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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Contents of Issue № 03/2014
Developmental psychology
Khizgiyaeva N.V. - Psychological Constitution of Preschool Communication Development pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12755

Abstract: The idea of communicative culture developed in business psychology extends on the general psychology. In article the model of development of communicative culture at preschool age is developed. Methodologically the author relies on the cultural and historical psychology assuming development of the personality by overcoming of the age crises connected with transition of the child from one social environment in another. Also the author is guided by the concept of emotional safety of the educational environment approving need of creation of the safe environment in which at the child the main components of communicative culture allowing to establish the new optimum relations of the child with the world of adults, the contemporaries and younger will be created. In article stages of development of communicative culture of the preschool child at an age stage from 3 to 7 years are described. 2 main stages are considered, the first corresponds to crisis of three years, the second – to crisis is seven years and the intermediate period corresponding to age of five years. Traditional components of communicative culture are allocated: cognitive, motivational, behavioural and emotional and strong-willed. Specifics of development of each of components at the first and second stage formation of communicative culture are considered.
Personal growth
Dudko V.A. - Influence of a Sign-Oriented Symbolic Product on Formation of the Educational Environment and Development of the Moral Reasoning of School Students pp. 19-59

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12423

Abstract: As a basis and a necessary condition at achievement of modern quality of education the spiritual and moral development which is expressing in moral consciousness of the personality is on the first place. In this interrelation, the author conducted research among studying senior classes in various educational institutions of Russia which allowed to open and describe a product of educational activity and, on the practical level, – to establish the factors determining development of moral consciousness of the personality, to define extent of influence of a sign and symbolical product on formation of the educational environment. The methodological bases of research were: the provision on a continuity of development of the personality in ontogenesis; about unity of progressive and regressive transformations in development of the personality, idea about dynamics of structure of the personality, experience and individual distinctions of mental processes, states and properties of the personality, idea about the ontologic evolution emphasizing that development has the main regularities and stages, the idea that the moral consciousness develops throughout all human life, however is the reason of its development not age, and considerable accumulation of experience of moral responsibility. And also, conceptual regulations on constructive development of the personality; about destructive development of the personality; about immanent characteristics of consciousness; about qualitative methods of research in psychology.Methodological installations to the concept "development of the personality" of determinatsionny, synergetic, postmodernistichesky, phenomenological and typological approaches became general scientific methodology of research. The analysis allowed to expand scientific idea of influence of educational activity on constructive and destructive development of the identity of pupils. The received results allowed to see ways of development of personal characteristics of studying senior classes in different educational environments. That helped to find negative and harmful and positive and useful influence of the educational environment on development of the identity of pupils. Results represent possible model of use of qualitative methods of research in psychology and pedagogical practice.
To understand the human being
Suleymanova S.S., . - Psychological Problems of Modern Families pp. 60-127

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12542

Abstract: The article is devoted to the conflicts and problem zones of a modern family. Marriage and a family are considered in the context of modern (public-historical and economic) society living conditions. The special attention is paid to specifics of relationship in a modern family on which gender factors and systems of role installations have impact. As major problems of a modern family and the marriage relations are allocated and described: trouble of families, inequality of marital status of spouses; woman's overload; disharmony of the sexual relations; inadequacy in perception and manifestations of prestigiousness of spouses, intra family violence, motives of the birth of children, an androgenization of family members. The main method of research in this work is the analysis of scientific literature, and also the statistical data which are in open access. Scientific novelty of this work is made by the fact of that very small number of researchers notes an androginization of family members and a malodetnost as problems of psychological character. As a conclusion it is possible to note that the families which avoided all companion problems of marriage practically don't exist, but each family possesses a certain resilience to marriage problems as circumstances often differ and can vary. From this it is possible to conclude that each family is individual and is subject to studying from various sciences, relevance and a rich scope for researches of a subject of a family follows from here.
Psychology and pedagogics
Deulin D.V. - Psychological Safety of Educational Environment at Law-Enforcement Universities pp. 128-140

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12604

Abstract: In the article the problem of psychological safety of the educational environment of a higher educational institution of law-enforcement system is considered. In work such phenomena as psychological safety, the educational environment, threats of psychological safety are investigated. Manifestation of psychological threats in educational space of higher education institution of law-enforcement system is investigated. Theoretically the classification from three groups of psychological risks allowing to carry out an assessment of levels of psychological safety of the educational environment locates. The first group of risks is formed by risks of psychological violence. The second group of risks includes the system of relationship with participants of educational process interfering satisfaction of basic needs in personal and confidential communication. The third group is formed by the system of the interpersonal relations with participants of educational process interfering recognition of the reference importance of the educational environment. For detection of specific features of psychological safety of the educational environment of higher education institution of law-enforcement system we used as unformalized methods (supervision, conversation) and unformalized methods of research (the modified Bayeva I.A. questionnaire. for cadets). Attraction of scientific attention to problems of rather closed educational environment of law-enforcement higher education institutions is the key moment in the course of preparation and education of highly professional experts. Process of improvement of mechanisms of ensuring psychological safety of educational space promotes decrease in level of psychosomatic frustration among trained, better assimilation of knowledge and skills and as a result – formation of the highly professional employee of law-enforcement system armed with all necessary competences. Unfortunately, psychological threats are actual and for the educational environment of higher education institutions of law-enforcement system. The major direction is development of the mechanism of decrease in the considered threats.
Anufriev A.F. - Description Pattern for Cases of Psychological and Educational Diagnostics pp. 141-174

