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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Psychotechnique
Artemeva O.A. - Soviet Psychotechnics: Social Biography of the Research and Practice Movement pp. 1-23

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.12015

Abstract: The history of domestic psychology of the 1920-1930th represents rare naukovedchesky material. At this time under the influence of unique social conditions growth and elimination of a number of scientific and practical currents – psychoanalysis, pedology, psychoequipment was observed. The appeal to history of development of each of these currents allows to open essential regularities of social determination of science. In the represented work on the basis of the analysis historical and scientific, including archival, materials the social biography of the Soviet psychoequipment is reconstructed. Tragic destinies of her leaders I.N. Shpilreyn and S.G. Gellerstein are represented. Stages of the social biography of a psychotechnical current as subject of scientific activity are allocated. The characteristic of social conditions of its formation and elimination in the Soviet Russia is given. As result of social determination of development of a current change of methodological installations of the Soviet psychotechnicians is traced. At reconstruction of "the social biography" of the Soviet psychoequipment the main publications and private papers of her scientific leaders, results of historical and psychological researches and official documents regulating activity of the Soviet psychotechnicians in 1920-1930 were analyzed. The carried-out work allowed to draw a conclusion on dependence of development of a scientific and practical current on such social conditions, as economic, ideological and political. The special attention is paid to ambivalent nature of influence of the Soviet scientific policy: on the one hand, repressions concerning experts scientists led to suppression of a research initiative and weakening of scientific and technical capacity of the country, with another – the Soviet scientific policy promoted merger of scientific community on the basis of the general methodological principles.
Developmental psychology
Peretolchina D. - The Role of Family Background in the Development of Teenager's Deviant Behavior pp. 24-51

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.11907

Abstract: Object of research: research of features of family factors, features of deviant behavior of the teenagers who are in various contexts of a social situation of development (various on relationship and family functions, in the conditions of training at open schools of specialized type.It is possible to carry to family factors: unity, flexibility, satisfaction with marriage, interaction with the teenager, deviant behavior of teenagers to which can be carried: aggression, uneasiness, interaction with parents, and also low unity and flexibility of family system the teenager's eyes.Research methods:1. A questionnaire for interaction of parents with I. Markovskaya's children (option for teenagers and their parents).2. Diagnostics of unity and flexibility of family system D. Olson. (option for teenagers and their parents).3. Questionnaire of diagnostics of tendency to A. Bass and M. Perry's aggression.4. Scale of personal uneasiness A.M. Prikhozhan.5. Questionnaire of satisfaction with marriage V. V. Stolin.Comparison of two cultures always represents scientific interest. Features family, child – parental relations and psychological features of modern teenagers in the Russian and Uzbek culture, are very various.In the work we will try to understand as far as these distinctions influence a deviation in behavior at teenagers and whether influence in general. Conclusions: proceeding from the received results, it is possible to say that are made by us early hypotheses were confirmed, namely:General hypothesis: There is a communication between family relationship and features of education, and also unity and flexibility of family system, and such violations of behavior of teenagers and their features as: aggression, uneasiness, low socially - psychological adaptation, inadequate perception of the family relations and communications.Private hypotheses:1. Among the teenagers who are trained in specialized institutions in comparison with teenagers from mass schools with conditionally normal behavior, all types of aggressive behavior (physical aggression, anger, hostility), high uneasiness (school uneasiness, interpersonal uneasiness, self-estimated uneasiness, magic uneasiness) meet more often, for the first are characteristic more psychogenic situation of relationship in a family (both the teenager's eyes, and eyes of parents), special perception of conditions of family system (unity, flexibility).2. Psychological features of deviant teenagers from open schools (specialized) and the teenagers who are trained at mass schools in the city of Moscow and the city of Tashkent differ.3. Features of a family situation in families of teenagers from usual comprehensive schools of Moscow and Tashkent are various and are characterized by various profiles of educational competences of parents and various psychological features of teenagers.4. There is a communication between manifestations of deviant behavior at teenagers from specialized schools with a number of parental dysfunctions: an emotional distance, rejection, inconsistency, lack of cooperation, a dissatisfaction with marriage between spouses.
Limits of intellect
Subbotsky E. - Learning From Harry Potter pp. 52-93

