers was carried out using qualitative and quantitative techniques. As part of the study of the cognitive component of attitude toward credits on the content of personal meanings identified: the normative borrowers, who are forced to borrowers, borrowers-hedonists, borrowers perceive credits as the risks and threats, borrowers with an ambivalent attitude toward credits. As part of the study of the emotional component it is established that the four stages of the credit behavior is dominated by the emotion of interest, and at the stage of personal default added grief, guilt, fear. Consequently, the behavior of the credit includes the risk of psychological crisis.
Psychology of emergency
Larionova A.V., Meshcheryakova E.I. - Extremist Orientation of Personality: Theoretical and Practical Research Issues pp. 140-153

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.4.19962

Abstract: The subject of the research is the extremist orientation of personality viewed from the point of view of its components, values, motives, emotions, evaluations, cognitive and behavioral. The research is focused on the development of methodological grounds for studying the extremist orientation of personality and opportunitities to predict such orientation. The purpose of the research is to study the potential extremist oriengation of the youth which is understood as a presumptive declared opportunity/readiness of a student to participate in extremist activities under certain circumstances (certain environment or situation). Personal predictors of potential extremism among youth are defined by achieving research goals such as analysis of values, motives, emotions, evaluations, cognitive and behavioral components of the potential extremism orientation of personality as well as gender differences in declaring one's readiness to extremism. The research methods include: The Cultural-Values Differential Inventory offered by G. U. Soldatova (1998), B. Sheldon's  Self-Determination Test (adapted and modified by E. N. Osina in 2011), 'The Mini-Mult' Questionnaire adapted by V. P. Zaitsev, V. E. Milman's Diagnostics of Personal Motivational Structure (1990) and the authors' Personal Extremist Orientation Questionnaire'. The obtained data was processed by using the frequency response analysis, factor analysis and contingency analysis based on chi-square Pearson criterion performed with the help of STATISTICA 6.0 Program. As a result of the empirical research, the authors have described components of the extremist orientation (basic purposes and contents), motives of students' potential extremist orientation, personal traits of students declaring their potential readiness to participate in extremist activities. It is concluded that regular patterns of the extremist orientation include interpersonal contradictions and searches for self-actualization of a young man or woman in the modern world. 
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