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12700

Abstract: Object of research: Diagnostic activity of the psychologist in a consultation situation. The description of cases from advisory diagnostic practice as the important section of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics. Development of the scheme of the description of cases from diagnostic practice of the psychologist meeting the requirements of need and sufficiency of the characteristic of diagnostic process. Substantial components of the scheme. Its functions (registration of own experience of diagnostic activity, for the purpose of transfer to his other people, acquaintance with diagnostic experience of other psychologists, empirical verification of provisions of the theory). Empirical check of opportunities of the scheme for the necessary and sufficient description of diagnostic process. Methodology or research technique. Methodology: general scientific approach to studying of diagnostic process, the concept of the solution of psychodiagnostic tasks. Method: theoretical analysis, synthesis of psychodiagnostic practice Novelty and conclusions. Scientifically reasonable scheme of the description of cases from diagnostic practice of the psychologist, constructed on the basis of the stages of diagnostic process allocated in the general theory of the diagnosis and the concept of the decision psikhodiagno is developedsticheskikh of tasks. It is shown that the specified scheme contains as the general, i.e. not depending on specifics of diagnostic area, and special components and that it meets the requirements of completeness of the characteristic of diagnostic process. The conclusion that the specified scheme promotes increase of efficiency of diagnostic activity of the psychologist in an education system is drawn.
Philosophy and psychology
Subbotsky E. - Planetarium of Miracles: Magic On a Visit to Metaphysics pp. 175-220

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12286

Abstract: In article the psychological phenomenon of penetration of structures of magic thinking, such as "partitsipation" and "a direct embodiment of thought in life", in the concept of modern physics and cosmology is considered. Psychological researches show that modern educated adults, at the level of subconsciousness, continue to trust in supernatural, and between magic and scientific thinking there is a deep communication. The magic thinking which is carrying out in unconscious in the form of symbols, is the generator of "creative combinations", and the scientific, conscious thinking selects from these combinations what correspond to objective reality. Criteria of such selection are experiment and a vpisyvayemost of combinations in the general context of available knowledge. In process of withdrawal from a macrocosm in micro and the megaworlds, criterion of empirical check which carried out earlier function of selection of the "correct" combinations from "creative garbage", disappears. There is only a criterion "to a vpisyvayemost in the general context of knowledge", and this criterion is much softer, than criterion of experimental check. As a result of such "softening" of borders between magic and scientific thinking, the unconscious belief in the supernatural gets into theories of modern physics. Novelty: (1) For the first time some concepts of modern physics and cosmology are considered in a context of the last researches of magic thinking in psychology; (2) The analysis of a psychological community between magic and scientific thinking which, under certain conditions, leads to penetration of designs of magic thinking into scientific theories is new also. Conclusions: (1) Some latest theories of physics of elementary particles and cosmology include concepts (for example, "dependence of the nature of elementary structures of a matter on nature of supervision", "confusion" or "the anthropic principle") which are related to concepts of magic thinking (such as "a direct embodiment of thought in reality" and "partitsipation"); (2) Between magic and scientific thinking there is a fundamental relationship. The magic thinking which is carrying out in symbols, delivers a stream of creative combinations of ideas, and scientific, carrying out in concepts, selects from this stream of combinations what realities correspond. Criteria of such selection are experiment and a vpisyvayemost of "a combination of ideas" in the general context of available knowledge; (3) At invasion of modern physics in the field of reality in which experiment is impossible (such as "the theory of all" or "a Universe origin"), selection of "acceptable" combinations from a stream of the ideas delivered by magic thinking, becomes less strict; (4) Thanks to this facilitated access to official science, the belief of the modern person in supernatural, hitherto stored in hiding places unconscious, gets into physical theories about the origin and structure of the Universe.
Question at hand
Savvina O.V. - The Reasons of Legalizing Abortions in the XXth Century and Modern Debates on the Moral Acceptability of Abortions pp. 221-243

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.3.12657

Abstract: In the article the reasons of legalization of abortions in the XX century in the countries of Europe, Great Britain, the USA and others are considered. The purpose of this consideration is forecasting of further development of discussion about legalization of abortions (mainly – abortions "at a request") in the world countries; definition of current trends in the solution of a question on abortions at the state level; and also identification of defining social groups in the solution of this question. Object of research is discussion about legalization of the abortions, developed in the XX century. In research the method of the philosophical analysis, a cultural and historical method, historical information, the analysis of the legal documents legalizing abortions "at a request" in the West countries (Great Britain, the USA) is used. The author comes to a conclusion that in the XX century priests and the medical personnel - the former social groups which had priority influence on the solution of a question of legalization of abortions lost the force and were compelled to participate in a new bioethical discourse on an equal basis with inhabitants and other experts. Formation of a bioethical discourse in the countries of Europe, Great Britain and the USA allowed to make decisions on abortion to women that on the one hand, released them, and with another – deprived a bioethical discourse of influence on a solution of the problem of legalization of abortions.
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