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.12159

Abstract: In article the role of magic thinking in mental development of the child is analyzed. Questions are considered: Whether children believe in magic or only play it? Whether interest in magic is so strong, as well as interest in the new physical phenomena? Whether it is possible to use magic thinking for acquisition by children of useful cognitive skills, or it is suitable only for entertainment? Researches showed that children of preschool and early school age really believe in reality of the magic. Preschool children and younger school students show much stronger interest in research of magic events, than in research of the new physical phenomena. Experiments confirmed the assumption that display of movies with impossible events and beings stimulates some informative functions of children (such as visual comparison and creative thinking) in much bigger degree, than display of the movie with equally interesting, but possible events and beings. At last, it was shown that inclusion of trade brands in a context of the impossible promotes the subsequent recognition of brands in much bigger degree, than inclusion of similar brands a context of equally interesting possible events. Prospects of use of magic thinking in school practice are discussed. Novelty: (1) The role of children's magic thinking in acquisition by children of knowledge and useful cognitive skills is for the first time considered; (2) The analysis of a problem about a ratio of children's magic thinking and training in scientific subjects is new; (3) The idea about creation of "alternative textbooks" – textbooks on physics, biology, psychology and other disciplines in which known laws of the nature wouldn't be observed is put forward, and were broken. Conclusions: (1) Involvement of children in magic thinking stimulates some informative functions of children (such as visual comparison and creative thinking) in much bigger degree, than display of the movie with equally interesting, but possible events and beings (effect "advantages impossible over possible"; (2) The effect reason "advantages impossible over possible" that the thinking about the possible involves only a narrow circle of mental functions (perception and short-term memory). On the contrary, the thinking about the impossible involves all palette of such functions (perception, memory, thinking, imagination and emotions) that provides stronger activation at the child of some useful skills; (3) Magic thinking of the child - not "false understanding of reality" and not a hindrance to scientific thinking, and the new, yet not mastered by psychology material for optimization of mental development and training.
Psychology and pedagogics
Kirakosyan A. - Improving Psychological Readiness of Primary School Students for Reading Correction pp. 94-134

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.12066

Abstract: High-quality research of ways of increase of psychological readiness for correction of informative actions through use of the reception of the including activity developed in the activity theory is presented. Research is executed on reading material. Work includes implementation of correction of negative attitude the slabochitayushchikh of pupils of the 4th class to reading by means of carrying out within academic year of a circle on record of audiobooks. In article stages of change of the relation of pupils to reading and, respectively, stages of the organization of the course of a circle are in detail described. Research is executed with use of qualitative methods of collecting and the analysis of data – natural experiment, supervision, interview, the content analysis, interpretation, and also statistical methods of data processing. By results of research it is shown that increase of psychological readiness for occupations is connected with changes of sense of reading for pupils. Research is interesting as disclosure of reception of the including activity on correction material, and also has practical value as a way of increase of psychological readiness for occupation by reading.
The conscious and the unconscious
Korolev S.A. - Night Dreams as the Emanation of the 'Social Subconscious'. Article 2 . The Army pp. 135-195

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.2.12070

Abstract: This article is the continuation of the study of night dreams as a kind of emanation of so-called "social subconscious". Having considered general approaches to the matter in his previous article (Night Dreams as the Emanation of the 'Social Subconscious'. Article 1. Problem Definition), the author goes on to analyze dreams related to a certain topic, particularly, the military segment of so called 'disciplinary dreams' about the army, military service and war. The researcher relies primarily on Freud’s conclusion about the existence of a special class of typical dreams and on the ideas of Carl Jung that dreams do not only contains traces of accomplishment of desires but rather reflect the fear or anxiety of an individual. The subject under review is the social network posts and comments that describe dreams of particular Internet users. The author demonstrates that a great part of military dreams reproduce intensely gloomy and anxious scenes as the reflection of dominating emotions of dreamers. To a certain degree, negative scenes appearing in military dreams are discounted by the phantasmagoric nature of dreams. Dream constructs generated by the subconscious mind are fantastically mixed with what might happen in the reality and cause anxiety and fear and phantoms that are obviously beyound the reality. Finally, in his research Korolev states that there is a certain similarity between surrealistic inclusions into the layer of 'social subconscious' and artefacts of actual art. Such comparison is possible from the point of view of phantasmagoric and irrational features of these phenomena as well as their purpose to repeat what is unrepeatable. To some extent, this can be referred to the researcher's analysis of mass sources including posts and comments on the Internet. 
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